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Bio149 2nd Long Exam

Multiple Choice
1. Triglycerides are a. the same number of double d. the same functional groups.
a. carbohydrates. d. neutral fats. bonds.
b. nucleotides. e. amino acids. b. double bonds in the same e. the same number and
c. proteins. positions. positions of double bonds.
2. Which of the following are lipids? c. four rings of carbon to
a. sterols d. waxes which are attached other
b. triglycerides e. all of these atoms.
c. oils 13. Which of these cell features is absent in a bacterial cell?
3. Sterols a. plasma membrane d. nucleus
a. are used in the synthesis of d. are a specialized type of b. nucleoid e. DNA
amino acids. lipid. c. cytoplasm
b. consist of four rings. e. All of the choices are true 14. Elephants are large animals because they
except "are used in the a. have bigger cells. d. have bigger cells and are
synthesis of amino acids." made of a greater number
c. may have different of cells.
numbers, types, and b. possess expandable cells. e. have bigger cells that are
positions of functional expandable and of greater
groups attached to them. number.
4. Sterols c. are made of a greater
a. contribute to d. are needed to produce number of cells.
atherosclerosis. sexual development and 15. All cells except bacteria
maturity. a. are eukaryotes. d. possess a nucleus and use
b. are not found in plants. e. both contribute to organelles for
atherosclerosis and are compartmentalization.
needed to produce sexual b. possess a nucleus. e. are eukaryotes, possess a
development and maturity. nucleus, and use organelles
c. are fats characterized by for compartmentalization.
fatty-acid tails. c. use organelles for
5. Cholesterol compartmentalization.
a. is synthesized in the large d. levels in the bloodstream 16. If a cell did not have ribosomes, it would be unable to
intestine. can be increased by eating a. extract energy from c. store food in the form of
plant fats. glucose. fat.
b. floats free in the e. is much greater in the b. synthesize glucose. d. form proteins.
bloodstream. bloodstream of rats than 17. Which of the following organelles is correctly matched with its
humans. function?
c. is used in the construction of a. nucleus: protein synthesis d. mitochondria: digestion
biomembranes. b. ER: heredity e. chloroplasts: storage of
6. Which of the following is secreted by specific glands? lipids
a. waxes d. hemoglobin c. Golgi bodies: packaging
b. triglycerides e. keratin 18. The organelle that pinches off portions of its membrane to form
c. bone and cartilage a vesicle used for storage or transport is the
7. Long-chain fatty acids attached to long-chain alcohols is a. mitochondrion. c. nucleolus.
characteristic of b. chloroplast. d. Golgi body.
a. triglycerides. d. waxes. 19. Which of the following is the primary advantage of the
b. phospholipids. e. glycoproteins. eukaryotic nuclear envelope?
c. sterols. a. providing residence for d. enabling faster cell
8. Polyunsaturated fats ribosomes division
a. have fewer hydrogens than d. have no double bonds. b. allowing isolation of DNA e. enabling larger cell size
saturated fats. from cytoplasmic machinery
b. are more characteristic of e. are solid at room c. providing pore entry places
animal fats than plant fats. temperature. 20. Which of the following is NOT a part of the endomembrane
c. contribute to the possibility system?
of arteriosclerosis. a. nucleus d. Golgi bodies
9. An example of a saturated fat is b. endoplasmic reticulum e. vesicles
a. olive oil. d. oleo. c. lysosomes
b. corn oil. e. soybean oil. 21. Organelles composed of a system of canals, tubes, and sacs that
c. butter. transport molecules inside the cytoplasm are
10. Lipids a. Golgi bodies. d. lysosomes.
a. serve as food reserves in d. are composed of b. ribosomes. e. endoplasmic reticula.
many organisms. monosaccharides. c. mitochondria.
b. include cartilage and e. none of these 22. The endoplasmic reticulum
chitin. a. serves as the internal c. is characterized by the
c. include fats consisting of transportation system of a presence of ribosomes
one fatty acid molecule cell. throughout.
and three glycerol b. is the inner membrane of d. manufactures ATP.
molecules. the mitochondria.
11. Plasma membranes are characterized by the presence of 23. Which of the following are the primary cellular assembly sites
a. triglycerides. d. steroids. for the production of proteins?
b. phospholipids. e. fatty acids. a. Golgi bodies d. lysosomes
c. unsaturated fats. b. ribosomes e. smooth endoplasmic
reticula
c. mitochondria
12. All sterols have
24. Which of the following are the primary structures for the 39. A membrane is more "fluid" than solid because
packaging of cellular secretions for export from the cell? a. phospholipid tails prevent d. phospholipid tails prevent
a. Golgi bodies d. lysosomes close packing. close packing and proteins
b. ribosomes e. endoplasmic reticula can shift positions.
c. mitochondria b. proteins can shift positions. e. phospholipid tails prevent
25. Which of the following contain enzymes and are the main close packing, proteins can
organelles of intracellular digestion? shift positions, and water is
a. Golgi bodies d. lysosomes the main component.
b. ribosomes e. endoplasmic reticula c. water is the main
c. mitochondria component.
26. Which of the following cell organelles is responsible for 40. The rate of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane will
disposal of hydrogen peroxide? be lowest when which of the following is (are) true?
a. Golgi bodies d. lysosomes
b. ribosomes e. peroxisomes I. Concentration gradients are steep.
c. mitochondria II. Temperatures are low.
27. If a biologist said that the human body might be getting its III. Solutes are small molecules.
power from "bacteria," he would be referring to
a. energy cells that utilize c. the mitochondria in our cells a. I only d. II and III
bacteria by producing that may have originated as b. II only e. I, II, and III
energy. endosymbiotic bacteria. c. I and III
b. bacteria in our intestinal d. the E. coli throughout the 41. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, and other small molecules
tract that digest food to human body that produce cross the plasma membrane through the process(es) of
supply us with energy. ATP. a. osmosis. d. active transport.
28. Fluid-filled sacs that may store food, ions, or water in cells are b. diffusion. e. facilitated diffusion.
called c. endocytosis and exocytosis.
a. plastids. d. nucleoli. 42. Movement of a molecule against a concentration gradient is
b. vacuoles. e. Golgi bodies. a. simple diffusion. d. active transport.
c. microvilli. b. facilitated diffusion. e. bulk flow.
29. Which of the following are found in both plant and animal cells? c. osmosis.
a. nucleus, Golgi body, c. centrioles, cell walls, 43. The method of movement that requires the expenditure of ATP
chloroplasts nucleolus molecules is
b. ribosomes, mitochondria, d. vacuoles, nucleolus, starch a. simple diffusion. d. active transport.
plasma membranes grains b. facilitated diffusion. e. bulk flow.
30. Only plant cells possess c. osmosis.
a. a central vacuole. d. stroma. 44. Which statement is true?
b. plastids. e. all of these a. A cell placed in an isotonic d. A cell placed in a
c. grana. solution will swell. hypertonic solution will
31. Structural features that contain the protein actin and help to remain the same size.
control the shapes of cells are b. A cell placed in a e. A cell placed in a hypotonic
a. plastids. d. nucleoli. hypotonic solution will solution will remain the
b. vacuoles. e. microfilaments. swell. same size.
c. microvilli. c. A cell placed in a
32. Cell components used to move chromosomes are the hypotonic solution will
a. cilia. d. microfilaments. shrink.
b. flagella. e. Golgi bodies. 45. A red blood cell will lyse when placed in which of the following
c. microtubules. kinds of solution?
33. The organelle that is compared to a whip is a a. hypotonic d. any of the above
a. microfilament. d. flagellum. b. hypertonic e. none of these
b. intermediate filament. e. microtubule. c. isotonic
c. microvillus. 46. If a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution,
34. Which of the following is NOT found as a part of all cells? a. the entire cell will not d. the cell wall prevents the
a. cell membrane d. DNA swell or shrink. cell from exploding.
b. cell wall e. RNA b. the entire cell will shrink. e. the turgor pressure will
c. ribosomes increase but the cell wall
35. Which of the following are made of two subunits and are prevents the cell from
composed of RNA and protein? exploding.
a. Golgi bodies d. ribosomes c. the turgor pressure will
b. mitochondria e. endoplasmic reticula increase.
c. chloroplasts 47. A molecule consisting of a phosphate group and two fatty acids
36. Hydrophobic reactions of phospholipids can produce clusters of esterified to a glycerol is a
their fatty acid tails to form a. wax. d. sterol.
a. a lipid bilayer. d. a cytoskeleton. b. phosphatidic acid. e. glycolipid.
b. hydrolysis of the fatty e. a nonpolar membrane. c. sphingolipid.
acids. 48. Endocytosis is
c. a protein membrane. a. a type of sphingolipid. d. a health risk associated
37. If a plasma membrane were compared to a sandwich, consuming trans fatty
__________ would be considered the filling. acids found in margarine.
a. cholesterol d. hydrophobic tails b. a blood clotting mechanism e. a disease caused by failure
b. protein e. carbohydrates inhibited by omega-3 fatty of the sodium-potassium
c. hydrophilic heads acids. ion transporter to function
38. In an attempt to visualize the fluid mosaic model of a properly.
membrane, we could describe the __________ as floating in a c. a process of bringing a
sea of __________. substance into a cell by
a. lipid; protein d. fats; water pinching off a portion of the
b. phospholipids; carbohydrate e. glycolipids; sterols membrane containing the
c. proteins; lipid substance bound to a
membrane-associated c. sphingolipids
receptor. 59. A 1,2-diacylglycerol that has a phosphate group esterified at
49. Which of these are among the three types of transmembrane carbon atom 3 of the glycerol is a:
transport requiring a carrier protein? a. cardiolipin d. terpene
a. facilitated diffusion d. active transport b. tristearin e. glycerophospholipid
b. facilitated diffusion and e. simple diffusion and c. sphingomyelin
active transport facilitated diffusion 60. Strictly speaking, mitosis and meiosis are divisions of the
c. simple diffusion a. nucleus. d. nucleus and chromosomes.
50. What is the main difference between simple diffusion and b. cytoplasm. e. nucleus, cytoplasm, and
facilitated diffusion? chromosomes.
a. Simple diffusion needs a d. Facilitated diffusion uses c. chromosomes.
change in free energy protein channels, but 61. Which of the following is NOT associated with meiosis?
across the membrane, but simple diffusion does not. a. reduction of number of d. sperm and egg
facilitated diffusion does chromosomes
not. b. somatic cells e. germ cells
b. Facilitated diffusion uses e. Simple diffusion exhibits c. sexual reproduction
ATP for energy, but simple saturation kinetics, but 62. Eukaryotic DNA molecules
diffusion does not. facilitated diffusion does a. have no proteins. d. have small amounts of
not. protein dispersed among
c. none of these choices the DNA molecules.
51. Which of the following vitamins plays an important role in the b. have small amounts of e. have large amounts of
formation of bone? protein at each end of the protein dispersed among
a. vitamin D d. vitamin B6 DNA molecules. the DNA molecules.
b. vitamin A e. vitamin E c. have large amounts of
c. vitamin K protein at each end of the
52. Arachidonic acid is the precursor of which group of DNA molecules.
compounds? 63. Which process is absolutely necessary for sexual reproduction to
a. prostaglandins and d. sphingolipids occur in a life cycle, but is not necessarily required for
leukotrienes organisms that only reproduce asexually?
b. prostaglandins e. leukotrienes a. prokaryotic fission d. cytokinesis
c. all of these choices b. mitosis e. karyokinesis
53. Which of the following is a function of prostaglandins? c. meiosis
a. stimulation of smooth d. induction of inflammation 64. Chromatids that are attached at the centromere are called what
muscle contraction kind of chromatids?
b. control of blood pressure e. all of these choices a. mother d. programmed
c. inhibition of platelet b. daughter e. either mother or daughter.
aggregation c. sister
54. Which of the following statements about lipids is false? 65. When chromosomes become visible during prophase of mitosis,
a. The lipids found in d. Upon oxidation in it is the result of
biological systems are metabolism, lipids yield a. uncoiling. d. chromatid duplication.
either hydrophobic or large amounts of energy. b. DNA synthesis. e. addition of proteins to the
amphipathic. DNA.
b. Lipids represent highly e. Lipids are the molecules of c. condensation.
reduced forms of carbon. choice for metabolic 66. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter
energy storage. cell will have how many chromosomes?
c. Lipids are highly soluble in a. 64 d. 8
water. b. 32 e. 4
55. Fatty acids that are saturated: c. 16
a. have an even number of d. have double bonds between 67. Cells with two of each kind of chromosome are described by the
carbon atoms some carbon atoms term
b. have single bonds between e. none of the above a. polyploid. d. haploid.
all carbon atoms b. diploid. e. tetraploid.
c. have an odd number of c. triploid.
carbon atoms 68. The chromosomes and genes are actually replicated during
56. Which of the following statements about fatty acids is true? a. anaphase. d. prophase.
a. The double bonds found in d. Unsaturated fatty acids b. metaphase. e. telophase.
fatty acids are nearly always produce flexible, fluid c. interphase.
in the cis configuration. arrays because they cannot 69. Chromosomes are duplicated during what portion of the cell
pack closely together. cycle?
b. The configuration around e. all of the above a. M d. G2
the double bond in fatty b. D e. S
acids causes a bend or c. G1
"kink" in the fatty acid 70. The spindle apparatus is made of
chain. a. Golgi bodies. d. nucleoprotein.
c. Saturated fatty acid chains b. microtubules. e. chromatids.
can pack closely together. c. endoplasmic reticulum.
57. Triacylglycerols are: 71. The spindle apparatus begins to become visible during
a. the fatty acids found only in d. found only in animals a. anaphase. d. prophase.
microorganisms b. metaphase. e. telophase.
b. fatty acids with highly e. all of the above c. interphase.
oxidized carbons 72. The chromatids detach from one another and become visibly
c. a major energy reserve for separate chromosomes during
animals a. anaphase. d. prophase.
58. The major energy reserves in animals are: b. metaphase. e. telophase.
a. glycerophospholipids d. triglycerides c. interphase.
b. terpenes e. cholesterol 73. The nuclear membrane re-forms during
a. anaphase. d. prophase. synapsis and binary chromosomes and results in
b. metaphase. e. telophase. fission. new combinations of alleles
c. interphase. being channeled into the
74. Homologous chromosomes daughter cells.
a. may exchange parts during d. pair up during meiosis. b. involves nucleoli. e. all of these
meiosis. c. involves breakages and
b. have alleles for the same e. all of these exchanges between sister
characteristics even though chromatids.
the gene expression may not 78. Paired homologous chromosomes are found at the spindle
be the same. equator during
c. are in pairs, one chromosome a. metaphase I. d. metaphase II.
of each pair from the father b. telophase I. e. anaphase II.
and one from the mother. c. prophase II.
75. Sister chromatids are separated from each other during 79. Major gene reshuffling takes place during
a. metaphase I. d. anaphase II. a. prophase I. d. metaphase II.
b. anaphase I. e. metaphase II. b. metaphase I. e. anaphase II.
c. telophase II. c. anaphase I.
76. Synapsis and crossing over occur during 80. Meiosis typically results in the production of
a. anaphase I. d. prophase II. a. two diploid cells. d. two haploid cells.
b. metaphase II. e. telophase II. b. four diploid cells. e. one triploid cell.
c. prophase I. c. four haploid cells.

77. Crossing over


a. generally results in d. alters the composition of
Bio149 2nd Long Exam
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. D 21. E 41. B 61. B


2. E 22. A 42. D 62. E
3. E 23. B 43. D 63. C
4. E 24. A 44. B 64. C
5. C 25. D 45. A 65. C
6. A 26. E 46. E 66. C
7. D 27. C 47. B 67. B
8. A 28. B 48. C 68. C
9. C 29. B 49. B 69. E
10. A 30. E 50. D 70. B
11. B 31. E 51. A 71. D
12. C 32. C 52. A 72. A
13. D 33. D 53. A 73. E
14. C 34. B 54. C 74. E
15. E 35. D 55. B 75. D
16. D 36. A 56. E 76. C
17. C 37. D 57. C 77. D
18. D 38. C 58. D 78. A
19. B 39. D 59. E 79. A
20. A 40. B 60. D 80. C