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Compressor piping system

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SYSTEM SIMULATION

Larry E. Blodgett

Southwest Research Institute

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Any discussion of simulation would be incomplete without an understanding of the

nature of the process simulated and the simulation objective. The simulation of

pulsations requires plane wave acoustics and occasionally three dimensional acous-

tics. The simulation of mechanical vibrations (excited by acoustic shaking forces)

requires mechanical dynamics and finite element understanding. The simulation of

stress requires mechanics of materials and fatigue theory. Reciprocating compressor

pressure volume simulation requires fluid dynamics and thermodynamics. Recip-

rocating compressor valve simulation requires acoustics, mechanical dynamics and

fluid dynamics. The central concept that relates these disciplines is the dynamic

concept. Of course an understanding of statics is also required, although it is usually

not at the heart of most efficient designs. A basic understanding of both statics and

dynamics is required to recognize what is necessary in developing and using a

particular simulation or model.

The term simulation or model will be used interchangeably to mean a tool which

exhibits similar properties of an actual machine. The simulation is usually based

on mathematically analogous processes. Therefore most simulations are mathe-

matical ideas that respond in a similar enough fashion to predict the desired prop-

erties of the system to be designed or analyzed.

Another central issue in compressor and piping simulation is the realization that

a system is an assemblage of compressor and piping that forms a unified system.

Proper simulation must address itself to the system as a whole and not isolate

processes which are interactive in the system. Statics and dynamics both influence

a machine’s performance, therefore they must both be included in an optimized

machine design. Specialization that minimizes the overall character of the system,

usually detracts from the success of a design effort.

6.1

6.2 CHAPTER SIX

• Piping acoustics (from compressor valve to acoustic termination)

• Piping mechanical dynamics (compressor manifold and external)

• Pressure drop analysis (efficiency considerations)

• Compressor valve dynamics (both performance and reliability)

• Compressor performance (cost efficiency)

• Piping mechanical statics (thermal expansion, etc.)

The major point to be made by addressing the overall design task is that the sub-

projects are all influenced by each other. Mechanical piping changes can influence

the acoustics and acoustics can influence both mechanics and performance. The

cost-effective and technically sound acoustical design cannot be performed in a

vacuum. The use of concurrent analysis1 is without doubt the best approach.

Normally, model processes are separated into areas which efficiently exhibit the

desired properties. Many models are limited intentionally so that the designer will

not make an effort to misuse the model. Therefore, it is not uncommon to see

several seemingly isolated simulations being performed which are then applied

simultaneously. The use of a simultaneous design philosophy is very beneficial. To

this end, we will be illustrating simulations in a focused effort to indicate the nature

and use of simulations realizing that they will all be combined in a unified effort

to optimize machine reliability and efficiency.

• Static fluid loss associated with pressure drop and fluid dynamic efficiency (fluid

related)

• Temperature, weight and pressure forces which determine static integrity (me-

chanical related)

Pressure drop simulations vary considerably in use and complexity. They are

based initially on the fundamental loss mechanism. For pipeline efficiency, this loss

factor might be empirical such as Spitzglass, Babcock, Weymouth or Panhandle.

The rational method of Darcy is more common in simulations in the last 20 years.

The Darcy method is rationally developed from the physical properties of fluids

and Bernoulli’s general energy theorem. Bernoulli’s theorem can be stated as fol-

lows:

COMPRESSOR AND PIPING SYSTEM SIMULATION 6.3

P1 21 P2 22

Z1 ⫹ ⫹ ⫽ Z2 ⫹ ⫹

1 2g 2 2g

Z1 and Z2 ⫽ potential head at condition 1 and 2

P1 and P2 ⫽ static pressure at condition 1 and 2

1 and 2 ⫽ density at condition 1 and 2

V1 and V2 ⫽ velocity at condition 1 and 2

g ⫽ acceleration due to gravity

All practical formulas for fluid flow are derived from this theorem, with modifi-

cations to account for frictional losses.

Mechanically related models dealing with temperature, weight and static pres-

sure forces are usually included in a thermal flexibility analysis. The major static

issues are pipe stress, displacement, machinery forces and moments, and cooler

nozzle forces and moments. These will be discussed in detail in the section reserved

specifically for them.

achieved through solutions of the basic equations of energy, motion or continuity,

plus equations of state and other physical property relationships. The most popular

solution is the characteristics method (method of characteristics). This method

converts the two partial differential equations of motion and continuity into four

total differential equations. These equations are then converted to finite difference

expressions using a method of specific time intervals. The resultant computational

process is performed in the time domain and can yield very rigorous results. When

large intermittent fluid flow problems are solved, this type of approach is necessary.

It can also be applied to acoustic problems but is computationally intensive. Emer-

gency shutdown and sudden machinery loading must be analyzed in the time do-

main using such techniques.

Pulsation, vibration and dynamic stress can best be understood in terms of a dy-

namic energy source and systems which can be resonant. Initially, the energy is

generated by the machinery (reciprocating compressor). If the piping natural fre-

quencies are frequency coincident, the energy is magnified through acoustic reso-

nance. The unbalanced pressure forces in piping systems couples into the mechan-

ical piping system causing vibration. If the mechanical natural frequency of the

piping is frequency coincident with the pulsation energy, secondary magnification

results. When large vibrational displacements occur in stiff systems, excessive

stress results at the points of stress concentration. If the cyclic stresses exceed the

endurance limit of the piping material, fatigue failure results.

6.4 CHAPTER SIX

rocating process produces intermittent flow and pressure. These flow and pressure

variations are conveyed into the gas in the piping. The dynamic energy (both pul-

sative flow and pressure) first transfers into the gas or piping acoustics. Figure 6.1

illustrates the mass flow versus time waves that commonly occur at compressor

valves. Figure 6.2 illustrates the frequency content of the head end discharge flow

pulse. It is readily apparent that the frequency content of the pulsative flow is

limited to compressor rpm and multiples of compressor RPM. A single compressor

end produces decreasing amplitudes moving from the first compressor order (rpm

⫻ 1) to the higher multiples. When the front (head end) and back (crank end) ends

of the piston are used simultaneously, cancellation and reinforcement of compressor

order occurs. Most notably, the odd orders (1⫻, 3⫻, 5⫻ ...) tend to be reduced due

to cancellation of the two ends. Reinforcement occurs on the even order (2⫻, 4⫻,

6⫻ ...). Therefore, double acting compressors cylinders produce strong pulsative

flow at even orders. This reinforcement and cancellation occur with significant

acoustic involvement (on a single cylinders) due to the relatively close proximity

of the head end and crank end valve in the cylinder passage. A much more complex

case occurs when multiple cylinders (operating in parallel or series) are connected

by piping elements. In such cases, the reinforcement or cancellation of energy

COMPRESSOR AND PIPING SYSTEM SIMULATION 6.5

FIGURE 6.2 Spectrum of head end discharge flow pulse showing compressor orders.

occurs due to the crank shaft phase and the piping acoustics between the cylinders.

The models to analyze simple systems are almost trivial compared to the level of

sophistication required to analyze multiple cylinders with complex piping systems.

It is always good to keep in mind the transfer of energy through a system is:

cylinder excitation; acoustic transfer and amplification; mechanical transfer and

amplification; acoustical to mechanical coupling; resultant shaking force; mechan-

ical vibration; and eventual pipe material strain and stress.

The piping system can be viewed as a complex organ pipe network. The normal

piping system will have several acoustic natural frequencies which, if excited, de-

velop standing wave patterns (acoustic mode shapes). As the flow and pressure

wave travel out from the compressor, they are transmitted and reflected in the piping

system. Whether a wave is reflected or transmitted is determined by the change in

impedance from element to element. The simple acoustic impedance (Z) is deter-

mined by the gas velocity of sound (c ⫽ ft/sec), the gas density ( lb/cu ft) and

cross sectional flow area (A ⫽ sq ft) of the acoustic element.

c

Z⫽

A

This type of simplistic thinking is actually the basis for more complex models that

are used in everyday acoustic analysis.

6.6 CHAPTER SIX

was first developed in 1952. Forty-four years of advances in analytical dynamics,

instrumentation, and computer systems have continuously improved the engineer’s

ability to develop low maintenance, cost-effective and efficient designs. For many

years, the only available techniques were based on electro acoustical (analog) or

simple mathematical models. With the advent of the desktop computer came digital

acoustic techniques. The use of the computer to solve basic acoustic piping cal-

culations was not new. It actually existed on mainframe computers for many years,

but the man-to-machine interface was inefficient and cumbersome.

There are many different types of acoustic piping models in use today. The

majority of digital models use the transfer matrix method. A fairly complete list

of methods would include the following:

• Electro acoustical model (the analog)

• Transfer matrix

• Method of characteristics

• Simultaneous differential equations

• Acoustic finite wave

• Finite difference methods

• Spectral method

• Boundary-integral method

• Impedance methods (linear analysis)

An accurately modeled compressor and piping system requires both time domain

and frequency domain calculations. The use of frequency-to-time domain trans-

forms has led to a semi-rigorous approach in the frequency domain appearing to

have true time domain interaction when in reality it does not exist. True time

domain models include electro acoustic (analog), method of characteristics, or si-

multaneous differential equation solutions.

the representation of the compressor cylinder, pressure operated valves and a valid

acoustic piping model. The piston motion and the valve action produce a periodic

intermittent mass flow from the suction piping and into the discharge piping. It is

important to note the discontinuous nature of the flow pattern. If a single flow pulse

is converted to the frequency domain, the flow can be viewed in terms of frequency

multiples of the compressor speed (rpm/60). The nature of these discontinuous

pressure functions results in pressure pulses being produced at the machine speed

and multiples of one times machine speed.

The acoustic natural frequencies of the piping system can be excited by the

piston pulse causing pressure and velocity magnification. The volumetric properties

COMPRESSOR AND PIPING SYSTEM SIMULATION 6.7

of the piping tend to introduce a smoothing process to the more severe interruptions

characteristic of the opening and closing compressor valves.

The performance of reciprocating compressors can be generally inferred from

the internal cylinder pressure and the manner in which it interacts with the pressures

outside the suction and discharge compressor valves. The cylinder external pres-

sures can be helpful or harmful to the overall cylinder compression and flow pro-

cess. It is important to note that the piston motion, mechanical valve model, and

outside pressures should be represented in the time domain to allow for proper

interaction.

When acoustic standing waves are present in the piping system, they can couple

through elbows and capped ends, resulting in significant shaking forces. The major

contributor of acoustic shaking force is due to the standing wave which is a by-

product of acoustic resonance. Therefore, acoustic resonance has two disadvan-

tages: the amplitude of the pulsative is magnified; and the energy is concentrated

in a form that efficiently couples to shaking forces. By limiting or controlling the

pulsation amplitude, the coupled shaking force can also be limited. The control of

shaking forces reduces vibration that can cause maintenance problems or fatigue

failures.

Through design analysis, non resonant acoustical and mechanical systems can

be designed which limit vibration, ensure efficiency and increase reliability of the

machine and its piping system.

In simple systems, the design analysis approach can be closed form equations

in combination with past successful experience. However, in most cases, the com-

plexity associated with multiple cylinders and extensive piping configurations re-

quires the use of Analog or digital techniques.

The most popular model used in piping acoustics is based on the transfer matrix

approach. The development of the equations used in constructing the model follows

the following path:

• Plane waves in a viscous stationary medium

• Plane waves in an inviscid moving medium

• Plane waves in a viscous moving medium

ognition of a direct analogy to frequency domain analysis of electrical transmission

networks. This is the fact that inspired the first acoustic piping design tool which

dominated piping design for many years, and continues to hold considerable ad-

vantage compared to existing digital computer applications. The use of inductors

(coils), capacitors and resistance forms the basic analogous components which re-

late directly to fluid mass property, fluid resiliency and fluid resistance. The mass

6.8 CHAPTER SIX

flow and fluid pressure are directly analogous to electrical current and electrical

voltage. Even today the pro and cons of ‘‘analog’’ versus digital continues to be a

matter of much debate.2 The real test of any model is its ability to produce faithful

results that allow a knowledgeable piping designer to produce safe efficient com-

pression systems.

of accurate natural frequency calculations. Accurate natural frequency calculations

allow for the proper separation of pulsative energy (both incident and resonant)

and mechanical natural frequencies. Should coincidence occur, mechanical reso-

nance results and almost certain problems will ensue. High vibration due to reso-

nance can result in one or more of the following problems.

• Loosing nuts and bolts associated with valves, piping restraints or other bolted

elements. This results in general high maintenance cost.

• Vibration induced fatigue of smaller lines such as instrument lines

• Vibration induced fatigue of major piping elements

Where piping is the primary moving element, the vibrational mode shapes are

dependent on the model possessing the distributed stiffness and mass properties of

the pipe. When valves or concentrated masses are present, it is also important that

these elements have specified rotational inertia properties. It is very important that

restraints are modeled with proper stiffness values. As a general statement, the

mass and stiffness distribution and magnitude must be properly modeled to ensure

accurate natural frequency calculations. A knowledge of vibrational mode shape

can help in determining when a piping geometrical configuration is susceptible to

pulsation energy. The transfer of pulsation energy to the mechanical system gen-

erally occurs due to area coupling at pipe closed ends and piping elbows. In piping

systems with pulsation energy, the more elbows the greater probability of a vibra-

tion problem.

cylinders, cylinder supports, suction nozzles, discharge nozzles, suction manifold

bottles, discharge manifold bottles, discharge bottle restraints and attached piping

on suction and discharge. The vibration patterns associated with such elements are

most accurately viewed as lumped masses connected with generally massless

springs. Therefore, the approach required to model a compressor manifold is quite

different than that required to model the distributed properties of pure piping sys-

tems. Calculating proper natural frequencies and mode shapes for compressor man-

ifolds requires a very specialized understanding of such elements as:

COMPRESSOR AND PIPING SYSTEM SIMULATION 6.9

• Distance piece flexibility

• Cylinder rotary inertia

• Nozzle branch connection flexibility

• Manifold bottle rotary inertia

• Discharge bottle restraint added stiffness

• Attached piping dynamic effects

Dynamic stresses can be calculated in both piping systems and manifold systems

with proper attention to the element properties and the forces and moments at each

end of the element. In most cases, a finite element type of approach can be used

to calculate the dynamic stresses. Experience has shown that a distortion energy

theory algorithm correlates well with practical field failure experience. The im-

provements of the distortion energy theory over the total strain energy theory ac-

count for the experimental observation that hydrostatic states of stress must be

properly assessed. The later contributions of Von Mises and Hencky have led to

the best overall techniques. The effort associated with a complete FEA analysis is

not necessary and would be prohibitive (if performed correctly) from a time and

cost viewpoint. Practically, the most conservative and reliable dynamic stress cri-

teria is to simply ensure the maximum dynamic peak-to-peak stress is less than

6,000 psi. This accounts for worse case mean stress, stress concentration, surface

effect and size effects.3

VOLUME ANALYSIS

Compressor system models are composed of both the compressor and the piping

system. Therefore, when a compressor simulation analysis is performed, a PV

(pressure vs. volume) and PA (pressure vs. crank angle) display of the cylinder

internal pressure is available. Figure 6.3 illustrates the PA display along with actual

pressure levels at the suction and discharge valves. Figure 6.4 illustrates a typical

PV card. The advantage of this PV card is the inclusion of the pulsation effects.

Ideal PV calculations yield four basic components.

• Discharge volumetric efficiency

• Compression line

• Re-expansion line

6.10 CHAPTER SIX

FIGURE 6.3 Cylinder pressure and valve pressure vs. crank angle.

During the period of time the suction or discharge valve is open, the internal

cylinder pressure is influenced by the pressure beyond the valve in the piping. The

changes in acoustic impedance cause pulsative energy to reflect back upon the

compressor valve and to actually enter the valve port. This influence is very sig-

nificant. The nature of the pressure profile on the PV card during these time periods

is very similar to the pressure immediately outside the valves. A primary influence

is on the area of the card which is proportional to the work performed for each

rotation of the shaft. The work combined with the rpm yields the horsepower of

the compressor. High frequency pulsative energy tends to produce numerous waves

during the inlet or outlet flow time. Low frequency pulsative energy tends to cause

the PV card to balloon or swell. A ballooning card usually suggests the horsepower

is increased with a corresponding increase in flow. Therefore, the efficiency of the

compressor is deteriorated. The compression and re-expansion lines can also be

displaced, causing very significant increases in required horsepower with a small

increase in flow. Displaced compression and re-expansion lines in many cases are

symptoms of increased valve impact velocities and limited valve life.

The suction and discharge valve motion is determined by the dynamic properties

(mass, stiffness and damping) of the valve elements and the differential pressure

COMPRESSOR AND PIPING SYSTEM SIMULATION 6.11

across the valve. The differential pressure and the effective pressure area determines

the force that operates the valve. The differential pressure is composed of both

static and dynamic components. The valve motion cannot be properly predicted

without including the pulsative energy present in the system. Figure 6.5 illustrates

the pulsative pressure at the exit of the discharge valve and also in the common

nozzle. This data shows the complex nature of pulsative energy and why this would

surely influence the valve motion. The energy content is quite different as you

move from the valve exit to the common nozzle. Figure 6.6 illustrates the spectral

content of the energy in the nozzle. This spectral energy content shows the domi-

nance of the basic double acting cylinder (dominate rpm ⫻ 2 energy) and acoustic

response associated with the cylinder internal passage at approximately 64 to 69

Hertz. This is typical and illustrates the requirement of the modeling process.

An adequate compressor model will include a mechanical valve model coupled

into the driving pulsative energy and the open and closed limits of valve element

travel. It is important that this model be evaluated in the time domain. The results

of the model should yield valve spring and weight parametric analysis capabilities.

The valve displacement, velocity and acceleration are directly available, allowing

for direct evaluation of impact velocities and forces. At present, several valve man-

ufacturers have impact velocity criteria which are used to screen valve reliability.

These criteria have not proven totally reliable up until now, and are used as a

simple criteria which should not be over emphasized.

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