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Assignments II

Optimum Design of Reinforced Concrete Pile Foundation using

Australian Design

Submitted By

Under Supervision of

Bachelor of Building and Civil Engineering

to

FIJI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, FIJI ISLAND

1. Detailed Interpretation of the outcomes of the PEB 802 Capstone Design Project

This project should investigate the optimum design of concrete pile foundation subjected to

Australia and New Zealand codes of practice and develop an optimized design of concrete pile

foundation in Fiji to achieve minimum cost and stability.

Detailed analysis of the project outcomes that were achieved and yet to be done are listed

below:

This step was completed with the use of MS Excel software which was to be further modified

to achieve optimization.

Use the α –Method to calculate the ultimate pile capacity and the allowable design load for a

356 mm square, prestressed concrete pile driven into the soil profile described below. The trial

pile length for the calculation is 17m. The prestressed concrete pile has a pile–soil surface area

of 1.42 m2/m and a pile toe area of 0.127 m2. Based on the soil profile, Figure 6.19 or Figure

6.20 should be used to calculate pile capacity. A Factor of Safety of 2 should be adopted.

STEP 1 The soil profile was delineated in the problem statement. The bottom of Layer 1 is at 9

meters. Therefore, calculations for Layer 1 should be based on an embedded pile length to

diameter ratio, D/b, of (9 m)/ (.356 m) or 25. The bottom of Layer 2 is at 17 meters.

Calculations for Layer 2 should then be based on an embedded pile length to diameter ratio,

D/b, of (17m)/(.356m) or 48

Using Figure 6.19 the pile adhesion for each layer is as follows:

1.1 Design Parameters

Layer 1

Depth of Layer 1 h1 14 M

Layer 2

Depth of Layer 2 h2 6 M

1.15 -

Pile Design Parameters

Diameter D 0.4 m

Length of Pile L 20 m

- t 0.02 m

h1/2 7 m

h1+(h2/2) 17 m

Nt 55 -

Ap 0.13 m2

Qp 1407.85 KPa KPa

factors.

2. Constraints should be used to formulate formulas into the excel solver.

3. Understand the effects of modified design parameters to the weight and cost of pile

foundation.

1. Understand how to use every clause from the Australia and New Zealand standards that

is related to the designing of pile foundations.

2. Software able to execute all values for to compare and identify the best outcomes.

3. Compilation of a standard that is suitable to Fiji climate and condition to different types

of weather experience in Fiji.

4. Detailed investigations of complex engineering problems using research-based

knowledge in implementation of PEB Capstone Design Project

Liu (2012) stated that pile design optimization is defined as minimum cost of the foundation,

while maintaining satisfactory performance. Their concept highlights the pile optimization

problem at the initial design stage. Where they consider the pile characteristics (number, length,

and diameter) and pile layout by using an improved automatic grouping genetic algorithm

(AGGA) to attain simultaneous optimization of pile size and layout.

Finally, Liu (2012) found out that the automatic grouping genetic algorithm (AGGA) achieves

the optimization of pile foundation and design variable grouping with a remarkably effective

search method. The improvements with the crossover and penalty function increase the

efficiency of AGGA. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by two practical

projects, and the innovative and economical conceptual designs which fulfill all constraints and

minimize the cost are obtained.

Another investigation, Y. Cao (2014) indicated the problems set out to optimize the design,

construction and monitoring of CFG pile compound foundation using numerical simulation

technology and put forward for consideration that the reason for cost increment is the empirical

selection of design parameters.

Y. Cao (2014) has been found to be empirical with regard to the selection of design parameters

in the CFG pile compound base in conventional designs and to optimize design parameters, and

also to close relationships with the length of the pile and its sub graduate horizontal

deformation.

5. An Overview of Modern IT Tools, and why you decided to use in your Capstone

Design Project

MS Excel Solver is a commercial, simple and user- ‐friendly program used to find an optimal

solution once a suitable design problem has been determined (Arora, 2012b). Within an Excel

spreadsheet there are worksheets that are each dived into cells that contain values and formulas,

which can directly relate to other cells and automatically alter accordingly if a value is

changed. The Solver command will change the defined cells containing the variables until it

establishes a set of values that satisfy all constraints and give the maximum/minimum outcome,

whichever is desired. It achieves by undertaking an intelligent “trial and error” approach where

the outcome of each trial, referred to as and “iteration”, is extensively analyzed to determine

the choice of the next values to trail (Microsoft, 2015).

The solving method used was Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG2) for a smooth non- ‐linear

problem developed by Leon Lasdon and Allan Waren (Microsoft, 2015). The MS spreadsheet

can be seen in Appendix A and was prepared in the following stages:

established design procedure, was carried out and

input in to excel so the calculations could be done

automatically.

The design variables {x} were input vertically into a single column of cells and the initial

fixed parameters were entered when needed in the foundation design calculations. These cells

were block colored yellow to allow easy identification.

The objective function equation was input a cell named “Objective Cell” and worked directly

off a further three cells each forming the separate parts of the equation described in Chapter

3.2. The formula within these cells relates directly to the variables and material rates.

The constraints, determined during the design process carried out in Stage 1, were clearly

defined and labelled in a table below the variables and objective cell.

into the “Set Objective” box.

obtain the minimum cost.

highlighted and input into “By

Changing Variable Cells” box.

entered into the “Subject to the

Constraints “box. This was done

by selecting “Add” and then

inputting the relevant cells with

the specified constraint, e.g. ≤, =

or ≥, see Figure 15.

Once all the necessary information had been input into the dialog box then the optimization

process could start by pressing “solve”. The solver function would then repeatedly analyze

different combinations of possible values for the design variables until an optimum solution

was determined and the following display message would appear “Solver found a solution. All

constraints and optimality conditions are satisfied”. The solution given by using the GRG

nonlinear method would be formed from the ‘best’ set of values for the design variables that are

close to the initial values. Another solution may exist but is further away from the initial

starting values for the design variables. Therefore, several trials were carried out starting at

different combinations of values for the variables and the best solution from these would be

deemed the optimum.

When a solution was produced, three reports were created, ‘Answer’, ‘Sensitivity’ and ‘Limits’.

The Report offers basic information about the variables and how well satisfied the constraints

are once a feasible solution has been found. The Sensitivity Report delivers information in the

form of “classical sensitivity analysis” (Frontline Systems, 2015). And the Limit Report

produces the upper and lower limits of each individual variable whilst the keeping the

remaining variables constant and satisfying the constraints by re- ‐running the optimization

process.

However, in some instances a different message would occur; “Solver could not find a feasible

solution”. This would appear when Solver could not find a set of design variables that satisfied

all of the constraints. However, by using the GRG nonlinear method, a solution may exist but

the combination of values for the design variables lie distant from the initial starting values.

Therefore, to find this possible solution the optimization process can be tried again starting at

different initial values.

6. Recommendations

List what recommendations come from your results related to the topic of the PEB Capstone

Design project.

Since the project relies directly on the running and execution of MS excel program which is

still in progress. There are still no results that are available yet therefore no recommendations

have been made.

7. Recommendations for future research

List the recommendations for what future researchers can do to replicate the study or do the

project and accomplish even more than you did. How can future studies or projects in your

topic area be better?

As mentioned above, this project relies mainly on the running and execution of MS excel

program. The results generated from the program is all that is needed to complete this thesis.

A recommendation for future researchers would be, since there would be a limited time frame,

a time schedule is highly recommended since the making and execution of this program takes

up a considerable amount of time and time limit would be a problem,

8. References

• Liu, X., Cheng, G., Wang, B. and Lin, S, "Optimum Design of Pile Foundation by

Automatic Grouping Genetic Algorithms," ISRN Civil Engineering, pp. 1-16, 2012.

• H. Y. Cao and Y. F. Liu, "Optimum Design of CFG Pile Compound Foundation Based

on Numerical Simulation Method," • H. Y. Cao and Y. F. Liu, “Optimum Design of CFG Pile

Compound Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 578-579, p. 346–350, 2014.

Arora, J.S., 2012b. Chapter 6: Optimum Design with Excel Solver. 3rd ed. Oxford: Elsevier

Inc.

Frontline Systems, 2015. Excel Solver Help. [Online] Available at: www.solver.com

[Accessed 25 August 2019].

Available at: www.support.microsoft.com [Accessed 25 August 2019].

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