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HBO MIDTERM REVIEWER - Nature of employment has shifted from

secure to contingent
Chapter 1 - Political, Economic, Environmental,
- Competency requirement demanded now
and Cultural Influences on Organizational focus more on knowledge and less on skills
Behavior - Successful practices become obsolete or
Organizational Psychology/Behavior – Aims to irrelevant much faster than in the past (due
bring knowledge about human behavior at work to vast change in workplace)
- Frederick Taylor – Scientific Management - Psychology & management researchers, as
- Elton Mayo – environmental factors that affect well as IO (Industrial-Organizational)
productivity psychologists worked through a strict
Facets of worklife adherence to scientific principles.
- Lilian & Frank Gilbreth o Which aids in the improvement of
- Kurt Lewin organizational effectiveness and
- Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs increasing understanding of human
- Frederick Herzberg behavior
- Douglas McGregor – Theory X & Y
The Impact of Globalization, Technology and
Organization – social entity, made up of people that Economics
agree on, and work towards goals
Technology – globalization’s driving force;
- Designed to have structures and coordinated
interconnectedness of people around the world
- External environments : Customers, Suppliers, 1. Helped make organizations more efficient
Competitors, even Government and innovative
Organizational Model 2. Improved capacity to survive and compete
Globalization - Ease of movement of trade and
information in the global market
- Allowed affordable services and products to be
available in the market
- Access the world’s resources
Employee’s Response
- Stopped perceiving their companies they
work for as permanent (significant decline in
employee loyalty and commitment)
- Shifted from being dutiful and reliable to
being creative, flexible, and innovative
The Changing Work Landscape - Must learn the ability to manage and assess
- Workplace has undergone tremendous the influx of information
transformation - Own responsibility for their own
o Demographics of workers development
worldwide (increasing number of New Organizational Context
foreign workers, an ageing
workforce in some economies, and - Organizations to become a place where their
in others, entry or workers in their members can grow rather than just being the
twenties) resources
- Employees utilized in a manner that allows - Ability to adapt – optimism, freedom, and
them to generate ideas rather than work autonomy
physically - Confused about the situation, anxious about
- Jobs designs that allows employees’ the future, and demotivated by lack of
continuous growth and learning clarity and direction
- Create programs to develop employees’ soft - Happy and appreciative of the opportunities
skills presented to them
- Continuous technological upgrade
- Spending too much time at work leads to Three Different Scenarios for Filipino
lower levels of performance (specifically Organizations in a Globalized World
when they feel that they are not in control of 1. Companies that thrive in competition –
the situation) Frequently respond with novel intentions
2. Hit by global competition and face closure –
Changing the Landscape and the Filipino Worker
revisit and refocus their business strategy
- Competition from neighboring countries 3. Companies that thrive but can’t keep up –
with lower labor cost viable and act proactively but approach
- 30% outsourced business due to large pool growth with caution
of computer literate college graduates with
American English communication skills Reflections on the Paradoxes of Changing Work
65% of the population (ages 15 to 64) =
- Ironies presented in various organizations
educated workforce
- Use of technology – accessibility to mobile
Changes in the Workplace devices and health hazards
- Rise (IT & BPO) or Fall (manufacturing) of Filipino Work Values
Job Opportunities
Filipinos – most emotional, happiest and most
- Stricter Quality Standards and Work Ethics
– employees are expected to satisfy all
demands from customers and management 1. Power Distance – deference to authority
- Faster Work Pace – stricter delivery 2. Individualism-Collectivism – “we”
standard (innovation and efficiencies 3. Masculinity/Femininity – representation of
- Ubiquitousness (presence) of Technology, wanting to be the best or liking what you do
New Competencies Required – respectively
“computeracy”, “tech savvy” 4. Uncertainty Avoidance – openness to
- 24/7 Accessibility – mobile gadgets that accepting ambiguity allows them to be more
makes employees accessible anytime, flexible, open to change, and prepared to
anywhere face adversity (Bahala Na)
- Diverse Employee Profile – accommodation 5. Long Term Orientation - shows great
to conflict resolution respect for traditions (sigurista, pakiramdam,
- Decline of Union Activities – 1st time pagsangguni, paghihikayat, pagkakasundo,
employees and young professionals who are pagkakaunawaan, tiwala, sigla, kaya,
hesitant to complain or unaware of labor kagalingan), overlapping personal with work
rights life
How Filipino Workers feel about the Changes Chapter 2 - An Introduction to
- Higher incidents of stress Industrial/Organizational Psychology
- Feeling of insecurity
History and Development 1. Division of Work
2. Authority
-Development of Personnel and Industry Psychology
3. Discipline
- Willhelm Wundt – founded the 1st 4. Unity of Command
psychological laboratory in 1876 (father of 5. Unity of Direction
experimental psychology) 6. Renumeration
- Wundt trained Hugo Munsterberg – 7. Centralization
interested in job design and selection of 8. Chain of Command
streetcar operators 9. Order
- Walter Dill Scott & Walter Van Dyke – 10. Equity
developed methods for selecting and training 11. Stability of Tenure
sales personnel 12. Initiative
- Large scale of recruitment during WW2 – 13. Espirit de corps
Robert Yerkes and team of psychologists - Max Weber (Sociologist) – authority
created instruments (Army Alpha and Beta) relations (Structural Theory), Bureaucracy -
- BF Skinner – operant conditioning division of labor, clear hierarchy, detailed
(function of consequences), effects on the rules and regulations and impersonal
design of training and development, relationships
employee rewards and employee discipline
Human Relations Movement
- WWI/ Great Depression – application of - Elton Mayo and Colleagues (1930s) –
psychological tools and techniques for effects of lighting on productivity
military and private industries o Steady increase of productivity
- Coming Depression and Unemployment – regardless of whether lights was
labor unions were legalized in US and turned up or down – not affected by
enacted its Magna Carta of Labor in 1935 environment but the fact that they
(rise of labor relations movement and were being studied and expectations
unionism) of improvements in the workplace
enhanced their performance
Scientific Management and Organizational o Hawthorne Effect – alteration of
Management behavior by the subjects of a study
- Adam Smith (Economist) – noted that due to their awareness of being
division of labor raised productivity by observed
increasing workers skills and saving time - Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs
lost in changing task. Paved way for - Douglas McGregor – Theory of Human
development of assembly-line production Nature (managers to take a positive view of
processes that are still used today people to help them realized their full
- Charles Babbage (Mathematician) – potential)
expanded on the virtues of division of labor. - Frederick Herzberg – workers want the
Division of labor can be applied to mental opportunity for recognition, achievement,
work (foundation for the specialization of responsibility and growth
professions in today’s world) - Robert Owen (1829) – recognition of the
- Henri Fayol (Industrialist) – managers dignity and rights of workers (decried harsh
perform 5 functions: planning, organizing, practices of factories and employment of
commanding, coordinating and controlling. child laborers) until 1964 (Civil Acts
- His principles of management serves as Right), banned discrimination in
foundation in leadership education today:
employment practices such as hiring, Psychology in 1960, Group Process in
promotion, compensation and firing Ateneo de Manila University (AdMU)
- Fr. Eugene Moran, Carmencita Abella,
Organizations as Social Entities Teresita Nitoreda & Jose de Jesus put up
- Mary Parker Follert – organizations can be the Philippine Institute of Applied
viewd from the perspective of both Behavioral Science (1970s) – introduced
individuals and group adult learning methodologies such as:
- Kurt Lewin and colleagues – highlighted o Structured leaning experiences
the importance of group dynamics, change o Group interventions (sensitivity
and the nature of organization as embedded training) – laid the foundation for
in an open socio-technical system. training and development, team
development, and organizational
Organization Psychology development practice in the
- Communication Philippines
- Conflict Management - 1974, AdMU Psychology Department
- Socialization created Human Resource Center (later
- Organization culture and climate named Ateneo Center for Organization
- Technologies Research and Development=Ateneo
- Organizational change and development CORD) that focused on:
(sensitivity training, survey feedback, and o Research
team development) o Training
o Human Resource Management
IO Psychology as a Field Study and Practice o Organizational Development
- Undergraduate courses offered in many
- 1st doctoral degree – 1921, Carnegie
universities, course included in the licensure
Institute of Technology, USA
examination for Psychometrician (facilities
- Graduate programs – Ohio State
and checks battery of tests)
University, University of Minnesota,
- Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s)
Pennsylvania State University, and Stanford
o IO
 Masteral – 17
- American Association of Applied
 PhD – 8
Psychology – AAAP, 1938
o Separate section on industrial and
 MAsteral – 8
business psychology
 MBA/MPA- 16
- AAAP merged with the American
 PhD – 11
Psychological Association (APA), 1946 –
 Doctoral, minor in HR -8
Division of Business and Industrial
Psychology under APA Research in IO Psychology
- Division of Industrial and Organizational
Psychology (SIOP nd), 1982 - As science – describe, explain, and predict
behaviors of workers, work teams and
Development of IO Psychology in the Philippines organizations
- As an applied science – attempting to alter
- Mariano Obias: graduated PhD in Stanford,
behavior to obtain desired outcomes
1955; head of Personnel Department at
- Wide array of topics – testing, training,
Caltex Philippines
performance management, motivation, goal
- Fr. Jaime Bulatao: founding father of
setting, job attitudes, occupational stress,
Philippine Psychology – teaching of IO
group process, organizational power and rich description of an experience or
politics, and organizational development phenomenon
- Focuses on the worker as a whole person
rather than just a part of work or an Qualitative Method
organization - Focused-Group Discussion (FGDs) – 6-12
- Resulted in studies on employee participants, asked to provide input to the
engagement, work-life balance, spirituality, topic; like interviews, use to elicit the
and well-being sentiments, and ideas of organization
members or provide a rich description of an
Experimental Method - Strongest evidence for
experience or phenomenon
cause-and-effect relationship
- Nominal Group Technique – gathers data
- Characterized by a high degree of control from groups; participants are given time to
over the research setting, the manipulation think about the issues and write down their
of a variable (independent variable) and the responses; duplicates are eliminated; choose
measurement of its outcome (dependent most important then rank; collected and used
variable) to stimulate further studies; action research
(diagnosis or needs analysis)
Correlational/Quantitative Method – seek to
- Projective Technique – word association,
determine cause and effect relationships,
sentence completion, TAT (thematic
correlational studies examine relationships among
apperception test), and third-person
variables as they usually occur
1. Surveys – (Thurstone and Likert) self-report - Case Study – combination of quantitative
measure: job satisfaction, employee and qualitative methods; use to develop
engagement, organizational commitment, theories or hypothesis
organization citizenship, and quality of
Research in IO Psychology in the Philippines
2. Tests – selection, profiling employees - Dr. Virgillio Enriquez – Father of Filipino
(predictors of performance or retention) Psychology
3. Secondary data – performance, health, - Understanding of historical and cultural
absenteeism, test results, work samples, and realities to unravel Filipino characteristics
written records (profile of workers) from the eyes of native Filipinos
4. Observations – need analysis, program
evaluation, and diagnosis; understanding Filipino Values:
employee performance, group process, and - Hiya – dignity
organizational culture, as well as culture - Utang na loob – gratitude/solidarity
building - Pakikisama – companionship
- Bahala na – determination
Qualitative Method
- Kapwa – shared identity (togetherness)
- Ethnography – understand organization
culture through artifacts such as company Research methods:
beliefs, physical environment, job titles, - Patanung-tanong – informal, unstructured
language and communication, slogan, rites interview
and rituals - Pakikipagkwentuhan – story-telling or
- Interviews – obtain informant’s informal discussion
perspectives on their lives, experiences, or - Ginabayang talakayan – collective
situation; use to elicit the sentiments, and indigenious discussion
ideas of organization members or provide a
- Pakikisama – getting along with - Have different norms about work in terms of
- Pagdalaw-dalaw – visiting entitlement and obligation
- Panunuluyan – residing in the research o Entitlement – underlying rights of
setting individuals and the work-related
- Panukat ng Pagkataong Pilipino (PPP) – responsibilities of society and
18 subscales clustered in 3 dimensions organization to the individual
- Panukat ng Ugaling Pilipino (PUP) – 24 o Obligation – refers to members of
subscales clustered in 5 dimensions the society’s duty to work to
- Suggesting 5 typologies how Filipino contribute to the society
workers may view their jobs: cause, chore,
Work Goals – relative importance of various goals
coast, career, calling) – contesting Hierarchy
and values which are sought, or preferred by
of needs
individuals in their working lives
Practice of IO Psychology: Strategic HRM Examples:
- Recruitment, selection, training and 1. Expressive – expressing one’s talents and
evaluation abilities
2. Instrumental – work as a means to earn or a
Careers in IO Psychology living
- IO Psychologists in the Industry 3. Comfort – to achieve a level of comfort in
- IO Psychologists in the Academe one’s life
- IO Psychologists in Government 4. Learning – endeavor to learn a particular
- IO Psychologists in Consulting skill
- Practice of IO Psychologists in the 5. Extrinsic Orientation – opportunity for
Philippines promotion and the significant role of money
6. Intrinsic Orientation – includes variety,
Chapter 3 – Work and Career interesting work that you really like, a match
Filipino’s View on Work and Career between job requirements and individual’s
abilities and a lot of autonomy
- Way of earning money and meeting basic
human needs Sources of Meaning of Work (4)
- Arena to develop their talents – position of 1. Self
responsibilities, having a respectful job, - Informed by the values, motivations and
where you can achieve something interesting beliefs one has
- Psychic rewards – challenge to their - People are drawn to work environments that
abilities, learning and growth, career reflect their own values
advancement, enjoyment; - One’s values may also be shaped by one’s
Work Centrality experiences at work
- Motivation – intrinsically motivating when
- Refers to how important work is to an workers feel that their work has meaning
individual’s life at any given point in time - Beliefs – role or function work has in one’s
- Influenced by societal norms and work goals life
and in the same way influences these factors o Job Involvement – how one
as well identifies with self-concept with his
- Increases from the time one enters work to a job. The stronger one identifies with
year after – gradual socialization process. one’s job, the more one finds it
Societal Norms
o Work Orientation – lens by which 3. Self-Esteem – stems from achieving at work
people look at their work and receiving affirmation of their value at
o Job, career, or calling work increasing one’s self-worth
 Job Orientation – focused 4. Purpose – if one finds his/her work being of
on material outcomes of significance and one’s values are aligned
work with the work
 Careers – on rewards one 5. Belongingness – work offers a social system
gains from progressing from which one anchors his/her identity and
through an organization or if this experience is positive, contributes to
occupation its meaningfulness
 Calling – fulfilling the work 6. Transcendence – refers to the work
provides the individual contributing to something greater than one’s
2. Other self such as a cause or a group
- Social Structure 7. Cultural and Interpersonal Sensemaking
- Influential forces – adheres to social or cultural
o Coworkers – work are socially constructionism and also interpersonal
constructed and bonds significantly sensemaking in which we look to others to
make sense of the meaning of work make sense of our meaning at work
o Leaders
o Groups and Communities – source FIVE C’s Model Franco 2008
of one’s identity at work and a sense
of belonging
o Family – shape how they view their
3. Context
- Finds meaning at work
o Organizational mission
o Design or job tasks
o Financial circumstances
o Non-working domains
o National Culture
4. Spiritual
- One’s search for meaning
- Finds work meaningful if it is attuned to
Career Theories
one’s vocation or calling
Career – combination and sequence of roles played
Mechanisms of Meaning of Work: How Does
by a person during the course of a lifetime. Positions
Work Become Meaningful (Rosso, Dekas &
with associated expectations that are occupied at
some time by most people
1. Authenticity – people find work meaningful
1. Developmental Self-Concept Theory –
if they are able to live out their authentic self
Donald Super
at work
- Career choices and development is part of
2. Self-Efficacy – stems from being able to
the process of developing our self-concept
control or have autonomy at work, overcome
- Self – Concept – function of the interactions
challenges and having positive impact
of factors such as growth experiences,
environment and the like
o Lifestyle
Career Management in Organization: The PH
- Career Management Practice – 54%
- 36 % - more than 6 years
- 26 % - 4 to 5 years
- 19 % - less than a year
- Targeted to managers and middle managers
- Important because they shape worker
- Employees exposed to interventions feel
more satisfied with their careers
- Significantly and positively relate to
effective organizational commitment
- More satisfaction, more commitment
The Changing Nature of Work
2. Hollands Theory of Personality and
Careers – John Holland - Careers are “boundary-less”
- Expression of one’s personality is through 1. Fluidity of moving through different
one’s career organizations or employers
- He suggested six typologies 2. Validation is drawn from beyond the
present employer
3. Networks or Information outside the
organization is key
4. The demise of organizational hierarchies
and advancement principles
5. Career opportunities are rejected for
family or personal reasons
6. The person seeing a boundary-less
- Careers are now less about movement
through roles, are or life stages but about
knowledge, learning and changes in one’s
3. Career Anchors – Edgar Schein identity
- A person’s self-concept that consists of (1) - Ability to learn how to learn
self-perceived talents and abilities, (2) basic - Requires connecting and interacting with
values, and (3) the evolved sense of motives other
and needs as they pertain to the career
- Eight Anchors Chapter 4 - Workforce Planning and Job
o Technical/Functional Competence Analysis and Design
o General Managerial Competence
Workforce Planning
o Autonomy/Independence
o Security/Stability - Process in which an organization attempts to
o Entrepreneurial/Creativity estimate the demand for labor and evaluate
o Service/Dedication to a cause the size, nature and sources of the supply
o Pure Challenge
which will be required to meet the demand into specific staffing numbers later
(Reily, 1996) on
- Getting the right number of people with the o Human Capital Planning – similar
right competencies in the right jobs at the to strategic workforce planning but
right time (Sinclair, 2004) is concerned with the bigger picture
- Human resource planning o *methodology – segmentation, less
- Succession planning specificity, Time Frame
- Building bench strength 2. Job Analysis: formal process of
- Strategic staffing – Bechet, 2008 understanding positions – systematic process
for collecting and analyzing information
Benefits of Workforce Planning
about the job
Collection of Data
1. Practical – direct and substantive effects of
1. Task or work activity
workforce planning
2. Knowledge, skills, and abilities
- Ensures replacements are available to fill
3. Levels of performance
important vacancies
4. Workplace characteristics
- Provide realistic staffing projections for
budgeting purposes Uses
- Provide a clear rationale for linking
1. Recruitment and Selection
expenditures for training and retraining,
2. Training and Development
development, career counseling, and
3. Performance Management and
recruitment efforts
- Help maintain and improve a diversified
4. Organizational Management and
- Help prepare for restructuring, reducing, and
5. Litigation Protection
expanding the workforce
2. Process – value of going through the Methodologies
workforce process which has indirect
benefits 1. Self-Report
- Provides organizational member the 2. Observation
opportunity to think about the future 3. Interview
- Allows the organization to align and 4. Document Review
centralize efforts in the context of 5. Questionnaire and Surveys
decentralization Strategic Job Analysis – addresses problems by
- Integrates various organizational actions for ensuring that the data stay relevant for the entire
the purpose of reinforcing the strategy organization
Approaches in Workforce Planning Being Strategic:
1. Traditional Workforce Planning: - Information about jobs are continuously
analyzing supply-demand gap and creating a gathered for the future
plan to address future staffing needs - Tasks and KSAs are revised in the light of
o Strategic Workforce Planning – future changes
characterized by having senior 3. Job Description: documentation process of
leaders participate in the process to Job Analysis
come up with general workforce
directions that would be translated
Parts: - Economic Feasibility – cost/value it adds to
the organization
1. Job Identification
- Behavioral Feasibility
2. Reporting Line
3. Organization Structure Implications
4. Main Purpose of the Job
- Workforce planning and job analysis are two
5. Principal Accountabilities
activities that HR finds critical to an
6. Performance measures/standards
organization’s operations
7. Constraints
- Job analysis remains the bedrock for a lot of
8. Statistics
HR functions, from recruitment and
9. Nature and Scope
selection to talent management
10. Contacts
- Strategic job analysis enables job analysis to
11. Working Conditions
respond to environmental pressures
12. Knowledge, skills, and experience
- Competency modeling translates strategies
13. Competencies
and values into understandable and
14. Other information
actionable behavior
15. Signature and Date
Result-oriented Job Description – stresses the Chapter 5 - Recruitment, Selection, and
expected contribution from the position Socialization
Attraction and Socialization
Competency Modeling – classified into 2: technical
knowledge and skills (Functional/Technical - Human Resource Planning – plans the
Competencies); and leadership and management number and type of employees they need
behaviors (Leadership Competencies) and will need based on strategy
- Employee Requisition – Filling up form to
Competency Framework vis-à-vis Competency
specify the vacancy based on job
Developing Competency Models - Recruitment – strategy to attract applicants
- Selection Process – applicants go through
Steps: screening tests before hiring decision is to be
1. Interview and/or Focus Group made
Discussion with High Performers - Job Offer and applicant’s acceptance
2. Research - Placement
3. Competency Validation - Orientation (department and organization-
4. Presentation wide) and other socialization activities
4. Job Design: assignment of goals and tasks example introduction of new employees, etc.
that are to be accomplished by employees
Attraction-Selection-Attrition Framework (ASA)
Approaches: – determine the kind of people in an organization
and defines the organization’s culture, structures and
- Job Rotation processes
- Horizontal Job Enlargement
- Job Enrichment Attraction – applicants are attracted to
- Autonomous work groups organizations with culture that are compatible with
their personalities and assess whether they will fit in
Job Design Considerations: these organization
- Technical Feasibility
Selection – formal and informal selection 3. Other benefits – health insurance, leaves,
procedures used by companies in the recruitment and loans, retirement, educational assistance, car
hiring of people with attributes that they desire plan, gym membership, bonuses, gadgets,
flexible working conditions
Attrition – people leaving the organization
*Assumes, people:
- Instrumental attributes
- Leave – mismatch or lack of fit; or
- Offer of salary or pay
- Stay – find themselves compatible - Benefits
- Career growth and learning opportunities
**with the organizations’ culture and personalities
Organization Attractiveness (OA) – the
assessment of a company’s desirability as an - Career growth and learning opportunities
employer by a prospective employee - Salary or pay
- Benefits
Attributes (2): - Organization’s vision, mission, values, type
1. Symbolic and characteristics of the organization
- Inferences applicants make about the Recruitment
characteristics of organizations
- Subjective and intangible - The process by which organizations attract
- Corporate and recruitment image (job ads) qualified applicants
- Information available about it - Organizational activities
2. Instrumental 1. Influence the number and types of applicants
- Utilitarian and functional qualities who apply for a position; and/or
- Objective, physical and tangible 2. Affect whether a job offer is accepted
characteristics or to the job such as pay and - Process
job security 1. Generating applicants
- Job-organization characteristics, recruiter 2. Maintaining applicant interest in the
behaviors, perceptions of the recruitment organization
process, perceived fit, and hiring 3. Influencing job choice
expectancies - Also, the process of anticipating and making
provisions for the movement of people into,
What do Filipinos look for in a Job? within, and out of an organization
Study: - Factors affecting recruitment
1. Job-organization characteristics
- Position category 2. Recruiter characteristics
- Location 3. Perception of the recruitment process
- Company Name 4. Perceived fit
- Compensation 5. Perceived alternatives
- Company type (multinational, government, 6. Hiring expectancies
family business) - Organizational factors affecting recruitment
1. Reputation
Local Survey:
2. Recruitment budget and capability
1. Career and learning opportunities 3. Environmental factors such as market
2. Salary and pay conditions, technological innovations, and
changes in business conditions
- Recruitment Strategy (study)
1. Organizational representatives or company schools and colleges, and working with
recruiters employment and executive search films.
2. Recruitment messages, or message
transmitted to applicants Organizations:
3. Recruitment sources or sources where - Traditional & non-traditional media
applicants come from - (mobile ads, billboard ads, outdoor LCD
4. Recruitment timing – length of the entire screens, magazines and newspaper ads in
recruitment process and the timing of the job full color)
offer - (employee referral – higher yield, better
- Company Recruiters – need to possess performance, lower attrition, and lower cost)
certain attributes to be effective. Evidence - (applicant referral – university
suggests that applicants may be influences partnerships, company website, third party
more by the recruiter rather than by the job vendors, and social media)
attributes - (1. Internal job posting, 2. Employee
- (gender, personableness, competence, referral, 3. Online/internet ads)
informativeness, trustworthiness)
- (creativity, sales aptitude and interest, being Applicants
personable and assertive, having excellent 1. Newspaper job ads
communication skills and listening skills, 2. Web-based job search
attention to detail, dedication/passionate, 3. Hand-carrying resume (walk-in)
intelligence) 4. Attending job fairs
- Recruitment message – may include 5. Networking
positive attributes of the organization such - (Phil) average of 14 days to respond to the
as purpose, personality, culture, awards, applications after applicants send their
accomplishments, products and services application forms
- (in the form of advertisement – emphasizing - Process of reviewing information about job
the instrumental and symbolic attributes) applicants
- (specific – jobseekers can determine whether - Evaluation of written materials – application
they fit, affects their intent to apply) forms and resumes
- Employee Value Proposition (EVP) – set - Methodologies – psychological and
of attributes that employees and the labor intelligence tests, and interviews
market perceive as the value they gain
through employment in the organization Employee Selection
- EVP Elements:
- Process of choosing individuals who have
1. Exciting work
relevant qualifications to fill existing or
2. Great company
projected job openings
3. Wealth and reward
- Steps
4. Growth and development
1. Screening of application forms and resumes
- Employer of Choice
2. Pre-employment testing including medical
- Recruitment Methods
or physical examination
- Internal – internal job posting, career
3. Interview and reference checking
planning and development, and skills
- Methods
1. Evaluation of written materials – weighted
- External – attracting and identifying talent
application form, application form,
from outside the organization (walk-in
curriculum vitae, resume, bio-data,
applicants, write-ins or mailed resumes,
biographical information
advertisements, referrals, internet, visiting
2. Selection interview – structured,
unstructured, situational
3. Employment tests – cognitive ability,
mechanical ability, job knowledge,
situational exercises, work sample,
personality inventories, emotional
intelligence, integrity, computerized
adaptive testing
4. Others – assessment center, trial period
(probationary), background check, criminal
background check, medical check-up, drug
test, letters of recommendation/reference
Commonly Used Selection methods in the PH
- 90% interview
o 80% written test
- 30% panel interview
- 20% physical exams
- Very few went through assessment centers
- (1) Psychological test, (2) Physical
Employment Selection Decision
- Follow a multiple cut off model or multiple
hurdle model – use minimum cut off scores
on each of the various predictors of job
New Employee Program
Organizational Socialization
- Process by which an individual makes the
transition from outsider to organizational
- Components
1. History
2. Language
3. Politics
4. People
5. Organizational goals and values
6. Performance expectations
Stages of Organizational Socialization
Practiced by Local Organizations Newcomers’ Perspective

The Socialization Process: Newcomers’ Outcomes of the Socialization Process

Perspective - Well-socialized – higher levels of
- Focused on how they learn about and make satisfaction and commitment, more adjusted,
sense of the new organizational environment tend to have higher salaries, more involved
- Actively seek information – overt- with their careers (than those who are less
questioning and indirect questioning socialized)
- Sources of information – supervisors and Chapter 6 – Learning and Development
co-workers, performance monitoring
records, direct inquiries, and written Learning
- Detection and correction of errors, and
Methods errors as any feature of knowledge or of
knowing that makes action ineffective
- Meetings and planning sessions – inspiring - Interactive, constructive, and transformative
words on philosophy and idealism process – makes sense of his or her
- Coaching through daily interaction – experiences, derives meaning from such
imparts lessons about company operations, sense-making, and changes himself or
handling difficult situations, taking risks and herself in the process
learning from mistakes, and following
directions How do Adults Learn?
- Third party interventions or training –
- Learning is dependent on the individual, and
mind conditioning on behavior, sales and
sometimes what a person learns is not
technical training, and management
exactly what others have set out to teach
- Experimental Learning Theory –
individuals go through a cycle of learning
where they experience an external stimuli,
observe and reflect on what they have
encountered, come up with generalizations
to form new knowledge, and then apply the
new knowledge
- Adults learn from experience and
involvement in activities that appeal to their
learning styles
- Andragogy – art and science of teaching
adult David Kolb’s Four Learning Style

- Pedagogy – teaching children and is

generally associated with dependent learners
and subject-centered learning
- Cognitive, affective, and environmental - Filipinos – assimilative learners, prefers
elements – and can reflect an individual’s guided lectures and readings
genetics, personality, motivation, and - Baby Boomers – best when engaged in
environmental adaptation projects and assignments where they are
- Categorized according to perception, able to work with others
processing, and understanding - Generation Y – prefer having opportunities
information for reflection and observation, allowing
them to make their own judgement on things
Learning style: Index of Learning Style - Finance – convergent
(Felder & Silverman) - Human Resource and Administration –
- Students – divergent and assimilative
Learning Methods
1. Classroom Training – traditional method of
learning that is often associated with being
lecture-based, face-to-face, and instructor or
- Extensive opportunity for discussion and
- Greater control over the participants’ course
- Easier course design
- Wide acceptance as a method of training
- Probability of passive participants
- Limited control on the relevance of content 7. Blended Learning – combination of
presented different learning methods to achieve the
- Limited time for presentation learning objectives
- Lecture/Lecturette – focused content being Strategic Learning and Development
presented to participants in orderly and
structured manner
- Structured learning experiences (small
group discussion, case studies, role plays,
games) – use the principles of group
- Professional conferences – scheduled, large
and formal meeting of people from a
particular profession or expertise
2. Computer-based Training (CBT) –
interactive computer-based program
designed for self-paced learning
- Consistent learning content
- Easy accessibility
- Reduced training time - Determine VMGO – organization’s
3. Online Learning – act of learning online direction, employee’s development
and making use of electronically networked - Analysis of gaps (TNA)
technology as a medium to connect the - Address the gaps (appropriate intervention)
learners to the content - Evaluation
Advantages: o Lesson 1: reaction (intervention is
- Practical assessed)
- Convenient o Level 2: learning (assess whether
- Cost-efficient recipients learned from the
4. Mobile Learning – use of handheld devices intervention)
to facilitate, enhance, and extend the reach o Level 3: behavior (application to
of learning (anywhere, anytime) actual work)
Advantages: o Level 4: business (impact
- Portability and ease of access organization’s performance is
- Less expensive assessed)
5. Assessment – learn based on feedback given o Level 5: return on investment, ROI
about their behavior (assessment center, (assess monetary value and benefit
psychological tests, performance appraisal, of the intervention)
benchmarking) - Organizational Learning – process by
6. Job Experience – learn from their on-the- which an organization improves or changes
job experience something, either in cognition or behaviors
70-20-10 Model by Morgan McCall, of organization members
Michael Lombardo & Robert Eichinger - Learning Organization – structural
- 70 – job related experience characteristics of an organization that has
- 20 – interactions with others the ability to learn
- 10 – formal education or training
Developing a Learning Culture o Locke’s Goal Setting Theory
(people are motivated to achieve
- Leaders as role models, coach and mentors
specific and difficult goals when
- Rewards and reinforcement
they are given feedback on feedback
- Developing self-directed and team-based
on their performance)
learning (sharing, construction, team
o Hackman & Oldham’s Job
reflexivity, boundary crossing, storage and
Characteristics Model (skill
variety, task identity, task
- Evaluating Learning
significance, autonomy, feedback)
Chapter 7 – Motivating the Filipino Worker
Understanding Filipino Work Motivation
Why do people work? - What is important
- Driven by need that has to be satisfied - Tool for personal growth
- Job related needs
Motivation – force that drives a person to satisfy a - Organization related needs
need, and it constitutes those psychological - Family Related needs
processes that energize and cause the arousal, - Career related needs
direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that
are goal directed Total Rewards for Filipino Worker

- Three Elements (Robbins and Judge)

o The intensity of the effort exerted
o The direction towards which the
effort is aligned
o The persistence of the person to
reach the goal
- Considered as an intrinsic inducement that
propels an individual to think feel and
perform in certain ways
- (in an organization) willingness to exert a
high level of effort to reach organizational Enhancing Motivation of Filipino Employees
- Identify most pressing needs of employees
Foreign Theories of Motivation - Introduce challenging activities where the
employer can potentially learn a new skill or
- Process Theories of Motivation – person’s
acquire a new set of knowledge
perception, thoughts and beliefs influence
- Give meaningful rewards
our motivation
- Respect the cultural norms and behavior that
o Adams Equity Theory of
they have and use these as a vehicle to get
Motivation (people’s perception of
through them
fairness in social exchanges as
- Harness congenital relationships
determining their later action)
- Build relationships with leaders and
o Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
(depends on the strength of
expectancy of an outcome and the
attractiveness of the outcome to