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Operation and Control

Microgrid and Distributed Generation

Mohammad Shahidehpour
Illinois Institute of Technology
Outline
 Introduction - Microgrids
 High Reliability Distribution Systems

 Perfect Power System – IIT Microgrid


 Optimal Control of Microgrid
 Reliability Evaluation
 Stochastic Solution
 Islanding and Synchronization

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Introduction – Microgrids
 Microgrids are considered as viable options for electrification
where the main grid expansion is either impossible or has no
economical justification.

 The decentralized operation and control of microgrids could also


reduce the transmission burden on power utility systems.

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Introduction – Microgrids
 Microgrids can provide higher reliability and power quality for
loads.
 Once in grid- connected mode, any grid failure will lead to
microgrid islanding.
 In the island mode, the master controller relies on microgrid
generation and storage to serve the microgrid load and prevent
curtailments.
 The load restoration procedure in microgrids could depend on
the reliability requirements of loads.
 Microgrid topology could play a crucial role in supplying
microgrid loads with diverse reliability requirements.

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DER in Microgrids
 Distributed energy resources (DER) in a microgrid would
include photovoltaic (PV), small wind turbines (WT), heat or
electricity storage, combined heat and power (CHP), and
controllable loads.
 DER applications would increase the efficiency of energy supply
and reduce the electricity delivery cost and carbon footprint in a
microgrid.
 DER applications would also make it possible to impose
intentional islanding in microgrids.
 The proximity of generation to loads in microgrids would
improve the power quality and reliability (PQR) at load points.

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Storage in Microgrid
 Storage devices including batteries, supercapacitors, and
flywheels could be used to match generation with demand in
microgrids.
 Storage can supply generation deficiencies, reduce load surges
by providing ride-through capability for short periods, reduce
network losses, and improve the protection system by
contributing to fault currents.
 V2G and EV mobility can reduce the microgrid reliance on the
grid supply.

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Introduction – Control Devices
 Hierarchical control performed by master controller ensures the
economical and secure operation of microgrids by maintaining
the frequency and voltage in microgrids.
 Master controller uses SCADA to monitor and regulate
frequency and voltage in microgrids according to “P-f” and “Q-V”
droop characteristics.
 IIT microgrid is considered as a test-bed to evaluate the effects
of intelligent switching and storage implementation on reliability
and economic operation of microgrid.

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High Reliability Distribution System (HRDS)
 Implementation of microgrid loops is made possible by the use
of automatic switches in HRDS.
 HRDS switches can sense the cable faults and isolate the
faulted section with no impact on other sections in a microgrid.
 Master controller will monitor the status of each HRDS switch
using the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
system.
 Master controller is responsible for economic operation of the
microgrid based on signals received from switches on the status
of distribution branches.

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HRDS vs. No HRDS
 HRDS vs. No HRDS

No HRDS

S15
S16
HRDS
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Problem Formulation
 Random outages of grid-connection facilities, microgrid DG, and
microgrid distribution lines are considered.
 Monte Carlo representation of outages is applied and the Latin
Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique is used to develop a
large number of scenarios with equal probabilities.
 A two-state Markov chain process is utilized to represent
microgrid outages according to the microgrid component failure
and repair rates.
 Since the computation time of stochastic optimization is
dependent on the number of scenarios, the scenario reduction
technique is utilized to reduce the number of generated
scenarios to an acceptable level with the corresponding
probabilities.

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Master Controller Formulation
 Stochastic Formulation
s t i

   F s ( P s )  SU s  SD s  
 c , i i ,t i ,t i ,t  
Min  p  
s  t  Pg ,t  VOLL.(   Pb,t  Pb,t ) 
s D , s d , s
 t b 

 Pi,t  Pg ,t   Pk ,t  PD,t
s s s s
i k
SU is,t  CSi  ( I is,t  I is,t 1 )
SDis,t  CDi  ( I is,t 1  I is,t )

Pimin  UX is,t  I is,t  Pis,t  Pimax  UX is,t  I is,t

Pgmin  UX gs ,t  Pgs,t  Pgmax  UX gs ,t

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Problem Formulation
Eknet
,t
,s
 P s
dc , k , t   k  Pc
s
, k ,t

Pks,t  Pdc
s
, k ,t  Pc, k ,t
s

, k ,t  I c , k ,t  1
s s
I dc

I cs,k ,t  Pcmin
, k  Pc , k ,t  I c , k ,t  Pc , k
s s max

, k ,t  Pdc , k  Pdc , k ,t  I dc , k ,t  Pdc , k


s min s s max
I dc

Qkmin  ( I dc
s
, k ,t  I c,k ,t )  Qk ,t  Qk
s max
 ( I dc
s
,k ,t  I c, k ,t )
s

Eks,t  Eks,t 1  Eknet


,t
,s

Ekmin  Eks,t  Ekmax


Ek ,0  Ek , NT

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Problem Formulation

inj , s
 Pi,t   Pg ,t   Pk ,t   PD,t  Pj ,t
s s s d ,s
iD j
i g
gD j k d
kD j dD j
inj , s
 Qi,t   Qg ,t   Qk ,t   QD,t  Q j ,t
s s s d ,s
iD j
i g
gD j k d
kD j dD j

ro, j  U ot ,,sj xo, j  U ot ,,sj


yot ,,sj  got ,,sj  jbot ,,sj  j
ro, j  xo, j
2 2
ro2, j  xo2, j

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Problem Formulation

Pjinj,t , s  (V js,t ) 2  G tj,,sj 


NB


o( j o)
V js,t  Vos,t [G tj,,so cos( js,t   os,t )  B tj,,so sin( js,t   os,t )]
NB
P inj , s
j ,t  (2V  1)  G
s
j ,t
t ,s
j, j  
o( j o)
G tj,,so (V js,t  Vos,t  1)  B tj,,so ( js,t   os,t )

Q inj
j ,t
,s
 (V js,t ) 2  B tj,,si 
NB


o( j o)
V js,t  Vos,t [G tj,,so sin( js,t   os,t )  B tj,,so cos( js,t   os,t )]

NB
Q inj , s
j ,t  (2V  1)  B
s
j ,t
t ,s
j, j  
o( j o)
 B tj,,so (V js,t  Vos,t  1)  G tj,,so ( js,t   os,t )

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Problem Formulation
PLtj,,so  (V js,t ) 2  G tj,,sj 
V js,t  Vos,t [G tj,,so cos( js,t   os,t )  B tj,,so sin( js,t   os,t )]
PLtj,,so  G tj,,so (V jt , s  Vot , s )  B tj,,so ( tj , s   ot , s )
QLtj,,so  (V js,t ) 2  B tj,,sj 
V js,t  Vos,t [G tj,,so sin( js,t   os,t )  B tj,,so cos( js,t   os,t )]
QLtj,,so  B tj,,so (Vot , s  V jt , s )  G tj,,so ( tj , s   ot , s )
(QLtj,,so ) 2  ( PLtj,,so ) 2  ( SLtj,,so ) 2
SLtj,,so  PLtj,,so   tj ,,os  QLtj,,so

SLtj,,so  SLmax
j ,o

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Perfect Power System – IIT Microgrid

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Perfect Power System – IIT Microgrid

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Perfect Power System – IIT Microgrid

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Perfect Power System – IIT Microgrid
 IIT demand is supplied by three 12.47 KV circuits fed from the
Fisk substation that is owned by ComEd. The peak load at IIT is
approximately 10 MW.

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Perfect Power System – Components
 Renewable energy sources include wind and solar generation.
An 8 kW Viryd wind turbine is installed on the north side of the
campus in Stuart soccer field.
 PV cells will be installed on building rooftops to supply portions
of campus load.
 A 500-kWh ZBB storage will increase the reliability and
efficiency of the microgrid.
 Several electric vehicle charging stations will be deployed on
campus, facilitating small energy storage and providing green
energy for electric vehicles.

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Perfect Power System – Components
• 6 five‐hour 
charging 
stations
• 1 DC Quick 
Charge (15‐20 
minutes)
• FREE Charging 
for Electric 
Vehicles (for 
now)

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Perfect Power System – Components

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Perfect Power System – Components

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Perfect Power System – Components
• Energy 
Efficiency
• Demand 
Response
• Islanding 
Mode
• Real‐time 
information

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Perfect Power System – IPPSC
 Intelligent Perfect Power System Controller (IPPSC)
 IPPSC manages the campus electricity distribution system and
electricity usage.
 IPPSC utilizes SCADA at all hours for reliable and economic
operations of microgrid.
 IPPSC coordinates HRDS controllers, on-site generation,
storage facilities and building controllers.
 Intelligent switching and advanced coordination technologies
through communication systems facilitates rapid fault
assessment and isolation

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Microgrid Reliability Evaluation
 Study Cases :
 Case 1: IIT network is not equipped with HRDS switches
 Case 2: IIT network is equipped with HRDS switches
 Case 3: IIT is equipped with HRDS switches and a storage

Hermann Siegel Wishnick Perlstein Total


Hall (kWh) Hall (kWh) Hall (kWh) Hall (kWh) (kWh)

Case 1 0 0 0 173.236 173.236


Case 2 0 0 0 0 0
Case 3 0 0 0 0 0

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Reliability Evaluation – Stochastic Solution
 The installation of HRDS and storage will lead to the best
expected reliability and economic indices.

Case No HRDS HRDS HRDS + Storage


Exp. SAIDI 1.22 0.18 0.04
Exp. SAIFI 3.29 0.59 0.37
Exp. CAIDI 1.73 0.36 0.04
Exp. CAIFI 2.69 0.68 0.29
Exp. Operation Cost 224,073 146,899 120,038
Exp. Energy not Supplied 1,216.21 251.07 175.10
LOLE 13.153 2.360 1.467

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Optimal Control of Microgrid

1200 Main grid supply 4.5


Battery supply
1000 4
Total Demand
Main grid price 3.5

Electricity Price (¢/kWh)


800
3
Power (kW)

600
2.5
400
2
200
1.5
0 1
-200 0.5
-400 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time (Hours)

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Optimal Control of Microgrid

1500 Grid Dispatch 10

Electricity Price (¢/kWh)


Power Plant Dispatch 9
1000 8
Price
7
Power (kW)

500
6
0 5
4
-500 3
-1000 2
1
-1500 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time (Hours)

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Islanding and Synchronization

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Microgrid Fault Analysis
 No HRDS
 Fault takes 30 cycles to clear.
 The system is radial. Once the breaker opens, all the loads
downstream will be disconnected.
 HRDS
 Fault takes 6 cycles to clear.
 The system is loop. Once the breakers open, only the faulted
cable is isolated.

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Fault Simulation
 Relative Voltage Angle of Gen. 2- No HRDS

15
Gen. 2
10
Relative Angle (degree)

-5

-10

-15

-20
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (second)

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Fault Simulation
 Relative Voltage Angle of Gen. 2 - HRDS

4
Gen. 2
2
Relative Angle (degree)

-2

-4

-6

-8
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (Second)

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Building Restoration Sequence
 Building Restoration Sequence:
T=30 sec T=45 sec T=60 sec T=75 sec T=85 sec

3410 Central CTA Facility Perlstein Hall Stuart Bldg. IIT Tower

3424 Central Cunningham Quad TBC Incubator

Alumni Hall Eng1 S.R. Crown TS3424 Keating

Carman Galvin Siegel Hall Vandercook Life Science

Carr Gunsaulus Metal S.1 Whishnick Life Science Research

MTCC Hermann Hall Metal S. 2 SSV Main

- - - - Metal N.

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Load Restoration

0.7
Alumni Hall
0.6 Life Science Research
Wishnick Hall
0.5 Siegel Hall
Demand (MW)

Engineering 1
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 50 100 150
Time (Second)

35
Load Sharing Among Generators

8
Gen 1
Load Increment
Gen 2
6
Power (MW)

-2
0 50 100 150
Time (Second)

36
Synchronization (frequency check)
66
Freq. Deviation < 1 Hz
64

62
Frequency (Hz)

60

58

56

54

52
0 50 100 150
Time (Second)

37
Synchronization (voltage angle check)

5
North SS
Voltage Angle Diff. < 30⁰ South SS
Voltage Angle (degree)

-5

-10

-15
0 50 100 150
Time (Second)

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Synchronization (voltage check)
5
North SS
Voltage Diff. at switching
instance
4.5
Voltage (kV)

3.5

3
0 50 100 150
Time (Second)

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Conclusion and Summary
 Application of HRDS, local generation, and storage is presented
and the reliability and economic evaluation of microgrid is
evaluated:
 AC formulation is offered to solve the unit commitment and
economic dispatch in microgrids.
 Integration of HRDS and evaluation of reliability and economic
indices of microgrids are considered as compared to those in
traditional distribution systems.
 Provision of stochastic solution to two proposed topologies is
considered for the comparison of reliability indices.
 Assessment of the role of energy storage on the economic
operation of microgrids is considered and improved reliability
indices at load points are calculated.

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Conclusion and Summary
 HRDS will clear the fault faster and has less effect on the
stability of the system specially in islanded mode
 Once islanded, the local generation will maintain the frequency
and voltage of the system.
 In order to synchronize with the main grid, frequency deviation,
voltage deviation and voltage angle deviation should be within
the acceptable limits.
 Two generators will share the loads based on their droop
characteristics.
 Once the first generator reaches its maximum capacity the
second generator would maintain the frequency of the system
by providing enough active power.

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Conclusion and Summary
 HRDS and automatic switches can reduce the expected
frequency and duration of interruptions and the expected energy
not supplied in the system.
 Storage can reduce the operation cost of the system by demand
response and preventing load curtailments.
 Local generation helps mitigate the expected interruption
duration and frequency in the system and improve the reliability
of the customers in microgrid.

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