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CODE : DMS 4063


DATE : 29 JUL 2019

Student Name




1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Explain the importance of strategic planning in your organization.
Security of a nation is not only the responsibility of the Regular Forces.
Security awareness among and within the community, society, organisation and local
population should be prepared and arranged in advance in view to face any
circumstances. Thus, the involvement of the people in contributing and strengthening
the national defence is vital. The commitment of the people to join the voluntary force
is appreciated and credited due to their effort to take part in the security of a country
as a whole. The strategic planning plays an importance role for business sector as well
as in military sector. Although both sectors have their own strategic planning but they
have different goals whereby business sector is based on profit achievement while
military sector is based on peace and stability of Malaysia sovereignty. In military,
strategic planning is applied in determine way forward of any military organization
regardless level of command. In Malaysian Armed Forces for example, strategic
planning starting from Malaysian Armed Forces level to Services level (Army, Navy and
Airforce), formation level (Field Command, Division and Brigade) as well as unit level
(Battalion, Regiment and Company). Currently, the Malaysian Armed Forces
development is based on its strategic blueprint namely The Fourth Dimension
Malaysian Armed Forces (4DMAF). This strategic plan is cascading down to services
for implementation through services strategic plan such as Army4NextG for the Army.
Thus, every level of the lower military organization in the Army are responsible to
uphold their superior strategic planning through their own strategic planning in order
to achieve the ultimate strategic goal. In doing so, it will enable the Malaysian Armed
Forces to be better competent and ever ready to protect the nation’s sovereignty,
creating a stable and secure environment for nation building.
At unit level such as Regiment 516 Territorial Army, my previous command
unit, strategic planning at the lower level is also importance to support the strategic
planning at next formation level as what has been mentioned earlier. The 5th Infantry
Brigade is the next superior command of Regiment 516 Territorial Army in terms of
commandship while Army Reserve Force Division is the technical advisor to this unit.

Strategic planning at unit level is likely to enhance and improve unit administration,
training, logistics support, human resources, assets and others to meet superior
objectives. Strategic planning at unit level is review for every 2 years while at
formation level it reviews for every 5 years in line with Malaysia Plan. The importance
of strategic planning at Regiment 516 Territorial Army are as follows:
a. To maintain strength of voluntary force at specified level.
b. To ensure volunteer soldier is competent and ever ready to be
c. To ensure cycle training for regular and voluntary force is effective
and realistic as well as meet future environment.
d. To increase asset capabilities.
e. To maintain combat readiness.
f. To improve logistics support.
g. To maximise use of resources.
h. To review and improve administration matters.
i. To identify future challenges and exploit opportunities.
j. To ensure the vision, mission and objectives of unit is supporting
formation level plan.
k. To comply and align with 5th Infantry Brigade and Army Reserve Force
Division plans.
l. To identify weaknesses from previous plan and makes improvement
for future plan.
m. To streamline logistics and training needs.
Vision and mission for both formations are as follows:
a. 5th Infantry Brigade
(1) Vision. To be a superior and credible combat brigade as well as
able to perform primary and secondary tasks in order to ensure the
safety, security and sovereignty of the nation.
(2) Mission. To defend the sovereignty and integrity of Sabah
through conducting military operations and continuously enhance its

b. Army Reserve Force Division.
(1) Vision. To develop credible and balance Army Reserve Force.
(2) Mission. To assist regular force through augmentation during
emergency or war and assist public authorities during natural
To support vision and mission for both formations, the vision and mission of
Regiment 516 Territorial Army is as per below:
a. Vision. To be a committed unit for recruiting, train and retain volunteer
soldier for augmentation regular force during emergency or war.
b. Mission. To assist 5th Infantry Brigade to defend Area of
Responsibility (AOR), sovereignty and national interest from any threats and
assisting public authorities during natural disaster.
Based on vision and mission above, it shows unit vision and mission is
supporting vision and mission of formations. Components of mission statement
Regiment 516 Territorial Army is as follows:
{To assist 5th Infantry Brigade to defend Area of Responsibility (AOR), sovereignty and
national interest from any threats} Customers and Services
{and assisting public authorities during natural disaster} Customers and Services Concern
for public image

Feasibility vision and mission of Regiment 516 Territorial Army

a. Vision. To be a committed unit for recruiting, train and retain volunteer
soldier for augmentation regular force during emergency or war.
Feasible because unit is responsible to produce competent voluntary force
that ever ready for augmentation regular force in 5th Infantry Brigade
b. Mission. To assist 5th Infantry Brigade to defend Area of Responsibility
(AOR), sovereignty and national interest from any threats and assisting public
authorities during natural disaster.
Feasible because highly skilled voluntary force trained by unit is ready to be
mobilised and serve for the country in any situation as when and as required.

1.1.2 Explain the nature of your organization.
The history of Malaysian Army Reserve Force was started during the First
World War. The combination of the Local Defense Corps, Home Guard and the
Territorial Army (TA) also known as Askar Wataniah is known as the Army Reserve
Force (ARF). In 1952, the concept of deployment through the enforcement of the
National Service Ordinance was introduced. However, in 1958, the Home Guard was
disbanded and the government has introduced the Territorial Army (TA) concept. On
1st June 1958, the Army Reserve Force (ARF) and the Territorial Army (TA) were
formally established. The premier roles of establishment Army Reserve Force and
Territorial Army is for augmentation of regular forces in order to achieve level of
strength necessary to defend the strategic interests of the state in an emergency
situation or war. Other than that, it designed to assist the regular forces in domestic
security operations and ready to be mobilised and activated when crisis arises as well
as to assist and cooperate with public authorities in delivering civil military
cooperation (CIMIC) during natural disasters and other emergency cases. The
Territorial Army structure consists of five main functional elements namely Combat
arms, Combat support arms, combat service support arms, Specialist Regiment and
Reserve Officer Training Unit (ROTU). The Territorial Army service consists of 3
different services namely volunteer service, conscription service and honorary
credentials. Details of these services as per below:
a. Volunteer Service. It involves civilians joining voluntary service and
undergo training and exercise as a part-time.
b. Conscription Service. It involves voluntary officers and NCO deployed
to serve full-time in any unit of army based on a contract basis.
c. Honorary Credentials. Honorary credentials are awarded to individuals
primarily locals who able to assist in the development of Territorial Army and
become role models for locals to join Territorial Army as a voluntary.
Regiment 516 Territorial Army is one of Territorial Army units designated as a
Combat Arms Unit. This unit is under command of 5th Infantry Brigade while technical
support is under the ambit of Reserve Force Division at Army Headquarters and filling
of regular force appointment in this unit is responsible of Corps Directorate
respectively. This unit consists of regular and volunteer soldiers led by a Commander

of the rank Brigadier General from voluntary service while the deputy commander is
a regular officer of the rank Lieutenant Colonel who responsible to administer and
manage the unit in terms of training, logistics, finance and governance. The premier
task of the unit is to produce highly skilled and knowledgeable volunteer soldiers for
augmentation regular force in carrying out its duties and responsibilities in defending
the nation during emergency or war. To uphold the task, unit is responsible to recruit
local people who are interested and qualified to join the voluntary force. This unit also
responsible to provide basic soldiering and advanced military training either to new or
existing voluntary force through highly skilled military instructors’. Other than that,
unit is also responsible for the administration of volunteer soldiers in terms of career
courses, promotion to higher ranks, allowances, welfare and other related to services
in order to retain their services in Territorial Army. Never the less, unit is also
responsible for regular soldiers in terms of their administration, logistics, financial and
training. Training plays and important part for regular soldiers especially who has been
appointed as military instructor. Well trained volunteer soldiers reflects the
competency and capability of military instructors. Thus, military instructors in
Territorial Army units is the key of producing well trained voluntary force. At district
or state level, Territorial Army unit is involved directly with program arranged by
municipal councils such as national day or Malaysia day celebrations, corporate social
programs such as blood donation, home repairs and others. Majority of the programs
is co-chair between district officer and deputy commander of territorial army unit.

1.1.3 Explain the organizational structure and resource (human resources, financial
and assets)
The organisational structure of 5th Infantry Brigade is as per Annex A while the
organisational structure of Regiment 516 Territorial Army is per Annex B. The
structure of unit is based on the Federal Establishment Document (FED) Malaysia also
known as establishment warrant issued by Army Plan and Development Branch
namely FED(M)4142/1/2002 (PIND 1/2008) dated 19 Sep 08. Overall there are 350
regular force and 4487 voluntary force appointment consists of Regiment
Headquarters, Admin Branch, Training Branch and 5 units of Infantry Battalions.
Regiment also equipped with assets based on the Army Equipment Table (Jadual

Peralatan Tentera Darat) issued by Army Plan and Development Plan namely JPTD NO.
4142/22/2015 dated 10 Apr 15. Based on the document, unit entitled to have vehicles,
general equipment, public order equipment, communication equipment, training
equipment, weaponry, ammunitions and explosives. In terms of financial, unit
received fund from 5th Infantry Brigade for maintenance (building and electrical
equipment), rental (transportation such as a bus), and purchasing equipment (sports,
electrical, chemical and raw material) as well as funds for official claims. Other than
that, unit also received funds from Army Reserve Force Division for voluntary
allowances, rental (transportation such as a bus, photostat machine) and fresh ration
fund for conducting courses and training.

1.1.4 How do you collect the information for this paper (by interview, document
review, individual experience etc.)
For the purpose of this paper, the information is based on my experience as a
deputy commander at Regiment 516 Territorial Army for 2 years (2017 until 2019).
Moreover, information also gathered from related document as follows:
a. The 5th Infantry Brigade Strategic Plan.
b. Establishment Warrant, FED(M)4142/1/2002 (PIND 1/2008) dated 19 Sep 08.
c. Army Equipment Table, JPTD NO. 4142/22/2015 dated 10 Apr 15.
d. Army Development Plan, Army4NextG.
e. Army Reserve Force Development Plan.
f. Malaysian Armed Forces Strategic Management System.
g. Annual Report of Regiment 516 Territorial Army.

1.2 External Issues Affecting My Organization Strategies.

1.2.1 Discuss external issues affecting your organization strategies
Based on my experiences as a deputy commander at Regiment 516 Territorial
Army for 2 years, there were few issues affected my organization strategies as follows:
a. Political – Unit have full support from 5th Infantry Brigade in terms of
administration for example assisting unit with additional vehicles and
equipment when unit conducting field exercise during voluntary force annual
camp. It also provide additional highly skilled military instructors from various

unit under its command to cope with lack of instructors at Regiment 516
Territorial Army. Other than that, unit also have good relationship with other
public authorities in Tawau namely police, custom and immigration, hospital,
municipal council, Chinese association, civil defense force, education
department, media and other military component in Tawau such as Battalion
of 7 Royal Malay Regiment and Joint Task Force 2.
b. Social - The people in tawau are comprised of various races and ethnics
as well as multilingual. The cooperation of the local people in the success of
various programs planned by the unit has strengthened the military and the
people's relations. However, with a low level of income for majority people in
Tawau as compared to the uncertainty cost of living has forced locals’ people
to join voluntary force as their side income which causes the spirit to serve and
defend the country unreachable. Apart from that, various social problems also
happened widely due to the easier access to obtain prohibited substances such
as drugs, liquors and poisonous drugs. Moreover, the lack of enforcement at
gambling centre has become the attraction to locals' people regardless of age,
including security personnel to earn extra money in an easy ways.
c. Technology - With the rapid development of technology today,
information could be disseminated in easily and quickly through applications
like Whatsapp. Additionally, decisions can be given immediately if there is any
uncertainties. In addition, information about the success of the programs
implemented with the local people is also could be shared through online
application such as facebook and instragram. This can further increase the
local people confidence to the armed forces. However, there were also cases
involved regular and voluntary soldiers who have misused technology with
illegally play online gambling and later on it force them to borrow money from
illegal finance institutions. Illegal loans will affect regular or voluntary force
competency and readiness.
d. Legal – There is no such act in any federal or state institution states that
employers are compulsory to allow any of their employee to join voluntary
force and attending training or courses without any resistance.

e. Media - Unit has close ties with media practitioners from the
government or private sectors, especially from media electronic for example
RTM, TV3 and NTV7 which has continuously assisting in promoting Territorial
Army. Moreover, every activity conducted by unit involving volunteer soldiers
has broader coverage such as career courses and annual camp, civil military
cooperation activities such as Projek Jiwa Murni and assisting public authorities
during natural disasters. On the other hand, it also give negative impact in
promoting and recruiting new voluntary force when other soldier is accused as
a drug dealer appeared in newspaper or media electronics.

1.2.2 Perform EFE Matrix

External Factor Evaluation Weight Rating Score

Full support from military establishment
0.25 4 1
and public authorities

Close cooperation with local people 0.1 2 0.2

Dissemination of information through
0.1 3 0.3
latest technology

Support from media 0.25 3 0.75

Gambling (online and machine) 0.05 2 0.1
Alcohol and Drugs abuse 0.05 2 0.1
Illegal Finance Institution 0.05 1 0.05
Employers permission 0.15 3 0.45
Total 1 2.95

1.2.3 Report on the EFE Matrix
From the EFE matrix, the total weighted score of Regiment 516 Territorial
Army is 2.95. This mean that unit is responding well towards the opportunities and
threats in the external environments. The opportunities such as full support from
military establishment and public authorities and support from media can be
maximized to avoid or minimize the threats such as employers permission, gambling
and alcohol and drugs abuse that can affect the readiness of voluntary force.

1.3 Internal Issues Affecting My Organization Strategies.

1.3.1 Discuss internal issues affecting your strategies.

a. Strengths.
(1) Full commitment of Commander and Honorary members - As
mentioned earlier, Regiment 516 Territorial Army is led by Commander
with the rank of Brigadier General who is from voluntary force.
Although commander is a volunteer soldier, he show his commitment
to the unit by attending any program or activities involved voluntary
force. Military activities is become his first priority as compared to his
business. He also give full support to the unit in term of financial,
equipment and others requirement. Never the less, honorary members
who is also majority of businessman give full commitment and support
to unit in any form of assistance required.
(2) Consistent funding from 5th Infantry Brigade and Army Reserve
Force Division - Regiment 516 Territorial Army received funding from
5th Infantry Brigade and Army Reserve Force every year for
maintenance and development of unit as well as allowances for
voluntary force.
(3) Comradeship - Regular force strength in the unit is less as
compared to voluntary force according to establishment warrant.
Besides train voluntary members, unit is also involved as an organiser
of programs and events held at the district level namely national day
celebration as well as at brigade level namely shooting skills

competition. Such events cannot be successfully carried out without
cooperation, commitment and espirit de corps from all level of regular
(4) Consistent of promotion and recruitment - Every year, Army
Reserve Force Division has set a standard to all territorial army units to
conduct at least 24 times of promotion and to maintain recruitment of
new voluntary force at least 450 people every year. Regiment 516
Territorial Army is one of the units that never fails to comply with the
b. Weaknesses.
(1) Incompetence military instructors - Military instructors is from
regular force who is responsible to train voluntary force with regard to
basic soldiering, advanced military knowledge and others. However,
currently appointment of military instructors in unit were filled by
soldiers who have no background of instructor. These soldiers have
been posted in the unit and filled the appointment of military instructor
on the basis of welfare. Thus, unit have to educate and train them well
before their able or not to train volunteer soldier.
(2) Funding from 5th Infantry Brigade and Army Reserve Force
Division decrease - Due to financial constraints and budget policies,
unit receives limited allocation from both sources resulting limited
programs and activities are able to be implemented.
(3) Shortage of training facilities - There are companies under the
ambit of battalion does not have an appropriate areas and buildings to
carry out training for voluntary force. This resulted training at company
level is conducted at various uncertain locations and subjected to
approval. This shortage will lead to reschedule of training timetable
and affected other program and activities.
(4) Social problems - Drug and alcohol abuse often happen in unit
due to the easier access to obtain prohibited substances in Tawau.
Moreover, growth of gambling center without control regardless legal

or illegal has become the attraction to soldier to earn extra money in
an easy ways.

1.3.2 Perform IFE Matrix

Internal Factor Evaluation Weight Rating Score
Full commitment of Commander and Honorary
0.15 3 0.45
Consistent funding from 5th Infantry Brigade and
0.1 2 0.2
Army Reserve Force Division
Comradeship 0.15 4 0.6
Consistent of promotion and recruitment 0.2 3 0.6
Incompetence military instructors 0.15 3 0.45
Funding from 5th Infantry Brigade and Army
0.05 2 0.1
Reserve Force Division decrease
Shortage of training facilities 0.15 3 0.45
Social problems among soldiers 0.05 3 0.15
Total 1 3.00

1.3.3 Report on the IFE Matrix

From the IFE matrix, the total weighted score of Regiment 516 Territorial
Army is 3.00. This means that unit is responding well towards the strengths and
weaknesses in the internal environment. The strengths such as comradeship in unit
and consistent of promotion and recruitment in the internal environment can be
maximized to overcome the weaknesses, such as incompetence military instructors
and shortage of training facilities which can affect the success of Regiment 516
Territorial Army in achieving its vision and mission.

1.4 Issues with Strategy Implementation.
In military it is not an easy to implement strategy that has been approved together
with superior commander due to unknown challenges in the early stages or during
implementation stages. Thus, leader should play it roles to identify and mitigate any issues
arise wisely and immediately to ensure strategy that has been outlined able to be
implemented. Although we have identified external and internal factors that affecting
strategy implementation, there are still other issues that could affect strategy
implementation as follows:
a. Internal Issues.
(1) Compliance to SOP - Basically each unit have their own SOP that needs
to be adhered and comply by soldier regardless regular or voluntary force.
However, there are still soldier who does not comply with the SOP and cause
unintended consequences. For example, in March 2017 the failure of a driver
to make routine checks on the vehicle before proceed with convoy had caused
an accident and inflicted casualties as well as death to volunteer soldiers.
Moreover, volunteer soldiers will receive their allowances on time if their
documents are processing according to SOP.
(2) Budget - Deduction of unit allocation at the last minute causes few
planned program or courses has been cancelled. This will result unit could not
achieve the target that stated in strategic plan. For example, in May 2018 prior
to election, 20% of unit allocation has been deduce and resulted 2 career
courses for voluntary force had been cancelled. The last minute cancellation
of the course resulted frustrated for some volunteer soldiers especially who
had applied for unpaid leave.
(3) Water Problem - Decentralised courses for voluntary force was held at
Kukusan Camp, Tawau. The camp can accommodate up to 120 students at any
time using existing buildings and equipment. However, the shortage of water
in his camp has continued since 1995 due to old and damage of main tank as
well as outdated pipelines. This situations has cause unconducive environment
to voluntary force who attended courses. In addition, the shortage of water
also resulted in the spread of infectious diseases due to poor levels of hygiene.
For example, in August 2017, there was a case of diarrhea epidemic involving

the students that arise from the poor level of toilet hygiene as well as
unsatisfactory personal hygiene due to shortage of water.
(4) Human Resource - The core business of Territorial Army units is to train
voluntary force to become professional soldier at least at par with regular
force. It function is equal to Army Basic Training Center (PUSASDA). However,
the military instructors' appointment in the unit are filled by regular soldiers
who have no background of military instructor. Majority of them were
transferred to the unit on welfare basis to take care of their own parents.
Moreover, some have filled appointment in the unit because they are classified
as not competence from previous unit. Currently, most of Territorial Army unit
is became a place for regular soldier who do not have future in service as well
as their no longer needed by their own Corps respectively. Only the right man
could completed the right job.
(5) Leadership - Leadership plays an important role in an organization,
particularly military organizations including Regiment 516 Territorial Army.
The success of program or activities organised by unit is depend on
cooperation at all level of leadership. Currently, most of the Territorial Army
units facing a problem with Non Commission Officer (NCO) leadership. NCOs
are regular soldiers with the rank of Warrant Officer II (WOII) down to
Sergeant. Most of the units cannot depends entirely to NCOs due to their poor
leadership to lead and control people under their command. For example, it is
a duty of NCO to advise and ensure their lower subordinate following
instruction given by officers. Unfortunately, it’s not happen due to their
preferred to gain popularity and publicity rather than take action to their
b. External Issues
(1) Political Influences - It cannot be denied that majority of politician
interfere the administration of Territorial Army units especially to appoints
their people as honorary members to obtain the rank of Major (Honorary).
Moreover, Territorial Army units receive indirect instruction from politician to
ensure that all regular and voluntary force vote should goes to them during
election. There were also cases that people are not fit to join voluntary force

due to his/her health problem had used politician to convince our unit to
accept them through phone and letters. The worst case happened in my unit
was we had received some allocation for renovation our building and required
to find qualified contractor. Although we had shortlisted qualified contractors,
the project was awarded to unqualified contractor due to political influence
and the buildings cannot be completed according to scope and time as well as
defects to the building.
(2) Economic - Allocation for Territorial Army units is also depend on the
government financial. Regiment 516 Territorial Army had received full
allocation based on program and activities planned in 2017 and 2018.
However, in 2019, we only received 70% of allocation for camp maintenance
and 80% of allocation for voluntary force allowances, ration and other
miscellaneous resulted 2 career courses has been cancelled.
(3) Legal - The absence of a law that prohibited people to join voluntary
force without any resistance from employers resulted majority voluntary force
unable to attend training, career courses and annual camp which is designed
to enhance their skill and knowledge and competency level before being
augmented. This issue has been address to Army Reserve Force Division and
MINDEF for further discussion with other ministry respectively.
(4) Public Perception - It is undeniable that there are a few of volunteer
soldiers who committed a criminal case with dress of military uniform
especially at rural area such as blackmail for money from farm workers, seize
goods from fishermen, conduct inspections to illegal immigrants for the
purpose to threatening and confiscate their goods and other cases. All those
cases has scratched image of Territorial Army to the public and create negative
perception and impacts to them.

1.5 Competitors. Not related.

1.6 Discussion.
1.6.1 Identify the external issues and compare with literature. Are the issues
identical or different? Why are they similar or different?
Based on the EFE matrix, we have identified the major threats in external issue
is employers permission with score 0.45 followed by social problem such as gambling
(online and offline) and alcohol and drug abuse with both scores 0.10. It shows that
number of active voluntary force will reduce in future if issues of resistance from
employers’ to allow their employee to attend training and career courses of voluntary
force especially in private sector is not taken into account. According to Army
Development Plan, Army4NextG, by 2025 ratio regular force to voluntary force is 1 : 1
with current holding is 70% and overall only 30% is categorized as active voluntary
force. Legal plays an important role to materialize the army's desire to prepare a
voluntary force command according to Army4NextG plan. Thus, this issue has been
brought to ministry level, discussed and addressed in defense white paper with a
proposal to create an act that could allow any employees work in government or
private sector to involve with training and courses of voluntary force without any
According to Rapp (2015) in the present scenario, the major challenge that is
emerging in the health care industry is to make the best use of the effective and
efficient human resources. Therefore, in order to meet the needs the administrators
of the health care sector analyzes the economic and legal issues to ensure proper
participation and empowerment of various individuals in the society. These are the
major key factors that help in driving changes in the health and social care industry,
which mainly includes the economic and legal factors, and legislative policies of a
country. Based on the literature, it shows that some organization have similar problem
in accomplish strategic planning for example legal factor. Legal plays an important part
in ensuring organisation strategic planning is going well. Absence or weak of
inadequate legal factor will slightly reduce tempo of achieving strategic plan.

1.6.2 Identify the internal issues and compare with literature. Are the issues
identical or different? Why are they similar or different?
Based on IFE matrix, incompetence military instructors has been identified as
major issues with score of 0.45 followed by shortage of training facilities with the same
score. It shows that unit facing huge problem in educate and train volunteer soldiers.
Training conducted for voluntary force is intended to enable them to carry out the
roles and duties of a regular force. The training is undertaken by voluntary force aim
at developing skills and abilities as well as to be physically and mentally prepared for
the purpose of deployment when the need arises. However, with lack of competence
military instructor from regular force in terms of knowledge, skills and leadership has
led to the inadequate training given to volunteer soldiers. It getting worst when there
were company under battalion do not have an appropriate training area and building
that will somehow rather will give negative impact and negative perception to
voluntary force resulted the percentage of active voluntary force decreased. Although
Human Resource Division aware that territorial army units are training institution for
recruiting, train and retain voluntary force, but due to weak decision from top
management has given huge impact unit level to achieve Army Reserve Force Plan
when regular soldier transferred to Territorial Army units and unable to train
voluntary force due to his weaknesses in basic soldiering and military knowledge.
Human Resources Division is like the heart of the Army, inaccurate decision made by
division would led to distraction of Army Strategic Plan.
According to Kohzadi, Science, Hafezi, & Branch (2016) most organizations
view the department of human resources as an administrative function within the
organization but they forget that the department has a big opportunity to align it with
its strategic plans. In the event that the human resource is included in the strategy of
an organization, its alignment may not go beyond a forecasting function. The main
reason is that human resource is not aligned with the strategy of an organization and
in most cases the department does not participate in the strategic planning
considering that most of the strategic planning meeting are associated with revenue
generating areas whereas the human resources is associated as a support team. Also
another reason where the human resource is always left out of the strategy planning

is that by its nature, human resource is about people, which is the core of an
organization and its strategic plan.
In the corporate world, the essence of human resource is strategic and when
properly aligned, it contributes to a successful strategy and the financial bottom line.
This means that human resource needs to maintain a strong administrative
foundation and use this respect in championing for participating in strategic planning
meeting. Such move will ultimately propel human resources to the position whereby
it can actually facilitate strategic planning in organization hence giving value to the
organization. This can easily make the department to be a game changer by providing
value that can influence the performance of the organization. A strategic approach
that is aligned with human resource ensures that an organizations employees, skills,
and abilities contribute to the achievement of its goals.

1.6.3 Identify issues in strategy implementation and compare with literature. Are
the issues identical or different? Why are they similar or different?
There are numerous issues pertaining implementing strategy as discussed
earlier. The most critical issues was Leadership. The success of any strategic plan
develop for Army in future would rely adequately to leadership at all level including
strategic level (Army Headquarters), strategic level (Field Command and Division) and
tactical level (Brigade, Battalion and Units). At the moment, Territorial Army units
facing a problem with Non Commission Officer (NCO) leadership especially senior
ranks. Senior rank is the rank of Warrant Officer I (WO I) down to Sergeant. This group
is no longer reliable in disseminating information to their lower subordinate.
Moreover, they no longer enforcing instructions to his lower subordinate because
afraid of losing popularity among NCOs. Although Human Resource Division aware
that territorial army units are training institution for recruiting, train and retain
voluntary force, but due to weak leadership from top management has given huge
impact unit level to achieve Army Reserve Force Plan when Non Commission Officer
(NCO) transferred to Territorial Army units and unable to train voluntary force due to
his weaknesses in basic soldiering and military knowledge. Human Resources Division
is like the heart of the Army, inaccurate decision made by division would led to
distraction of Army Strategic Plan.

According to Obeng & Agricultural (2016) Leadership is a process by which a
person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a
way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by
applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character,
knowledge, and skills in order to guide and drives the organization. It’s important to
note that leaders are expected to be mentors who can be dependent on by the people
that one is leading. This means that the leader should be able to exercise skills so that
the people will be able to appreciate his leadership skills. In management there is
difference between a leader and a manager because the latter wants to maintain the
status quo whereas a leader will always question the existing position. Therefore it’s
important to note that leadership in any organization will always affect the strategic
planning in organization if proper leadership does not exist.
Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals,
rather than simply commanding people around without showing leadership skills that
can be emulated by others. It’s important to note that poor leadership will influence
strategic planning in the sense that leaders can apply different leadership styles or
skills which can have positive or negative effect on the organization. In this regard,
leaders should be able to offer leadership that can take organization to great heights
by giving guidance and direction. From the above, we can explain that leadership skills
and styles affect the strategic plan of an organization in the sense that each firm is
able to employ unique skills of different strategic leaders to successful lead and
manage envisaged organizational changes. Arising from the above, we can say that
leadership plays a major role in implementing strategic plan in an organization
because leaders must be able to show commitment and dedication for any meaningful
event to take place.

1.7 Conclusion
In general internal issues and external issues are related each other and cause
significant implication to our strategic planning to achieve desired vision n mission. Although
internal issues is under our jurisdiction but we unable to solve completely the issues.
However, internal issues could be mitigate through prioritized and identified root problem
and take necessary action accordingly. For example, incompetence military instructors in the

unit could be mitigated by conducting train for trainer courses for a few weeks whereby each
incompetence military instructors would be train by highly skilled military instructor from the
same unit. Moreover, those incompetence military instructor would be supervised and access
by other trained instructors from other unit to ensure that those military instructors are
competence. Decrease of budget from 5th Infantry Brigade and Army Reserve Force Division
due to financial constraints and budget policies, would make a numerous programs and
activities are unable to be implemented. However, as a leader in military, initiative is one of
the method used to mitigate both inadequate allocation and shortage of training facilities.
For example, when unit receive inadequate of allocation, prioritized allocation would be
applied in the sense of not interfere core business such as recruitment, promotion, training
and others will other expenses would be cut accordingly.
On the other hand, external issues could not be mitigate independently because it is
beyond our control but still give impact to our strategic planning. The external issues could
be mitigate and solve with understanding and consensus from third party. As mentioned
earlier, increase of social problem within regular and voluntary force are due to number of
illegal gambling centre is increased, an illegal alcohol and drugs are easy to buy as well as
illegal finance institution also increased and various packages offered to customer. We do not
have authority to take action against all problem but we could have cooperation with security
agencies such as police, National Anti-Drugs Agency and other related agencies to educate
our soldiers, identify an illegal location of gambling, alcohol and drugs and report to related
agencies. Other issues could be mitigate through cooperation with other agencies is sharing
of facilities such as shooting range belongs to police due military do not have this kind facilities
in Tawau. Other than that, although we do not have such act in any federal or state
constitution states that employers are compulsory to allow any of their employee to join
voluntary force and attending training or courses without any resistance, we still have
opportunities to discuss with any related private sector to give their employee consent to join
voluntary force training and courses.
In conclusion, strategic planning implementation required close cooperation and
understanding as well as wise leadership characteristics at all levels either in our organization
or other agencies to ensure that our short and long term goals from strategic level down to
tactical level is achieving. Especially, with the uncertainty of global economies in the last few
decades, it has become even more important for military organisation to execute their

strategies carefully. A very important part of the strategy is to get ready for any future
changes and to be well placed to face the challenges brought by these changes. This is why;
strategy should be capable of minimizing the threats and maximizing the opportunities which
are brought by the change. Although there were so many resistance in implementing strategy,
I am strongly believe that leadership and organizational culture plays an important roles to
unit level because with strong character and leaders in unit able to motivate and lead people
to achieve desired goals. Initiative is one of the method of leaders in military to mitigate or
solve problem from internal or external issues and issues in implementing strategy. Initiative
is an art of thinking to identify problem and mitigate using surrounding resources and it is
obtain from experiences and taught from senior officers. Other than that, organisational
culture also plays and important role whereby regular or voluntary forces are part of an
organization and are attached to the actions that they perform within the military
organization. This includes organizational values, vision, symbols, beliefs, norms, habits etc,
and these are pattern of beliefs and assumptions that an organization as developed for a
period of time and that are taught to new soldiers who are joining the organization as a way
of pursuing, thinking and feeling about the organization. In summary we can say that
organization culture is a set of shared mental assumptions within people in an organization
that guides interpretation and actions in an organization by defining appropriate behaviour
or actions within the organization. Most organizations have its own unique culture which can
be reflected in its mission, vision, core values, and adoptability in the environment in which
they operate in.
(6650 words)

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