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IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution

Research Article

ISSN 1751-8687
Fast electromagnetic transient simulation for Received on 31st March 2016
Revised on 25th May 2016
over-voltages of transmission line by high Accepted on 24th June 2016

order Radau method and V-transformation

doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2016.0476
www.ietdl.org

Fangzong Wang ✉, Meng Yang

College of Electrical Engineering and New Energy, China Three Gorges University, YiChang 443002 Hubei, People’s Republic of China
✉ E-mail: fzwang@ctgu.edu.cn

Abstract: To improve the computational efficiency of electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation in power system, as well as
avoid the numerical oscillation, the high order Radau method is proposed for EMT simulation in this study. For solving the
differential equation in EMT simulation effectively, the high order Radau method uses its weighting coefficient matrix
satisfying the important V-transformation feature to make the relevant high dimension linear algebraic equation
decoupled into blocks in time domain, then forms the multi-stage block recursive method. Because of this technology, in
every integration step, the variable value at each different internal point can be calculated simultaneously. On this basis,
bigger integration step can be selected to improve the computational speed when carrying out EMT simulation since the
high order Radau method is of high computational accuracy. Besides, because this method is both L-stable and B-stable,
it can be free of numerical oscillation in EMT simulation effectively. Finally, the validity of this high order Radau method
has been demonstrated compared with critical damping adjustment by implementing EMT simulation of transmission line.

1 Introduction changes, it requires twice calculations for state variables in every

time-integration step, leading to its lower efﬁciency compared with
traditional implicit trapezoidal method or CDA.
The electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation can be applied into
It is not hard to ﬁnd that the methods mentioned above are all low
many categories in power system, including over-voltages,
order numerical integration methods, naturally leading to the low
insulation coordination, inrush currents, abnormal resonances,
computational efﬁciency in some degree. Therefore, the high order
relay settings, and so on [1–4]. In EMT simulations, considering
integration methods [14–16] may be taken into considerations when
the characteristics of the non-linear property of component,
it comes to solve the differential equations in EMT simulation.
electromagnetic coupling, wave process of transmission line and
Since the high order integration method always has high
so on, differential equations should be established. Accordingly,
computational accuracy, it can adopt bigger integration step
numerical integration algorithms will be used to discretise these
compared with low order method when they are equal in
differential equations into algebraic equations for obtaining
computational accuracy. However, the existed high order integration
variable values at each integration point.
methods always involve in high dimension matrix computations,
So far, the most fundamental and classic time-integration
which may also lead to considerable computations. Given this
algorithm used in EMT simulations is implicit trapezoidal method.
factor, we should settle the problem of solving high dimension
The implicit trapezoidal method is a simple one-step integration
algebraic equation ﬁrst when using high order method with big
method with A-stability, and has second-order accuracy . With
integration step to solve the differential equation in EMT simulation.
this method, the value of state variable at present time step can be
In this paper, the high order Radau IIA method is brieﬂy
calculated only from value of previous time step, making it of
introduced in Section 2. First, we have a brief introduction of
great convenience in programming. However, the trapezoidal
implicit Runge–Kutta method, including its Butcher table and
method is not L-stable, resulting in ‘ﬁctitious’ sustained numerical
simpliﬁed order condition. Then, the integration scheme of high
oscillation easily when a sudden change happens to a state
order Radau IIA method and its features are displayed next in line,
variable [6, 7]. Therefore, critical damping adjustment (CDA) 
among which the coefﬁcient matrix satisfying V-transformation is
has been proposed to settle this problem, as well as implemented
emphasised. In Section 3, we deduce how to use the high order
in electromagnetic transients program [9–11] taking place of the
Radau IIA method and V-transformation to form the multi-stage
original implicit trapezoidal method. In CDA, the trapezoidal
block recursive method in EMT simulation in detail. In Section 4,
method is basically used, and the back Euler method will be used
the EMT simulations for over-voltages of transmission line are
when experienced with sudden changes. Considering that the back
implemented by both high order Radau IIA method and CDA.
Euler method is both A-stable and L-stable with heavily damped
The result fully demonstrates that the high order Radau IIA
property, the numerical oscillation can be avoided in most
method shows excellent advantages in numerical stability and
situations. However, there are still numerical oscillations when
computational speed. The conclusions are ﬁnally given in Section 5.
sudden changes cannot be detected effectively in carrying out
CDA . For instance, it is difﬁcult to detect the ‘critical’ sudden
moment when a sudden change of voltage or current is transported
from sending end to receiving end of a transmission line. Besides, 2 High order Radau IIA method
the amplitude limiting operations in control system may also result
in numerical oscillations  even though the CDA is used. 2.1 Brief introduction of implicit Runge–Kutta method
Accordingly, Noda et al.  have proposed applying the
two-stage diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta (2S-DIRK) method to Consider the initial value problem of ordinary differential equation
EMT simulations. The 2S-DIRK method is L-stable, making the
result free of numerical oscillation the same as back Euler method.
Though the 2S-DIRK method does not need detections for sudden ẋ(t) = f (t, x(t)) , x(t = 0) = x0 (1)

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, Vol. 10, Iss. 14, pp. 3639–3645
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016 3639
where, t is time and f (t, x(t)) is the function of time and variable x; from the computational accuracy angle, since the multi-stage
x0 is the initial value of variable. high-order method owns high computational accuracy, bigger
One of the main methods used for solving formula (1) is implicit integration step can be adopted in comparison with low order
Runge–Kutta method, and the integration scheme of the s-stage method when they are equal in computational accuracy.
implicit Runge–Kutta method can be described as In additional, because the s-stage Radau IIA method satisﬁes the
simpliﬁed order condition of C(s), the coefﬁcient matrix A satisﬁes

⎪ 
s the important V-transformation feature as 

⎨ x̃i = xn + h
⎪ aij f (tn + cj h, x̃j )
j=1
, i [ (1, s). (2) A = VDV −1 (7)

⎪ 
s

⎩ xn+1 = xn + h bi f (tn + cj h, x̃j )
j=1
where
where, h is the integration step; aij andbi are the integral
sweighting ⎡ ⎤
s 1 c1 · · · cs−1
coefﬁcients, and they satisfy j=1 aij = ci , i=1 bi = 1;
1
ci , i [ (1, s) are the internal points with 0 ≤ c1 ≤ · · · ≤ cs ≤ 1, ⎢ 1 c2 s−1 ⎥
· · · c2 ⎥

and x̃i ≃ x(tn + ci h) is the approximate value of state variable at V =⎢. . .. .. ⎥ (8)
⎣ .. .. . . ⎦
internal point ci.
For convenience, we often rewrite the integration scheme of 1 cs · · · cs−1
s

a1 ⎤
formula (2) as Butcher table form :
0
⎢1 0 a2 ⎥
c1 a11 · · · a1s ⎢ ⎥
⎢ . ⎥
c A .. .. .. D=⎢
⎢ 1/2 . . a3 ⎥⎥,
. . . . ⎢
= (3)
⎣ .. .. ⎥ (9)
bT cs as1 · · · ass . 0 . ⎦
b1 · · · bs 1/(s − 1) as
T 1
as = a 1 · · · as = V −1 cs
Usually, the features of an implicit Runge–Kutta method, including s
stability, accuracy and so on, are decided by the parameters A, b, c,
and each implicit Runge–Kutta method often satisﬁes different V-transformation is a very important feature of the multi-stage
simpliﬁed order conditions of formula (4) : high-order Radau IIA method. It is also the basic reason why the
⎧ multi-stage high-order Radau IIA method can be decoupled, then
⎪  s 1 form the multi-stage block recursive method.

⎪ B(p) : bi ck−1 = , k [ (1, p)

⎪ i
k

⎪ i=1

⎨  s ck
C(h) : aij ck−1 = i , i [ (1, s), k [ (1, h) (4) 3 EMT simulation of transmission line by Radau

j
k IIA method and V-transformation

j=1

⎪  s bj

⎪ D(j) : bi ck−1 aij = (1 − ckj ) , j [ (1, s), k [ (1, j) .
⎩ i Considering the distributed parameter characteristic of transmission
i=1 k
line, we often use a pair of partial differential equation to describe
it, which can be called as telegraph equation. When using time
domain methods to analyse the EMT of transmission line, one of
the practicable method is to do spatial discretisation, and transform
2.2 High order Radau IIA method the partial differential equation into differential equation

The s-stage Radau IIA method is one kind of implicit Runge–Kutta ẋ = f (t, x) = Bx + w(t) (10)
method, and its internal points ci, i [ (1, s) are the zero points of the
right Radau polynomial  where, x is the state variable, B is the coefﬁcient matrix related to
system parameters, and w(t) is the non-homogenous term.
ds−1 s−1 When B is constant, with formula (2) or (3), we can solve (10) by
(x (x − 1)s ). (5)
dxs−1
X = es ⊗ xn + h(A ⊗ B)X + h(A ⊗ I m )
w (11)
Besides, the integral weighting coefﬁcient bi is decided by the
simpliﬁed order condition of B(2s − 1), and aij is decided by D(s). where, the symbol ⊗ denotes the tensor product; m is the amount of
Since the s-stage Radau IIA method satisﬁes the simpliﬁed order state variables; es is a column vector with all elements being 1; I m is
conditions of B(2s − 1), C(s) and D(s − 1), it is A-stable, L-stable, a unit matrix with m × m dimension; and
non-linear B-stable, and with the accuracy of (2s − 1)-order .
As is well known, the integration method with B-stability satisﬁes ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
x(tn + c1 h) x̃1
unilateral Lipschitz condition, that is
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥
X =⎣ ... ;
⎦ ⎣ .. ⎦,
kf (t1 , x1 ) − f (t2 , x2 ), x1 − x2 l ≤ 0 (6) x(tn + cs h) x̃s
⎡ ⎤ (12)
w(tn + c1 h)
where, k†, †l represents inner product. Therefore, the method with
B-stability is of energy dissipation property. From the physical  =⎢
w ⎣ ..
.

⎦[R
(sm)×1

concept, the energy dissipation property may be called as w(tn + cs h)

non-linear damped property. Therefore, when sudden change
happens, the B-stable method can be free of numerical oscillation
because of this non-linear damped property. Besides, since the Obviously, the formula (11) can be expressed as a simple linear
back Euler method is the single-stage Radau IIA method with algebraic equation as 
B-stability and simple integration scheme, it is widely used in
EMT simulations for avoiding numerical oscillation. What’s more, JX = F (13)

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, Vol. 10, Iss. 14, pp. 3639–3645
3640 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016
where The equation of forward process can be expressed as
⎡ ⎤
J = (I s ⊗ I m ) − h(A ⊗ B) [ R(sm)×(sm) (14) Im
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ −hB Im ⎥ b1 b1
F = h(A ⊗ I m )
w + es ⊗ xn [ R(sm)×1 ⎢ ⎥ 
(15) ⎢ h . ⎥⎢ b2 ⎥ ⎢ b2 ⎥

⎢ − B .. ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢
⎥⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥

⎢ 2 ⎥⎢ .. ⎥ = ⎢ .. ⎥ (25)
On the basis of formula (6), we can get that ⎢ . .. ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ .. . Im ⎥⎣ b ⎦ ⎣ b ⎦
 ⎢ ⎥ s−1 s−1
⎣ ⎦ b bs
J = (V ⊗ I m ) (I s ⊗ I m ) − h(D ⊗ B) (V −1 ⊗ I m ) (16) h s
− B Im
s−1
Let
where, b1 , b2 , . . . , bs are the middle variables, and they can be
J̃ = I s ⊗ I m − h(D ⊗ B) (17) calculated by

and it can be expressed as formula (18) based on formula (9) ⎨ b1 = b1
h (26)

Im −a1 hB
⎤ ⎩ bj = bj + Bb , j [ (2, s).
j − 1 j−1
⎢ −hB Im −a2 hB ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ h . .. ⎥
⎢ − B .. ⎥ The equation of backward process can be expressed as
⎢ . ⎥
J̃ = ⎢ 2 ⎥ (18)
⎢ . .. ⎥ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡  ⎤
⎢ .. . Im −as−1 hB ⎥ Im b1 x1 b1
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ b ⎥
⎣ ⎦ Im b2
h ⎢ ⎥⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥
− B I m − as hB ⎢ .. .. ⎥⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥
s−1 ⎢ . . ⎥⎢ . ⎥ = ⎢ . ⎥ (27)
⎢ ⎥⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥
⎢ . ⎥⎣ ⎦ ⎣ b ⎦
Next, we carry out the triangular decomposition of J̃ , that is to make ⎣ .. Im bs−1 ⎦ xs−1 s−1
xs bs
I m + bs
U
J̃ = L  (19)
and its recursion formula is
and

⎡ ⎤ xs = (I m + bs )−1 bs
Im . (28)
x j−1 = b j−1 − b j−1 xs , j [ (2, s)
⎢ −hB Im ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ h .. ⎥ Finally, the variable value at internal point can be calculated by
⎢ − B . ⎥
=⎢
L 2 ⎥,
⎢ ⎥ ⎡⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ .. ⎥ x̃1 x1
⎢ . Im ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥
⎣ h ⎦ X = ⎣ .. ⎦ = (V ⊗ I m )⎣ .. ⎦ (29)
− B Im
s−1 (20) x̃s xs
⎡ ⎤
Im b1
⎢ ⎥ and the variable value at next integration point is
⎢ Im b2 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
 =⎢ .. .. ⎥
U ⎢ . . ⎥ xn+1 = x̃s . (30)
⎢ ⎥

⎣ Im bs−1 ⎥ ⎦
I m + bs For a better illustration of the EMT simulation by high order Radau
IIA method and V-transformation, we give out the main calculation
steps of this method:
where
⎧ (i) Form the standard equation for EMT simulation as formula
⎨ b1 = −a1 hB (10).
1 (21) (ii) Discretise the ordinary differential equation as formula (11); set
⎩ bj = −aj hB + hBb j−1 , j [ (2, s).
j−1 the integration stage and step, then form the integration scheme.
(iii) Calculate the constant matrixes L, U by formula (20) and (21).
Thus (iv) Calculate F, b by formula (15) and (23), and solve the equation
 x = b based on formulas (25)–(28).
 U
L
 U(V
J = (V ⊗ I m )L  −1 ⊗ I m ) (22) (v) Calculate the variable value at next integration point by formula
(29) and (30).
Deﬁne (vi) If B is a constant matrix, return to step iv and go on calculating
till the end of total simulation; B varies with time, regard it as a
constant matrix in one integration step, and return to step iii
(V −1 ⊗ I m )X = x, (V −1 ⊗ I m )F = b (23) update L, U, then go on calculating till the end of total simulation.

then (13) is converted into the following form As is stated above, in every integration step, the algorithm
presented in this paper only involves once triangular
 U
L  x = b. (24) decomposition of m-dimensional matrix I m + bs , and the rest of
the calculation is completed by m-dimensional block recursive
The solution to (24) is mainly related to the forward-backward sweep calculations. For the s-stage method, we need 2s recursive
algorithm, and the process of it is based on block matrix calculation. calculations totally. On this basis, when the s-stage method adopts

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, Vol. 10, Iss. 14, pp. 3639–3645
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016 3641
s times integration step as single-stage method, they will be equal in where
computational efﬁciency.
T
x = v0 v1 ··· vN i1/2 · · · iN −1/2 (37)
4 EMT simulations of transmission line ⎡ ⎤
A4 A1
⎢ .. ⎥
4.1 Time-domain simulating model of transmission line ⎢A . ⎥
⎢ 1 A2 ⎥
⎢ .. .. .. ⎥
⎢ ⎥
The telegraph equation used for describing the transmission line is ⎢ . . . 0 ⎥
⎢ .. ⎥
⎧ ⎢ ⎥
∂v(z, t) ∂i(z, t) ⎢ . A2 A1 ⎥

⎨ ⎢ ⎥
= −L0 − R0 i(z, t) P=⎢ ⎥,
∂z ∂t ⎢ A1 A4 ⎥
(31) ⎢ ⎥
⎩ ∂i(z, t) = −C ∂u(z, t) − G v(z, t)
⎪ ⎢

B3 B1 ⎥

∂z 0
∂t 0
⎢ .. ⎥
⎢ . ⎥
⎢ B1 B2 ⎥
⎢ .. .. ⎥
where, L0, R0, C0, G0 are the unit parameters of inductance, resistance, ⎢ ⎥
capacitance, and susceptance; z is the spatial variable about the length, ⎣ 0 . . B1 ⎦
and t is the time variable; v(z, t) and i(z, t) represent that the voltage B1 B3
and current variables change with the space and time. ⎡ ⎤ (38)
There are two kinds of methods used for solving the telegraph C4 C1 1
⎢ .. ⎥
equation (31), one is the frequency domain method, and the other ⎢C . −1 ⎥
⎢ 1 C2 1 ⎥
is time domain method. Since the frequency domain method ⎢ .. .. .. .. .. ⎥
involves in complex calculations about Laplace or Fourier ⎢ ⎥
⎢ . . . . . ⎥
transformation, we prefer to use the time domain method to do ⎢ .. ⎥
⎢ ⎥
EMT simulation of high voltage transmission line in this paper. ⎢ . C2 C1 −1 1 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
To acquire the voltage and current variables along the line, we Q=⎢
⎢ C1 C4 −1 ⎥

divide the whole transmission line into N sections uniformly as is ⎢ ⎥
⎢ −1 1 D3 D1 ⎥
described in Fig. 1. Suppose the length of transmission line is L, ⎢ ⎥
then the length of every small section is Δz = L/N. Let vk represent ⎢ .. ⎥
⎢ −1 1 . ⎥
the voltage at the place where z = k(Dz), k [ (0, N ); ik−1/2 is the ⎢ D1 D2 ⎥
⎢ .. .. .. ⎥
current at the place where z = (k − 1/2)(Dz), k [ (1, N ), besides, ⎢ ⎥
⎣ . . . D1 ⎦
i0 and iN are the currents of two terminals.
Here, we use the fourth order accuracy interpolation formula to do −1 1 D1 D3
spatial discretisation of the telegraph equation  T
m(t) = −i0 0 ··· 0 iN 0 ··· 0 (39)
  
∂g(z) ∂g(z) ∂g(z) gk+1/2 − gk−1/2
g1 +g2 + g  = (32)
∂z  k−1 ∂z 
k
1
∂z k+1 Dz and

where, g represents v(z) or i(z); g1 and g2 are the constants decided Aj = C0 · Dz · gj , Bj = L0 · Dz · gj , Cj = G0 · Dz · gj ,

by the interpolation formula, and g1 = 1/24, g2 = 1 − 2g1. (40)
Substitute (32) into (31), we can easily deduce that (see (33)) Dj = R0 · Dz · gj , (j = 1, 2, 3, 4).

As to the head-end and the tail-end of the line, we use the second Obviously, (36) can be converted into the ordinary differential
order accuracy interpolation formula to do spatial discretisation equation as (10), where B = −P −1 Q and w(t) = −P −1 m(t).

⎪ i − i1/2
⎨ g4 (G0 v0 + C0 v̇0 ) + g1 (G0 v1 + C0 v̇1 ) = 0 4.2 Example simulations for over-voltages of
Dz (34) transmission line
⎩ g3 (R0 i1/2 + L0 i̇1/2 ) + g1 (R0 i3/2 + L0 i̇3/2 ) = v0 − v1

Dz 4.2.1 Numerical stability test: Fig. 2 shows the breaker of a
single-phase high-voltage transmission line is switched-in at t = 0 s
and with the terminal of the line being no-load, and the parameters of
⎧ this testing system are given in Fig. 2.
⎪ i −i When the switch is closed, two terminals of the transmission line
⎨ g4 (G0 vN + C0 v̇N ) + g1 (G0 vN −1 + C0 v̇N −1 ) = N−1/2 N
Dz satisfy
⎩ g3 (R0 iN−1/2 + L0 i̇N −1/2 ) + g1 (R0 iN−3/2 + L0 i̇N −3/2 ) = vN −1 − vN

Dz ⎨ i = es − v0
0
(35) R . (41)
⎩i = 0 s
N
where, g3 = 1 − g1 and g4 = 1/2 − g1.
Adding the constraint condition of both ends of transmission line, In this situation, we divide the whole transmission line into 50
we can get 2N + 1 equations in total, and the matrix form can be sections, that is N = 50. Besides, the initial phase angle of input
described as signal is j = 90°. For comparison, we would give out the results of
both Radau IIA method, CDA, and implicit trapezoidal method.
P ẋ + Qx + m(t) = 0 (36) The integration step of CDA and implicit trapezoidal method is

⎪ i − ik+1/2
⎨ g1 (G0 vk−1 + Cv̇k−1 ) + g2 (G0 vk + C0 v̇k ) + g1 (G0 vk+1 + C0 vk+1 ) = k−1/2 , k [ (1, N − 1)
Dz (33)
⎩ g1 (R0 ik−1/2 + L0 i̇k−1/2 ) + g2 (R0 ik+1/2 + L0 i̇k+1/2 ) + g1 (R0 ik+3/2 + L0 i̇k+3/2 ) = vk − vk+1 , k [ (1, N − 2)

Dz

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, Vol. 10, Iss. 14, pp. 3639–3645
3642 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016
Fig. 1 Piecewise model of transmission line

h = 10 μs, while the integration step of Radau IIA method is 2 s × 10 As has been stated previously, the circuit equations of boundary
μs. condition also should be listed besides the telegraph equation. In
Figs. 3 and 4 give out the results of terminal voltage calculated by this simulation, the inductance current iL is regarded as additional
Radau IIA method of s = 3 and s = 5, respectively, while Figs. 5 and state variable. The transmission line l12 and l34 are connected by
6 are the results calculated by CDA and implicit trapezoidal method. the non-linear resistance R(t). While, as R(t) varies with time, B
From Figs. 3–6, we can conﬁrm that Radau IIA method performs will also vary with time. In every integration step, we regard R(t)
more outstanding quality in numerical stability, which can make as constant since the integration step is quite small, thus the matrix
this EMT simulation free of numerical oscillation effectively. B in formula (10) would be constant for each integration step. The
Being different from that, the result calculated by CDA produces segment amount of l12 is N1 = 20, and l34 is N2 = 7. We choose the
‘ﬁctitious’ sustained numerical oscillation for not being able to integration step of CDA as h = 0.1 ns, and the integration step of
detect a sudden change of a variable. Besides, the result calculated s-stage Radau IIA method as 2 s × 0.1 ns.
by implicit trapezoidal method also produces numerical oscillation In this situation, we have calculated the voltage of point 4 by both
since this method is not L-stable. Since CDA is not able to detect multi-stage high-order Radau IIA method and CDA. Since the
sudden changes, the back Euler method has no effect on avoiding voltage increase gradually rather than abrupt at the initial stage,
numerical oscillation, and the result would be the same as implicit numerical oscillation would not happen by both these two
trapezoidal method as is shown in Figs. 5 and 6. methods. Figs. 8 and 9 are the computational results of this
simulation test calculated by both Radau IIA method (h3 = 0.6 ns,
h5 = 1.0 ns) and CDA (h = 0.1 ns), and the curve of difference
values by these two methods are also given. It is not hard to ﬁnd
4.2.2. Computational efﬁciency test: In this section, we that the results of these two methods are quite close and almost
simulate a situation when the disconnector of 550 kV gas insulated indistinguishable, though bigger integration step is selected by
switchgear (GIS) acts on the no-load bus. During this process, multi-stage high-order Radau IIA method. The maximum peak
very fast transient overvoltage (VFTO) is caused by slow contact value of over voltage by CDA is 1326.3 kV, and it appears at the
action and poor arc-extinguishing performance of switch. Fig. 7 is moment of t = 0.1207 μs; the maximum peak value of voltage by
a simulation test of VFTO. three-stage Radau method is 1325.8 kV, and it appears at the
In this test, U (t) is the AC power supply; LT and CT are the moment of t = 0.1206 μs; the maximum peak value of voltage by
additional lumped inductance and capacitance used for simulating ﬁve-stage Radau method is 1326.1 kV, and it appears at the
transformer and so on; DS is the disconnector to be operated, moment of t = 0.1209 μs.
which can be approximately represented as a non-linear resistance Deﬁne the ratio of computational time of CDA and high order
during the transient process Radau IIA method as speedup ratio, and it is clear that the higher
acceleration ratio means the quicker computational speed of Radau
R(t) = R1 e−t/t1 + R2 et/t2 (42) IIA method. Table 1 gives out the speedup ratios of high order
Radau IIA method compared with CDA for the situation above. It
where, R1 approximately represents the resistance of DS before is obvious that the Radau IIA method is of higher computational
breakdown and R1 = 1012 Ω; R2 is the resistance of DS during speed compared with CDA.
arcing time and R2 = 0.5 Ω; t1 is the time constant of breakdown Actually, since the implicit trapezoidal method has a second-order
period with t1 = 1 ns, while t2 is the time constant of arc accuracy, when the integration step of CDA is h, the local truncation
extinguishing period with t2 = 1 μs. Other parameters in this error of it will be O(h3 ); while the local truncation error of s-stage
simulation are L0 = 2.5 × 10−7 H/m, C0 = 4.45 × 10−11 F/m, LT = 20 (2s-1)-order Radau IIA method is about O(h2s s ) when its
mH, CT = 3000 pF, l12 = 10 m, and l34 = 3.5 m. At the initial integration step is hs. Therefore, when the computational accuracy
of these two methods is almost the same, namely, O(h2s s ) ≃ O(h ),
3
moment, DS was in a state of disconnection, and the voltage of
power side was 1.0 p.u. (449 kV). Besides, there was residual it can be derived that hs ≃ h . When the integration step of CDA
3/2s

voltage of load side with the value of −1.0 p.u. (−449 kV). In
EMT simulation, we usually use a lumped ground capacitance
with initial voltage to simulate the residual charge. Here, we place
this capacitance at point 3 with the value of 240 pF, i.e. CR = 240
pF, which is just the equivalent ground capacitance of disconnector.

Fig. 2 Simulation 1: a transmission line without load being switched-in Fig. 3 Terminal voltage of transmission line calculated by 3-stage Radau
suddenly IIA method

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, Vol. 10, Iss. 14, pp. 3639–3645
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016 3643
Fig. 7 Simulation 2: a simpliﬁed GIS system for VFTO simulation

IIA method

is h = 0.1 ns = 0.0001 μs, then h3 = 0.01 μs ≫ 6h, h5 = 0.0631 μs ≫

10h. From this point of view, bigger integration step can be
adopted further when using high order Radau IIA method.
Furthermore, Figs. 10 and 11 are the computational results of this
simulation test calculated by both Radau IIA method (h3 = 1 ns, h5 =
1.5 ns) and CDA (h = 0.1 ns), and the difference values of these two
kinds of methods are also given. The maximum peak value of
voltage by 3-stage Radau method is 1326.1 kV, and it appears at
the moment of t = 0.1209 μs; the maximum peak value of voltage Fig. 9 Computational result of VFTO by 5-stage Radau IIA method
by 5-stage Radau method is 1325.6 kV, and it appears at the
moment of t = 0.121 μs. Although bigger integration step is used,
the results are still very close. On this basis, the multi-stage 4.3 Result analysis
high-order Radau IIA method can adopt more than 2s times
integration step as CDA, which will lead to its higher Firstly, in simulation 1, the result calculated by Radau IIA method is
computational efﬁciency. free of ‘ﬁctitious’ sustained numerical oscillation since this method
is both L-stable and non-linear B-stable. On the contrary, the
result calculated by CDA produces numerical oscillation for not
being able to detect sudden changes of voltage and current
transmitted by the distributed parameter line. Besides, the result
calculated by implicit trapezoidal method also produces numerical
oscillation since this method is not L-stable or B-stable.
Second, we have studied the computational efﬁciency of high
order Radau IIA in simulation 2. From Fig. 8, Fig. 9, and Table 1,
we can conﬁrm that when the results of Radau IIA method and
CDA are approximate, the high order Radau IIA method is of
faster computational speed compared with CDA. In additional,
when the s-stage Radau IIA method adopts larger than 2s times

CDA

order (s)/time (h) 3/0.6 ns 5/1.0 ns

Fig. 6 Terminal voltage of transmission line calculated by implicit acceleration ratio 1.9353 1.5328
trapezoidal method

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, Vol. 10, Iss. 14, pp. 3639–3645
3644 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016
high order Radau IIA method to acquire faster computational
speed in EMT simulations.

6 Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the National

Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) through its grant no.
51377098.

7 References

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IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, Vol. 10, Iss. 14, pp. 3639–3645
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016 3645