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Management of

accidents/disasters in
Chemical Industry
S.K.Hazra
Chairman –Safety and Health Expert Committee
Co-Chairman RC and Expert Committee
Indian Chemical Council
Ammonia Plant
2200TPD
2011

1500TPD
2001

850TPD
1980

675TPD
1968
Ethylene Cracker
1,000,000TA
2010

650,000TPA
1990

140,000TPA
1978

20,000TPA
1963
Hazard Increases
• Linearly Proportional to Inventory Increase
• Pipelines
• Higher than Inventory Increase
• Reactors
• Columns
• Heat Exchangers

 Exponential
 1.33 Times Plant Capacity Factor
 Double the Capital Cost
l

Ref.”Economies of scale of World Scale Plant and Process Safety


 Windhorst and Koene
● Death : 28

● Property Loss :
US$ 167 Mil

● Animal Death : 3300

● Animal Slaughtered :
80000
● Irreversible Effect:
200persons
● Death : 2500

● Affected : 200K
● Death : 550

● Loss : US$ 1Bil.


● Death : 30

● Property Loss :
US$ 716MM

●: Death : 23

● Cost : US$
3.2Bil
● Injury : 42

● Property Loss :
US$1.4Bil

● Death : 11

● Loss : US$ 0.2Bil


EU-Seveso I OSHA PSM
MSIHC Amd

EU-Seveso II Amd
SevesoToxic
. Bhopal Toxic Brunsfield,UK
Release(Dioxyn ) Release (MIC) VCE (Oil Term)

EU-Seveso II
Flixborough
Piper Alpha Toulese
VCE (Cyclohexene) Fire (Oil & Gas Rig Jaipur Oil
Am.Nitrate Expl
Term)
Mexico City Texas City
LPG (BLEVE) MSIHC INDIA VCE (Refinery)
CAPPER Rule
Pasedana
Dow/Mond Index VCE (LDPE Plnt) COMAH UK COMAH Amd.

Probabilistic Risk Assessment EPA RMP MBLal


Com.Rep
Hazop Chemical Process QRA RBPS
1978

2009
2002
2004

2006
1974

1976

1980

1982

1984
1986

1988

1990

1992

1994
1996

1998
2000
12
Accident/ Disaster
Management

Prevention Mitigation Relief

Proactive Reactive Co Public


Direct Indirect Initiative
Barriers Barriers Initiative
Proactive Barriers Reactive Barriers

Mock
Alarm Drill
Intlk
Moral

PHA
MOC Detec
INCIDENT
tor
SITING
DMP

SOP Auto
Sprnkl

14
L
Mitigation

Direct Indirect
• Contain within Site
• Community Awareness
• Fire Station
• Community Involvement
• PPEs • Fire Personnel Training
• Training • Police Personnel Training
• APPELL /MARG • Hazmat Personnel
• Mock Drill • Statutory Crisis Groups
Notic Team sent to
Security alerted
es Sends for internal attend leak
Leak team for traffic control
assessmen
t

TIME

Control room
receives the
signal
FISH BONE DIAGRAM
FOR ACTION PLAN
L
L
L
Commitment

Change To
KEY
Process Safety

Management Hazard

Analysis Risk

Performance Assessment

Hazard Control
Monitoring

ALARP
Preparedness

• Awareness
Preparedness Is the Key to • Training
combat Chemical disaster • Equipment
• Resources
• Planning
• Exercises