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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, Manuscript ID AP1202-0125.R1 1

The Wind Driven Optimization Technique


and its Application in Electromagnetics
Zikri Bayraktar, Member, IEEE, Muge Komurcu,
Jeremy A. Bossard, Member, IEEE and Douglas H. Werner, Fellow, IEEE

 and successfully implemented. However, because each


Abstract—A new type of nature-inspired global optimization algorithm possesses strengths and weaknesses, there is no
methodology based on atmospheric motion is introduced. The single method within the family of nature-inspired numerical
proposed Wind Driven Optimization (WDO) technique is a optimization algorithms that stands out as the best for solving
population based iterative heuristic global optimization algorithm
all types of problems, a fact which was mathematically proven
for multi-dimensional and multi-modal problems with the
potential to implement constraints on the search domain. At its by Wolpert et al. in [8].
core, a population of infinitesimally small air parcels navigates Synthesis and optimization problems in electromagnetics
over an N-dimensional search space following Newton's second have long utilized these nature-inspired techniques to varying
law of motion, which is also used to describe the motion of air degrees of success. Application areas within the field of
parcels within the earth's atmosphere. Compared to similar electromagnetics are very broad, ranging from antenna design
particle based algorithms, WDO employs additional terms in the
to metamaterial synthesis. For example, a considerable body of
velocity update equation (e.g. gravitation and Coriolis forces),
providing robustness and extra degrees of freedom to fine tune. work has been devoted to the design optimization of individual
Along with the theory and terminology of WDO, a numerical antenna elements [1,9-15] from simple wire antennas to
study for tuning the WDO parameters is presented. WDO is complex printed antenna elements for a variety of applications
further applied to three electromagnetics optimization problems, including GPS, WiFi, mobile phones, vehicular, shipboard,
including the synthesis of a linear antenna array, a double-sided aircraft and satellite systems. Antenna arrays [16-25] have also
artificial magnetic conductor for WiFi applications, and an
been the target of nature-inspired optimization techniques for
E-shaped microstrip patch antenna. These examples suggest that
WDO can, in some cases, out-perform other well-known element thinning, side lobe reduction, radiation pattern
techniques such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic synthesis, coupling reduction, as well as ultra-wideband
Algorithm (GA) or Differential Evolution (DE) and that WDO is performance. In addition to array synthesis techniques,
well-suited for problems with both discrete and application of these algorithms to inverse scattering problems
continuous-valued parameters. [26], non-linear media [27], and metamaterials is noteworthy.
Examples of metamaterial and related structures that have been
Index Terms—Wind driven optimization, linear antenna
arrays, artificial magnetic conductor, microstrip patch antenna, successfully optimized include absorbers [28-29], frequency
particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithms, differential selective surfaces [30-31], electromagnetic bandgap surfaces
evolution. [32-33], and many more applications covering a wide range of
frequencies [34-37]. Building on the successful record of the
existing nature-inspired optimization algorithms, this paper
I. INTRODUCTION introduces and utilizes an entirely new optimization method
which we call Wind Driven Optimization (WDO).
N ATURE is a wonderful source of inspiration for
developing optimization techniques that can tackle
difficult problems in science and engineering. Since the early
In essence, WDO is a population based iterative heuristic
global optimization technique for multi-dimensional and
1970s, various nature-inspired optimization algorithms have multi-modal problems with the potential to implement
emerged starting with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) [1], some of constraints on the search domain similar to PSO, although this
which have proven to be very efficient global optimization potential is not explicitly demonstrated in this manuscript. The
methods. Along with the GA, Particle Swarm Optimization inspiration for WDO comes from atmospheric motion in which
(PSO) [2], Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) [3], Differential the trajectory of an infinitesimally small air parcel can be
Evolution (DE) [4,5], Clonal Selection Algorithm described via Newton's second law of motion. The remainder of
(CLONALG) [6], Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary this paper is structured as follows. In Section II, the WDO
Strategy (CMA-ES) [7] and many others have been proposed technique will be described in detail along with the underlying
physical equations of atmospheric motion, and in Section III a
parameter study will be conducted to aid in tuning the WDO
algorithm. Following this, several optimization examples are
The authors are with the with the Computational Electromagnetics and
Antennas Research Lab (CEARL), Department of Electrical Engineering, The
presented, including a linear antenna array optimization
Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), University Park, PA, 16802 USA comparing WDO with PSO in Section IV, the design of a
(e-mail: dhw@psu.edu).

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double-sided artificial magnetic conductor (DSAMC) in motion and governed by the equations of continuum mechanics
Section V, and an E-shaped microstrip patch antenna in Section [44], [45]. On the other hand, the Lagrangian description
VI. Final remarks and conclusions are given in Section VII. represents the atmosphere as a collection of many infinitesimal
fluid parcels [45], [46], which can be described via Newton's
II. THE WIND DRIVEN OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE second law of motion. In the derivation of the equations for
The inspiration for WDO comes from the earth's atmosphere, WDO, the Lagrangian description is preferred due to the fact
where wind blows in an attempt to equalize horizontal that it simplifies the numerical algorithm and reduces the
imbalances in the air pressure [38]. The term "wind" actually computational overhead in the WDO scheme during the
refers to horizontal air motion, particularly in the lowest layer optimization of process. Further simplification is made to the
of the earth's atmosphere called the troposphere. The Lagrangian description in which the air parcel is assumed to be
troposphere extends from the surface of the earth's crust up to a cuboid in a rectangular coordinate system. In the WDO
approximately 18 km in altitude, where the thickness may vary abstraction, an air parcel is considered to be dimensionless, so
based on latitude [39]. Due to the earth's gravitational field, g, that the WDO implementation is not complicated by separate
the mass of the atmosphere applies a force on the earth's crust, coordinates for each corner of the cuboid. In addition, the
where the air pressure can simply be defined by the force different faces of the cuboid could experience different
exerted per unit area [40]. The troposphere layer contains more pressure values, causing the cuboid to deform, in which case
than 75% of the atmosphere's mass, and most weather any sheering, twisting or stretching would have to be taken into
activities, such as wind, occur within it. The radiation from the account. Including such details in the model would add
sun that reaches earth causes heating both on the surface of the unneeded computational burden to the WDO implementation.
earth and in the atmosphere itself. However, the amount of Thus, in the implementation of the WDO scheme, the air
localized heating varies depending on various factors such as parcels are assumed to be dimensionless and weightless, which
latitude, the amount of cloud coverage in the region and simplifies the equations while preserving the accuracy of the
whether the area is a body of water or soil. In addition, the physical interpretation.
spherical shape of the earth allows for the illumination of only In the abstraction of the wind, it is also assumed that the
half of the earth’s surface at any given time, resulting in a daily atmosphere is homogenous and that a hydrostatic balance
fluctuation of the amount of energy falling on a particular exists. Utilizing the fact that the equations derived in
location. Due to variations in solar energy reaching different atmospheric dynamics are in a rectangular coordinate system
locations on the earth’s surface, the temperature can fluctuate and considering that the horizontal movement of air is stronger
significantly among regions. Areas with high temperatures compared to its vertical movement, the wind can be treated as a
have rising warm air, and regions with low temperatures have horizontal motion only, which is due entirely to the horizontal
sinking cold air, which causes the air density to decrease in high pressure variation [38]. On the other hand, the WDO algorithm
temperature areas and to increase in low temperature areas. will operate on an N-dimensional search space, so the three
Since temperature differences lead to variations in air density dimensional atmospheric dynamic equations must be
and air pressure at different locations, horizontal differences in re-mapped to handle multi-dimensional optimization problems.
air pressure cause the air to move from high pressure regions to This can only be achieved through certain assumptions and
low pressure regions [41]. This movement is due to the simplifications.
pressure gradient, , which can be calculated as the pressure The starting point for calculating an air parcel's trajectory is
change over a distance [42] and is expressed in a rectangular Newton’s second law of motion, which provides accurate
coordinate system as results when applied to the analysis of atmospheric motion in
the Lagrangian description [40], [41], [45]. It states that the
total force applied on an air parcel causes it to accelerate with
(1)
an acceleration a in the same direction as the applied total force
according to
More specifically, the wind blows in the direction from a
high-pressure zone to a low-pressure zone at a velocity , (3)
proportional to the pressure gradient force [38], [43]. Thus, a
negative sign is utilized in the equation below to indicate the where ρ is the air density for an infinitesimally small air parcel
descending direction in the gradient. Considering the fact that and Fi represents all the individual forces acting on the air
the air has finite mass and finite volume (δV), the pressure parcel. To relate the air pressure to the air parcel's density and
gradient force (FPG) can be expressed as temperature, the ideal gas law can be utilized and is given by

(2) P = ρ R T, (4)

Atmospheric motion is traditionally represented by one of where P is the pressure, R is the universal gas constant and T is
two distinct models: the Lagrangian and Euler descriptions the temperature.
[44]. In the Euler description, air is treated as a fluid system The pressure gradient force can be considered to be the
and is considered to be a continuum, which is described by fluid fundamental force that initiates the air parcel’s motion, but

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there are other forces that can also affect its trajectory and N-dimensional WDO implementation, and the turbulent drag
speed. A total of four major forces can be included in (3) that force is assumed to be a part of the friction force [45]. It is
either cause the wind to move in a certain direction at a certain crucial to understand that the WDO implementation is not an
velocity or that deflect it from its existing path. The most attempt to exactly duplicate atmospheric motion, but, rather, it
observable force causing the air to move is the pressure is an attempt to use the inspiration provided by nature in the
gradient force (FPG) defined in (2). Another force is the friction abstraction and invention of an efficient numerical optimization
force (FF), which simply acts to oppose the motion started by algorithm that is fundamentally based on the physical equations
the pressure gradient force. The exact description of the friction of atmospheric motion.
force in the atmosphere is very complex but is here simplified The forces described above can be entered into the
to right-hand side of Newton's second law of motion given in (3),
(5) which leads to

where α is the friction coefficient and u is the velocity vector of , (8)


the wind.
In our physical three-dimensional atmosphere, the
where the acceleration term in (3) is rewritten as ,
gravitational force (FG) is a vertical force directed toward the
and a time step is assumed for simplicity. For an
earth's surface. However, if the center of the earth is considered
infinitesimally small, dimensionless air parcel, we set δV=1,
to be the center of the rectangular coordinate system, then we
which simplifies (8) to
can claim that the gravitational force simply pulls the air
parcels towards the origin of the coordinate system in all three
Ω . (9)
dimensions, which is also more easily mapped to
N-dimensional space. For this reason, the gravitational force is
Utilizing the ideal gas law from (4), the density ρ can be written
included in the algorithm as a force on all N dimensions and is
in terms of the pressure, the temperature and the universal gas
directed towards the center of the coordinate system. In its
constant and inserted into (9) yielding
simplest form, the gravitational force (FG) can be defined as
[46]
(10)
(6)
where Pcur represents the pressure value for an individual parcel
The earth’s rotation causes the reference frame to rotate at its current location. Dividing both sides of (10) by (Pcur / RT)
giving rise to the Coriolis force (FC), which was named after results in
the French scientist Gaspard Coriolis [47]. The Coriolis force
causes the deflection of the wind from its existing path in our (11)
atmosphere [41], where the amount of deflection experienced
by the air parcel depends on the direction of the rotation of the
earth, the latitude (which hemisphere) and the air parcel's speed At this point, it should be clear that the change in velocity
in the atmosphere. In the N-dimensional WDO abstraction, the and position can be computed from Newton's second law of
Coriolis force is implemented as the motion in one dimension motion. In the WDO, each air parcel's velocity and position are
that affects the velocity in another dimension. For example, if updated at every iteration as its exploration of the search space
two-dimensional motion is considered in the XY plane, then the progresses. Thus, the change in velocity, , can be written as
velocity vector of an air parcel has two components, one in the , where ucur is the velocity at the current
x-direction and one in the y-direction. In WDO, the Coriolis iteration and unew is the velocity in the next iteration. The
force is implemented in such a way that the speed in the friction force in (5) is computed using the current velocity
x-direction is influenced by the speed in the y-direction and value, ucur, allowing (11) to be rewritten as
vice versa. In N-dimensional space, this is randomized so that at
each iteration, the motion in a particular dimension will be (12)
influenced by the motion in another randomly chosen
dimension. The Coriolis force is defined by [44]
In (12), two quantities, g and , remain that are not written
in terms of velocity or position vectors. Since the gravitational
(7) force is defined as the force pulling an air parcel from its
current location towards the center of the coordinate system, it
where Ω represents the rotation of the earth and u is the velocity can be illustrated for a single dimension as shown in Fig. 1 (a).
vector of the wind. In the WDO implementation, the vector g can be written as g =
While these four forces are the major contributors to the |g| (0 - xcur).
motion of the wind, there are other forces that are not included
in the implementation of the WDO. For example, advection
along with the centrifugal force are ignored in the

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and is located at point xopt. Equation (15) represents the final


form of the velocity update utilized in WDO. The first term in
(a) (b)
(15) states that if there are no other forces acting on the air
Fig. 1. (a) Illustration of the gravitational force (FG) in a one dimensional parcel, then it would continue on its current path with its
search space where the dimension spans in the range of [-1, 1] and the center of velocity proportionally reduced by friction. The friction
the coordinate system is defined at zero. (b) Illustration of the pressure gradient
force (FPG) in one dimensional search space, where xcur represents the location
coefficient term could be fixed to a constant value, or one could
of an air parcel at the current iteration and the xopt represents the optimum implement an adaptive friction coefficient, which could vary
pressure location found throughout the optimization. depending on the velocity of the air parcel. The second term
states that gravity constantly pulls the air parcel from its current
location towards the center of the coordinate system at a
The second term is the pressure gradient, , which is magnitude proportional to the constant g. This term becomes
defined as the force moving an air parcel from its current particularly beneficial if the air parcels get stuck at the
location toward an optimum pressure point, as seen in Fig. 1 boundaries. The third term in (15) implies that the higher
(b). In our implementation, the magnitude of the pressure ranked air parcels will most likely be at a location closer to the
gradient is the pressure difference between the current location xopt and, hence, the effect of the pressure gradient would be
of an air parcel Pcur and the optimum pressure found so far by smaller. The last term allows the velocity direction to be altered
the population Popt, while the pressure gradient is directed from by other dimensions, with a larger influence on higher ranked
the current location xcur to the optimum location xopt. Similar to air parcels. As can be clearly seen in (15), there are multiple
the gravitational field, the pressure gradient force can be coefficients that must be chosen prior to starting an
expressed simply as . optimization, namely: α, g, RT, and c. A numerical study is
Updating (12) with the new equations for the gravitational field carried out in the following section to establish the optimum
and pressure gradient gives values or value ranges for these parameters. At each iteration,
the velocity and the position of all air parcels need to be
updated. Once the new velocity is calculated according to (15),
the position can be updated by utilizing the following equation,
(13)
(16)
The Coriolis force is represented by the cross product of the
earth's rotation vector and the velocity vector of the air parcel where xcur is the current position of the air parcel in the search
( ) in (13). As described previously, the influence of the space, xnew is the new position for the next iteration, and a time
Coriolis force is replaced by the velocity influence from step of is assumed. A population of air parcels starts at
another randomly chosen dimension of the same air parcel, random positions in the search space with random velocities.
, and all other coefficients are combined into a single Utilizing (15) and (16), each air parcel’s velocity and position
term c, i.e. , thus simplifying the Coriolis force are adjusted at every iteration as the parcels move toward an
contribution in (13), which leads to optimum pressure location and, hence, the optimum solution at
the end of the last iteration. In this manner, WDO offers a
simple yet highly effective way to solve complex optimization
problems.
(14) For each dimension, WDO allows the air parcels to travel
only within the bounds of [-1, 1]. In the literature, there have
been various boundary conditions proposed for particle-based
A potential pitfall in implementing the above form of the optimizers [48], whereas in WDO, if an air parcel tries to travel
velocity update equation is that the pressure values are outside of these bounds in any dimension, its position in that
explicitly used. In cases where the pressure value is extremely particular dimension is set to the boundary value. The
high, the updated velocities would also become impractically gravitational force eventually pulls any air parcels that are stuck
large, diminishing the performance of the WDO. Instead of at the boundaries back into the search space. It also should be
using the actual pressure values, one can use a ranking-based noted that the updated velocities of the air parcels are limited to
approach, where the population of air parcels are ranked in a maximum value per iteration. The main reason for this is to
descending order based on their pressure values such that (14) prevent air parcels from taking large steps and overlooking
can be rewritten as, certain regions in the search space. If the velocity magnitude
exceeds the specified maximum in any dimension, then the
velocity in that dimension is limited according to
(15)
(17)
where i represents the ranking among all air parcels. In this
scheme, the best solution has the lowest pressure with rank 1
where the direction of motion is preserved but the magnitude is

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limited to be no more than |umax| at any dimension, and clarity, the terminology used for the WDO is summarized in
represents the adjusted velocity after it is limited to the Table I.
maximum speed.
TABLE I.
TERMINOLOGY USED IN THE WIND DRIVEN OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM
Terminology Description
An individual member, whose coordinate values represent a
Air Parcel
candidate solution to the optimization problem at hand.
A group comprised of a predetermined number of diverse air
Population
parcels.
The coordinates of an air parcel, which are mapped to the
Position
dimensions of the optimization problem at hand.
Velocity The amount of position displacement per iteration.
A number assigned to air parcels, which establishes how
well an air parcel meets the desired design performance.
Pressure
Analogies can be made with fitness, cost, or penalty
functions.
Sorting of the air parcels at each iteration based on their
Ranking
pressure values.

One can observe various similarities between WDO and


other nature-inspired optimization algorithms, all of which are
population-based iterative methods aiming to improve the best
Fig. 2. Flowchart showing the Wind Driven Optimization implementation. A candidate solution over time. Pressure in WDO is analogous to
sample Matlab/Octave code is also provided in the Appendix. fitness, or cost, in the GA, where the purpose of the pressure
function is to evaluate the performance of the candidate
The implementation of WDO is illustrated in Fig. 2. As seen solutions.
in the flowchart, the algorithm starts with the initialization The position and velocity update rules in WDO are similar to
stage, where all parameters related to the WDO as well as the those in PSO, where PSO is based on a swarm of particles that
other parameters related to the optimization problem have to be share information about the search space facilitating
defined. Also, one must define a pressure function (analogous convergence to an optimum solution. PSO utilizes the
to a fitness function in a GA) and establish parameter abstraction of artificial intelligence behind a swarm of insects
boundaries. Once the optimization problem is set up, the in search of food, so the terms within the PSO update equations
population of air parcels are randomly distributed over the do not have strong physical meaning. By contrast, the WDO
N-dimensional search space and assigned random velocities. technique is highly correlated with the actual physical
The next step is to evaluate the pressure (fitness) values of each equations describing the trajectory of an air parcel in our
air parcel at its current position. Once the pressure values have atmosphere. Additional terms such as the gravitational pull
been evaluated, the population is ranked based on their within the velocity update equation in WDO can provide
pressure, and the velocity update is applied according to (15) advantages over PSO, where particles occasionally attempt to
along with the restrictions given in (17). The positions for the fly out of and sometimes get stuck at the boundaries, preventing
next iteration are updated by utilizing (16), and the boundaries their positions from changing for many iterations. This can
are checked to prevent any air parcel from exiting the search sometimes significantly hinder the ability of the PSO algorithm
space. Once all the updates are carried out, the parcel pressures to efficiently explore the entire search space, thereby resulting
at the new locations are evaluated. This procedure continues in a slower convergence speed. The gravitational pull in WDO
until the maximum number of iterations is reached. Finally, the provides a favorable contribution, which prevents air parcels
best pressure location at the end of the last iteration is recorded from remaining trapped at the boundary for long periods of
as the optimization result and, hence, the best candidate time and pulls them back into the search space. Another
solution to the problem. One could also choose to implement an difference from PSO is that in PSO a dimension of a given
alternative type of stopping criteria depending on the time particle is only influenced by the same dimension of another
constraints to solve the problem or the computational burden to population member, which happens to be the global best
calculate the EM solution. One example of a custom stopping particle. In contrast, the Coriolis force in WDO introduces a
criterion would be a user-defined threshold for stopping stochastic effect from other dimensions, providing robustness
execution of the WDO once it is achieved by the optimum to the motion of the parcel. The additional terms in (15), such as
pressure. A sample Matlab/Octave code is listed in the the gravitational pull and Coriolis effect provide potential
Appendix that provides a reference implementation of the benefits that can be gained by fine-tuning the WDO coefficients
WDO algorithm. for different optimization topologies.
So far, the theory behind WDO, the operators of the The next section carries out a numerical study on the
algorithm, and the implemented constraints, such as the coefficients of the WDO utilizing four different test functions
boundaries and velocity restrictions, have been discussed. For to determine the optimum values or value ranges for the

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parameters α, g, RT, and c. This parameter study allows us to gravitational force coefficient, g, should only vary in the range
tune the WDO so that it performs efficiently on a variety of [0, 1]. On the other hand, RT and c can accommodate a wider
different search topologies. range of values, so we allow them to vary in the ranges [0, 5]
during the numerical study. For each test function, all
III. NUMERICAL PARAMETER STUDY combinations of the following sets of coefficient values were
The optimum performance of the WDO can be achieved by utilized in 10 WDO trials with different random seeds for each
properly selecting the values for the coefficients α, g, RT, and c trial:
that are utilized in the velocity update equation (15). Since all
α = [0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07; 0.09; 0.11; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.6; 0.7; 0.8; 0.9]
optimization problems differ from each other in terms of the g = [0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07; 0.09; 0.11; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.6; 0.7; 0.8; 0.9]
location of the optimum point, total number of global optimums RT = [0.01; 0.05; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 0.8; 0.9; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 2.0; 2.3; 2.6; 3.0;
and boundary values, the optimum WDO coefficient choices 3.3; 3.6; 4.0; 4.3; 4.6; 5.0]
c = [0.01; 0.05; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 0.8; 0.9; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 2.0; 2.3; 2.6; 3.0; 3.3;
may vary from problem to problem. In order to determine the 3.6; 4.0; 4.3; 4.6; 5.0]
best parameter combinations, four different benchmark
functions, namely the Sphere, Rotated Hyper-Ellipsoid, Ackley
and Rastrigin functions, are utilized in this study [49]. The
description and properties of each function are provided in
Table II for N-dimensions.

TABLE II.
N-DIMENSION MODIFIED TEST FUNCTIONS USED IN THE NUMERICAL
PARAMETER STUDY OF THE WDO ALGORITHM. THE GLOBAL BEST POSITION
VECTOR OF EACH FUNCTION IS REPRESENTED BY X*, AND OPTIMUM VALUES
ARE INDICATED BY F(X*).
Function Name Description and Properties
,
Sphere

Rotated ,
Hyper-Ellipsoid (a)

Ackley
,

,
Rastrigin

(b)
Each test function is defined in different ranges as shown in Fig. 3. Average best pressure values obtained when varying RT and c
coefficients while fixing α and g. Results are shown for the (a) modified
Table II, and the total number of dimensions is chosen to be Sphere, and (b) modified Rotated Hyper-Ellipsoid test functions.
N=5 for the numerical study. It should be noted that a modified
version of the conventional benchmark functions [49] are
utilized in which the global best locations, x*, are altered. For every trial, a population of 30 air parcels was optimized for
Unmodified, all of the test functions have a global best location a maximum of 500 iterations, and umax was chosen to be 0.3.
at the coordinate system center, which could be misleading for Based on physical intuition and (15), one can start with the
the WDO parameter study due to fact that the gravitational assumption that the gravitational force would be much smaller
force could dominate over time, and all air parcels would compared to the other forces acting on the air parcel, so we can
converge to the solution prematurely. Such a scenario would set g = 0.1. Also, considering that the velocity will be limited
not provide useful information in determining the optimal by umax = 0.3, we could target the first term coefficient, i.e.
coefficient values. The air parcels in WDO were allowed to (1-α), to have a contribution of no more than 0.3. Thus, we can
travel in the range of [-1, 1] and then scaled up to the minimum conveniently set α = 0.8. By strategically choosing these
and maximum boundary values based on the optimization values, we can study the variations of RT and c as shown in Fig.
problem limits. 3.
From (15) we note that the friction coefficient, α, and the In Fig. 3, we can see a trench in the parameter space, which

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indicates the lowest pressure values for unimodal test functions, utilize the above study to strategically choose and tune the
as low as 10-5, can be attained for parameter value ranges of 1.0 parameter values for the problem at hand. New users of the
< RT < 2.0 and 0.05 < c < 3.6. While these sets of parameter WDO are also encouraged to utilize the parameter settings
values seem to allow WDO to work efficiently on unimodal provided in the following sections, where multiple EM
problem spaces, a different set of values are needed for the problems are efficiently optimized.
multi-modal problems. This time, values of RT = 1.0 and c = 0.7 In the following sections, WDO will be applied to three
are selected from the range above in order to study the variation different electromagnetic optimization problems. The first
of α and g for the modified Ackley and modified Rastrigin example is a linear antenna array synthesis problem, which
multi-modal test functions. In Fig. 4 (a), we can see a trench in provides an opportunity to compare WDO with PSO. The
the parameter space, where the lowest pressure is achieved for second example of a double-sided artificial magnetic conductor
α =0.8 and g = 0.6, whereas in Fig. 4 (b), the lowest pressure (DSAMC) demonstrates that WDO can efficiently handle
values, as low as 10-5, are attained for α = 0.8 or 0.9 and g = 0.7. problems with discrete-valued parameters where GA typically
excels [50]. The final example consists of the optimization of a
dual-band E-shaped microstrip patch antenna. These
implementation examples serve to demonstrate the
effectiveness and utility of WDO for solving complex
electromagnetic design problems.

IV. LINEAR ANTENNA ARRAY SYNTHESIS


Linear antenna array synthesis has been studied extensively
in the literature utilizing various optimization methods [51-53],
targeting sidelobe suppression, null placement, array thinning,
or custom radiation pattern shaping.

(a)

Fig. 5. Geometry of a 2M-element linear antenna array positioned along the


x-axis, where the array is symmetric with respect to the origin.

In this section, WDO will be given the task to determine the


optimum element layout of a linear antenna array that provides
the best suppression of the sidelobe levels (SLL) in the
radiation pattern. For the radiating elements, isotropic sources
(b) are assumed, which are symmetrically positioned along the
Fig. 4. Average best pressure values obtained when varying α and g coefficients x-axis as seen in Fig. 5. We note that the identical synthesis
while fixing RT and c. Results are shown for the (a) modified Ackley, and (b) problem was addressed in [51] using PSO and in [54] using the
modified Rastrigin functions.
Comprehensive Learning PSO (CLPSO), where CLPSO was
shown to outperform PSO. For a fair comparison between PSO,
TABLE III.
CLPSO and WDO, a uniform amplitude excitation (ai = 1) with
SUGGESTED PARAMETER RANGES BASED ON THE NUMERICAL STUDY OF no phase differences (φ i= 0) is assumed in the array factor
UNIMODAL AND MULTI-MODAL TEST FUNCTIONS calculations based on
α g c RT
Range [0.8,0.9] [0.6,0.7] [0.05,3.6] [1.0,2.0]
(18)

where ai, di and φi represent the amplitude, the location of the ith
These two studies reveal that the WDO can operate
antenna element and the excitation phase, respectively, and k is
efficiently using wide ranges of parameter values as
the free-space wavenumber. For uniform excitation and zero
summarized in Table III, but different problem topologies may
phase, (18) simplifies to
require unique WDO parameter settings for optimum
performance. Unfortunately, for real world optimization
problems, it would not be possible to choose a single set of (19)
parameters that will work efficiently in every case, but one can
WDO was used to find the optimum locations for 2M = 10

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antenna elements, i.e. di, to achieve a minimum SLL for the


array. Since the main radiation beam is directed at broadside
(φ=90°), only the following angular ranges of φ=[0°, 80°] and
φ=[100°, 180°] were optimized to minimize the SLL.
According to [51], the velocity vector of the PSO quickly
approaches zero in about 400 iterations and remains at zero
until the optimization is terminated at 1000 iterations,
indicating that the PSO lost its exploration ability over time.
The additional terms in (15), such as the gravitational pull,
provide the WDO the added benefit of preventing the velocity
vector from becoming zero too quickly, which would prevent
the population from further exploring the parameter space. The
WDO ran with a population size of 40 air parcels for a
maximum of 1000 iterations, where the following coefficient
values were chosen: α=0.1, g=0.1, RT=2.6, and c=0.4, and umax
= 0.25. The air parcel dimensions represent the antenna
Fig. 6. Array factor comparison between the uniformly-spaced, WDO-based,
separations, with an allowed range of [0, λ0]. The pressure PSO-based [51], and CLPSO-based designs [54]. The WDO design performs
function minimizing the array factor is given by better than the uniformly-spaced array as well as the PSO design and also
matches the performance of the CLPSO design.
(20)

The dimensions of the WDO synthesized design are listed in V. DOUBLE-SIDED ARTIFICIAL MAGNETIC CONDUCTOR
Table IV along with those of the PSO optimized array, the SYNTHESIS
CLPSO optimized array, and a conventional uniformly spaced Artificial magnetic conducting (AMC) ground planes are
antenna array with λ0/2 spacing. The array factor calculations widely utilized in low profile antenna applications. The
for the array dimensions listed in Table IV are shown in Fig. 6. majority of the papers published on this topic are focused on
The WDO synthesized linear antenna array has a uniform single-sided AMC surfaces, i.e. the structures are typically
sidelobe level distribution that was achieved by minimizing the backed by a PEC and only exhibit the AMC property on one
pressure function, which resulted in a maximum SLL of -19.05 side [55-57]. Erentok et al. introduced the concept of a
dB as seen in Fig. 6. The conventional, uniformly spaced array volumetric AMC design without PEC backplanes in [58], while
provides a maximum SLL of -12.96 dB, whereas the PSO and the theory of planar double-sided artificial magnetic conducting
CLPSO optimized arrays provides -17.41 dB and -19.07 dB, (DSAMC) surfaces was later presented in [50], followed by a
respectively. These results demonstrate that WDO is capable of system example offered in [59]. A DSAMC is a thin
outperforming PSO and matches the performance of the more metallo-dielectric engineered surface, consisting of two doubly
sophisticated CLPSO, when applied to some antenna array periodic frequency selective surface (FSS) type screens printed
radiation pattern synthesis problems. on either side of a thin dielectric slab. Either surface of this thin
slab can be optimized for a specific response. For instance, one
side can be designed to have an AMC condition, while the other
TABLE IV. could be optimized for an AEC (Artificial Electric Conducting)
ELEMENT LOCATIONS OF THE 10-ELEMENT LINEAR ANTENNA ARRAY FOR
response. For the optimization example here, a commercially
DIFFERENT ARRAY GEOMETRIES, WHERE THE DISTANCES ARE NORMALIZED
WITH RESPECT TO THE FREE-SPACE WAVELENGTH available dielectric, Rogers High Frequency LaminateTM RT
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6010, with a dielectric permittivity of εr = 10.2 -j0.0253 and a
Conventional ± 0.2500 ± 0.7500 ± 1.2500 ± 1.7500 ± 2.2500 thickness of 2.54 mm is utilized. The WDO is linked with a
PSO ± 0.2515 ± 0.5550 ± 1.0650 ± 1.5000 ± 2.1100 full-wave Periodic Finite Element Boundary Integral (PFEBI)
CLPSO ± 0.2515 ± 0.711 ± 1.208 ± 1.8350 ± 2.5585 solver that can calculate the scattering from either side of the
WDO ± 0.2233 ± 0.7197 ± 1.2221 ± 1.8591 ± 2.5936
surface. The optimization goals are to achieve an AMC
response from the top surface of the DSAMC at 2.4 GHz, and
an AMC response from the bottom surface at 5.2 GHz, both of
which are WIFI frequencies. This WIFI separator was first
introduced in [60], where a Genetic Algorithm (GA) was
utilized to optimize the structure. These goals were
incorporated into the following Pressure function

(21)

where S11, the reflection coefficient from the top surface,


should be unity and in phase with the incident wave at 2.4 GHz

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and S22, the reflection coefficient from the bottom surface,


should be unity and in phase with the incident wave at 5.2GHz.
Since the thickness, unit cell dimensions and dielectric
permittivity are all predetermined, the WDO was given the task
of optimizing the unit cell geometry of the top and bottom FSS
screens analogous to the GA example reported in [60]. The
square unit cell dimensions are set to be 1.18 cm on a side, and
the unit cells are pixilated into 17x17 grids, where the bottom
(a) (b)
row and right-most column of pixels are forced to be metal in Fig. 8. Illustration of the reflection phase both from the top surface (S11) and the
order to ease fabrication of the WIFI separator. The pixilated bottom surface (S22). (a) At 2.4 GHz, the top surface provides an in-phase
FSS screen geometries are periodic in two dimensions, and the reflection, i.e. AMC band, such that a highly reflective top surface is achieved.
(b) At 5.2 GHz, the bottom surface provides an in-phase reflection, i.e. AMC
remaining 16x16 pixel grid to be optimized is forced to have band, and a highly reflective bottom surface is achieved.
four-fold symmetry such that the WDO optimizes only one
quarter of the unit cells as illustrated in Fig. 7. Each row forms
an 8 bit binary number that is represented by one dimension in
the WDO with a range of [0, 28-1]. Since there are a total of 8
rows to be optimized for each screen, this constitutes an
optimization problem with N=16 dimensions.

(a) (b)
Fig. 9. Illustration of the reflection and transmission magnitudes both from the
top surface (S11) and the bottom surface (S22). (a) At 2.4 GHz, the top surface
provides an AMC band. The reflection (|S11|) and transmission (|S12|)
magnitudes from top surface are shown indicating a high reflection. (b) At 5.2
GHz, the bottom surface provides an AMC band, where the reflection (|S22|)
and transmission (|S21|) magnitudes indicate high reflectivity.

VI. E-SHAPED PATCH-ANTENNA SYNTHESIS


(a) (b)
Fig. 7. WDO optimized unit cell geometries. (a) Top FSS geometry shown with As a final demonstration of its utility, the WDO is given the
four-fold symmetry targeting the low frequency response. (b) Bottom FSS task of optimizing a dual-band E-shaped patch antenna
geometry shown with four-fold symmetry targeting the high frequency targeting operating frequencies of 5.0 GHz and 5.5 GHz. The
response. The bottom row and right column of each unit cell is forced to contain
metallic pixels for ease of fabrication of the WIFI separator. same optimization problem is tackled in [61], where
Differential Evolution (DE) and a more sophisticated version of
A population of 25 air parcels was optimized for 500 DE, i.e. Self-adaptive Differential Evolution (SADE) are
iterations as in [60], where the following values were used for utilized. Microstrip patch antennas are extensively employed
the coefficients: α = 0.4, g = 0.2, c = 0.2, RT = 3, and umax = 0.3. in wireless telecommunication systems, aircrafts, and satellites
The optimized FSS unit cell geometries are illustrated in Fig. 7, due to their inherit advantages such as low profile, ease of
where the white and black shaded pixels represent the metal fabrication, low weight, and low cost. In its simplest form, the
and the absence of metal, respectively. At 2.4 GHz, the top E-shaped patch antenna is formed by two identical slots cut
surface behaves as an AMC, where the reflection phase is from a rectangular microstrip patch on a finite sized ground
as seen in Fig. 8 (a), while the reflection and plane.
transmission magnitudes are |S11| = -1.031 dB and |S12| = -25.08
dB, respectively, as seen in Fig. 9 (a). At 5.2 GHz, the bottom
surface behaves as an AMC, where the reflection phase is
as seen in Fig. 8 (b), and the reflection and
transmission magnitudes are |S22| = -0.4897 dB and |S21| =
-27.64 dB, respectively, as seen in Fig. 9 (b). While this
optimization problem is better suited for binary-coded
algorithms such as a GA [60], this result shows that the WDO
can also easily handle discrete-valued optimization problems
that have been efficiently solved by GA [60].

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WDO coefficients were chosen to be: α = 0.4, g = 0.2, c = 0.4,


RT = 3, and umax = 0.3. The dimensions of the final optimized
design are provided in Table VI. The S11 of the optimized
E-shaped patch antenna is illustrated in Fig. 11, showing that
S11 values of -31 dB or lower are achieved at 5.0 GHz and 5.5
GHz, matching the performance of the DE result in [61].

TABLE VI.
THE DIMENSIONS OF THE FINAL OPTIMIZED E-PATCH ANTENNA
W L Ws Ls Ps Px
mm 24.36 21.79 4.87 18.02 3.75 3.85

Fig. 10. Illustration of the E-shaped patch antenna geometry.

The geometry of the E-shaped patch antenna to be optimized


is shown in Fig. 10, where a rectangular patch with two
identical slots cut from the right side is placed on a 60 mm x 60 Fig. 11. S11 of the optimized E-shaped microstrip patch antenna design
mm finite ground plane, with a 5.5 mm thick air substrate. The computed with FEKO.
patch is centered at the middle of the ground plane, and the feed
location, Px, is selected by the optimization algorithm.
Moreover, the dimensions of the rectangular patch given by W VII. CONCLUSIONS
and L are both optimized. The two identical stubs cut from the In this paper, we introduced Wind Driven Optimization
rectangular patch have a length of Ls and width of Ws and are (WDO), a new type of nature-inspired global optimization
centered at a distance of Ps from the feed position. This gives a algorithm based on the motion of air parcels in the wind. The
total of 6 parameters to be determined by the optimization equations for implementing the WDO were derived from the
algorithms to find the best configuration for the E-shaped patch theory governing the motion of the wind and discussed in detail
antenna targeting minimization of the S11 at 5.0 GHz and 5.5 along with a numerical study using unimodal and multi-modal
GHz. The optimization goals are incorporated into the pressure test functions to determine the best ranges for the WDO
function defined in (22), where the minimization of the parameters. To illustrate the simplicity and robustness of the
pressure produces a lower S11 (dB). WDO, several electromagnetics optimization problems were
presented, including the synthesis of a linear antenna array that
(22) was compared with PSO and CLPSO, a double-sided artificial
magnetic conducting surface that was compared with GA, and
For fast evaluation of the candidate antenna designs, the an E-shaped microstrip patch antenna, where a DE comparison
WDO is linked with the Method of Moments (MoM) solver is presented. These examples demonstrate that the WDO is
used in the commercially available FEKO software to obtain effective at optimizing problems with both discrete- and
S11 (dB) at both optimization frequencies, which are then used real-valued parameters and that it offers a competitive
in the pressure calculations. This optimization constitutes an alternative to the popular PSO, GA and DE optimizers, which
N=6 dimensional problem, where all dimensions are shown in are widely used in electromagnetics.
Fig. 10 and the corresponding ranges are listed in Table V.

TABLE V. APPENDIX
MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM ALLOWED LIMITS FOR EACH OF THE OPTIMIZATION
PARAMETERS %-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
W L Ws Ls Ps Px % Sample Matlab / Octave Code for the Wind Driven Optimization.
% Optimization of the Sphere Function in the range of [-5, 5].
Min 10mm 10mm 0.5mm 0.5mm -L/2 Ws/2
% by Zikri Bayraktar - zikribayraktar@gmail.com.
Max 50mm 30mm W/2 L L/2 W/2 – Ws/2 % Penn State University - May 2011.
%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
For this design example, the WDO was allowed to run for tic; clear; close all; clc; format long g;
delete('output.txt'); delete('pressure.txt'); delete('position.txt');
100 iterations with a population size of 20 air parcels, and the

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fid=fopen('output.txt','a');
% Updating the global best:
% WDO parameters: better = minpres < globalpres;
param.popsize = 20; % population size. if better
param.npar = 5; % Dimension of the problem. globalpres = minpres % initialize global minimum
param.maxit = 500; % Maximum number of iterations. globalpos = minpos;
param.RT = 3; % RT coefficient. end
param.g = 0.2; % gravitational constant. % Keep a record of the progress:
param.alp = 0.4; % constants in the update equation. keepglob(ij) = globalpres;
param.c = 0.4; % coriolis effect. save position.txt pos -ascii -tabs;
maxV = 0.3; % maximum allowed speed. end
dimMin = -5; % Lower dimension boundary. %Save values to the final file.
dimMax= 5; % Upper dimension boundary. pressure = transpose(keepglob);
%------------------------------------------------------------------- save pressure.txt pressure -ascii -tabs;
% Initializing population: Position and Velocity : %END
% random population in [-1, 1]:
pos = 2*(rand(param.popsize,param.npar)-0.5);
% random velocity:
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