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PRINCIPLES OF

TEACHING
Loyd Angelo M. Diana, MSE
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
1. Learner
 The core of the teaching-learning
process. It is from him that revolves all
activities related to classroom
activities.
 A pupil is the learner in the
elementary level and a student is the
learner who attends an institution
beyond the elementary level.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
1. Learner
 Embodied spirit: He/she is a union of
sentient body and a rational soul.
 His/her body experiences sensations
and feels pleasure and pain.
 His/her soul is the principle of spiritual
acts, the source of intellectual
abstraction, self-reflection, and free
rational volition.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
A. Cognitive Faculties
1. Five Senses
 The five senses are part of the
learner’s sentient body.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
A. Cognitive Faculties
2. Instincts
 This means that the learner has a natural or inherent
capacity or tendency to respond to environmental
stimuli such as danger signs for survival or self-
preservation.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
A. Cognitive Faculties
3. Imagination
 It is the ability to form a mental
image of something that is not
perceived through the senses.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
A. Cognitive Faculties
3. Imagination
 It is the ability of the mind to build
mental scenes, objects or events
that do not exist, are not present
or have happened in the past.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
A. Cognitive Faculties
4. Memory
 This is the cognitive faculty of
retaining and recalling past
experience.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
A. Cognitive Faculties
5. Intellect
 By his/he intellect, the
learner can engage in
cognitive processes such as
forming ideas or concepts,
reasoning out and making
judgment.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
B. APPETITIVE FACULTIES
1. Feelings and Emotions
 Emotion is on / off switch for learning. Positive feelings
and emotions make the teaching-learning process an
exciting and a joyful, fruitful affair. Negative feelings and
emotions make the same process a burden.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
Fundamental Equipment of a Learner
B. APPETITIVE FACULTIES
2. Will
 The learner’s will serves as guiding force and the main
integrating force in his/her character.
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE
DIFFERENCES AMONG LEARNERS
1. Ability
 The learners’ native ability dictates the prospects of
success in any purposeful activity. Hence, the learners’
proficiency in memorization, imagination, concept
formation, reasoning, judging and other cognitive skills
are contingent on their endowed potential to learn.
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE
DIFFERENCES AMONG LEARNERS
2. Aptitude
 It refers to the learners’ innate talent or gift. It indicates
a natural capacity to learn certain skills.
3. Interest
 The learners’ cognitive faculties of sensorial experience,
memory imagination, concept formation, reasoning and
judgment are at their height when learners’ interests are
also at their peak.
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE
DIFFERENCES AMONG LEARNERS
4. Family and cultural background
 Students who come from different socioeconomic
background manifest a wide range of behaviour due to
differences in upbringing practices.
5. Attitudes and values
 A positive attitude will enhance the maximum and
optimum use of the learner’s cognitive and affective
faculties for learning. A negative attitude towards
learning robs them of many opportunities for learning.
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE
DIFFERENCES AMONG LEARNERS
To understand the child, the teacher must know that:
 the child as a unique individual has traits peculiar to
himself;
 the child is a product of the cultural environment where
he assumes membership; and

 the child is influenced by social and psychological


forces from the environment.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY

Old View New View


 Intelligence was fixed  Intelligence can be
developed
 Intelligence was measured  Intelligence is not
by a number numerically quantifiable and
is exhibited during a
performance or problem-
solving process
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY

Old View New View


 Intelligence was unitary  Intelligence can be
exhibited in many ways
 Intelligence was measured  Intelligence is measured in
in isolation context/real life situations
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY

Old View New View


 Intelligence was used to  Intelligence is used to
sort students and predict understand human
their success capacities and the many
and varied ways students
can achieve
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY

 The theory of multiple intelligences


was developed in 1983 by Dr.
Howard Gardner, professor of
education at Harvard University. It
suggests that the traditional notion
of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing,
is far too limited.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
1. Verbal-Linguistic
 Well-developed verbal skills and
sensitivity to the sounds, meanings
and rhythms of words
 learning through the spoken
and written word.

Word Smart
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
2. Mathematical-Logical
 Ability to think conceptually and
abstractly, and capacity to discern
logical or numerical patterns
 learning through reasoning and
problem solving

Number / Reasoning / Logic Smart


MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
3. Musical Music Smart
 Ability to produce and
appreciate rhythm, pitch and
timber
 learning through patterns,
rhythms and music. This
includes not only auditory
learning but also the
identification of patterns through
all the senses.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
4. Visual-Spatial
 Capacity to think in images and
pictures, to visualize accurately
and abstractly
 learning visually and organizing
ideas spatially. Seeing concepts in
action in order to understand them.

Picture Smart
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
5. Bodily-Kinesthetic
 Ability to control one's body
movements and to handle
objects skilfully
 learning through interaction
with one’s environment.

Body Smart
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
6. Interpersonal
 Capacity to detect and respond
appropriately to the moods,
motivations and desires of
others
 learning through interaction with
others

People Smart
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
7. Intrapersonal
 Capacity to be self-aware and in tune
with inner feelings, values, beliefs and
thinking processes
 learning through feelings, values, and
attitudes.

Self Smart
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
8. Naturalist
 Ability to recognize and categorize
plants, animals and other objects in
nature
 learning through classification,
categories, and hierarchies.

Nature Smart
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
8. Existential
 Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep
questions about human existence, such
as the meaning of life, “why do we
die?”, and “what is my role in the
world?”

Spirit Smart
LEARNING STYLES
 It is the way a person processes,
internalizes, and studies new
challenging material. It also refers to an
individual’s habitual, and preferred
ways of absorbing, processing,
retaining, new information and skills.
SENSORY PREFERENCES

 Individuals tend to gravitate toward one


or two types of sensory input and
maintain dominance in one of the
following types:
SENSORY PREFERENCES
1. Visual Learners
 These learners must see their
teacher’s actions and facial expressions
to fully understand the content of a
lesson.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
1. Visual Learners
 They may think in pictures and learn
best from visual aids including:
diagrams, illustrated books, overhead
transparencies, videos, flipcarts and
hand-outs.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
1. Visual-iconic
 Those who prefer this form of input are
more interested in visual imagery such
as film, graphic displays, or pictures in
order to solidify learning.
 They usually have good “picture
memory.”
SENSORY PREFERENCES
2. Visual-symbolic
 Those who prefer this form of input feel
comfortable with abstract symbolism
such as mathematical formulae or the
written word.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
2. Auditory Learners
 They learn best through verbal
lectures, discussions, talking things
through and listening to what others
have to say.
 They interpret the underlying meanings
of speech through listening to tone of
voice, pitch, speed, and other nuances.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
2. Auditory Learners
 These learners often benefit from
reading text aloud and using a tape
recorder.
 They can attend aurally to details,
translate the spoken word easily into
the written word, and are not easily
distracted in their listening ability.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
1. Listeners
 Out of school too, they remember
things said to them and make the
information their own.
 They may even carry on mental
conversations and figure out how to
extend what they learned by reviewing
in their heads what they heard others
say.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
2. Talkers
 They are the ones who prefer to talk
and discuss. They often find
themselves talking to those around
them.
 In a class setting when the instructor is
not asking questions, they tend to
whisper comments to themselves.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
3. Tactile / Kinesthetic Learners
 They benefit much from a hands-on
approach, actively exploring the
physical world around them.
 They tend to prefer “learning by doing”
preferring the use of psychomotor skills
to, say, abstract thinking skills.
SENSORY PREFERENCES
4. Analytic Learners
 They tend toward the linear, step-by-
step processes of learning. They tend
to see the finite elements of patterns
rather than the whole.
 Tree seers
SENSORY PREFERENCES
4. Global Learners
 They lean towards non-linear thought
and tend to see the whole pattern rather
than particle elements.
 Forest seers
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Teacher
 The professional teacher is the “licensed professional
who possesses dignity and reputation with high moral
values as well as technical and professional competence
…he/she adheres to, observes and practices a set of
ethical and moral principles, standards, and set of ethical
and moral principles, standards and values.” (Code of
Ethics for Professional Teachers)
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Teacher
 The most important part of the learner’s educational
environment. Without them, the other elements of the
educational environment would be ineffective, for they
guide, direct, and stimulate youth in their goal-seeking.
(Bent, et. al., 1970)
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
3. Learning Environment
 It is a venue for social interaction that
includes ways of doing things, solving
problems, and acquiring information.
 It provides an instructional process
involving the teacher, the learner, and
the subject matter.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
1. Physical Environment
 It is the totality of the outside
elements or the physical make-up that
influences the learner.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Intellectual Climate
 It refers to a learning atmosphere
characterized by activities designed to
challenge the intellect.
 It includes providing opportunities for
development of thinking skills both
creative and critical, problem-solving,
and diagnosing patterns of behaviour
to be acquired.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
3. Social Climate
A. Autocratic climate
 The teacher directs, decides as to what activities are
to be done. Evaluation of the learners’ progress is
based on arbitrary standards.
 There is very little communication between teacher
and learners, hence, the learners find little
opportunity for initiative, participation in group
planning or self-evaluation.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
3. Social Climate
B. Laissez faire
 There is little emphasis in group participation. The
individual acts on his own, working for the recognition
of his accomplishments.
 This climate is not characterized by interaction.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
3. Social Climate
C. Democratic climate
 There is high regard for group participation and
cooperative work. Teacher becomes a facilitator and
guides the learners in the accomplishment of a
common set of objectives.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
3. Emotional Climate
 This refers to the mental health and emotional
adjustment of all learners.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
 The administration or direction of activities with
special reference to such problems as discipline,
democratic techniques, use and care of supplies and
reference materials, the physical features of the
classroom, general housekeeping, and the social
relationships of pupils.
- Carter V. Good’s Dictionary of Education
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
 controls of activities in the classroom
 seating arrangement, attendance, day to day
classroom courtesies, choice of instructional
materials to use for a particular lesson
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
1. ASSERTIVE APPROACH
 Teacher draws a clear line between what and how
much the students are allowed to do in the
classroom.
 Teacher asserts his authority as he explicitly
expresses the specific rules to follow in the conduct
of behaviour of the students including possible
consequences in case of misconduct
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
1. ASSERTIVE APPROACH
 This approach bases its assumption that the teacher
being the authority in the classroom can handle
discipline problems.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
 This is the business line approach in the
management of students as they engage themselves
in the work activities as part of their academic work.
 Divided into three major categories:
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
A. Establishment and communication of work
assignments, standards, and procedures

1. Instruction for Assignment. Teacher starts by


explaining the assignment including how he wants the
assignment done.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
A. Establishment and communication of work
assignments, standards, and procedures

2. Standards to be met. As a general rule, teacher


sets standards for the completion of the assignment
for submission.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
A. Establishment and communication of work
assignments, standards, and procedures

3. Procedures for absent students. Teacher


provides make-up class for students who for one
reason or another failed to copy the assignment.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
B. Monitoring Students’ Work
 Monitoring work is advantageous to both teacher
and student.
 On the part of the teacher, he is able to know how
many students are encountering difficulty in doing the
work.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
B. Monitoring Students’ Work
 On the part of the student, monitoring will further
encourage him to finish his activities as he will be
guided how to do it correctly.
 Monitoring by the teacher can be done either by
groups or by individual work.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
C. Feedback to Students
 All submitted assignments, reports and even results
of tests should be checked promptly and returned to
the students.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
2. BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
C. Feedback to Students

 At the start of the year, the teacher should make


sure the students understand the need for
completion and submission of all assigned tasks.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
3. BEHAVIOR-MODIFICATION APPROACH
 This focuses not on the personal history of students
or a solution to an existing problem, rather it
motivates students to develop appropriate behaviour
through a reward system.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
3. BEHAVIOR-MODIFICATION APPROACH
a. Behavior is a consequence of the problem of the
individual related to his personal history and the
conditions of his environment.

b. Behavior gets strength from positive reinforcement


in the form of rewards and recognition. Negative
reinforcers discourage the students.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
3. BEHAVIOR-MODIFICATION APPROACH
c. Behavior is strengthened by positive or negative
reinforcement.

d. Student behaviour is influenced by positive


reinforcers. Punishment may help reduce
inappropriate behaviors but only when used to a
minimum.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
3. BEHAVIOR-MODIFICATION APPROACH
e. Rewards for appropriate behaviour diminish chance
of dominance of inappropriate behaviour.
f. Constant reinforcement brings out the best results if
done constantly as the need arises.
g. An acquired behaviour is best maintained through
continuous reinforcement.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
4. GROUP MANAGERIAL APPROACH
 This emphasizes the need for an immediate
response to a group’s inappropriate behaviour to
stop the likely problem to exist rather than wait for
the problem to come.
 A misbehaviour that remains unnoticed and which is
not checked tends to affect the group and will be
assimilated by the members.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Categories of Learner’s Behavior
A. Work Involvement.
 It is the amount of time spent by students on a
specific task to be accomplished. Every student
must be engaged in the activity or assigned a
particular task to work on.
 When everybody is busy there is very little
chance of inappropriate behaviour.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Categories of Learner’s Behavior
B. Deviancy
 Students may exhibit mild misbehaviour, serious
misbehaviour or no misbehaviour at all. A
misbehaviour whether mild or serious will disrupt
the normal flow of activities in the classroom.
 It is best that the misbehaviour is given attention
at once and stopped even before a serious problem
can occur.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Categories of Teacher’s Behavior
A. Desist techniques
 With-it-ness. It is the ability to react on a target. It
also means communicating to students that the
teacher knows what is happening inside the
classroom.
 Overlapping behaviour. It refers to the ability of
the teachers to handle more than one activity at
the same time.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Categories of Teacher’s Behavior
A. Movement Management
 The organization of behaviour depending on the
kind of task in progress. It may be smooth or jerky.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Categories of Teacher’s Behavior
A. Movement Management
 Smoothness is a continuous flow of activities
usually done in uninterrupted work periods. There
is no room for interruptions especially when the
students are busy with the work.
 Jerkiness is characterized by a disorderly flow of
activities resulting from the lack of focus. The
teacher keeps on changing work assignments
without ending the first task.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Jerkiness
1. Stimulus-bounded
 Teacher misses an event that is potential
disruptive force. He is busy with some students
and has ignored the others.
2. Thrust
 Teacher instantly assigns activities to do without
determining student readiness.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Jerkiness
3. Dangle
 Teacher all of a sudden drops or discontinues a topic
and shifts to another.
4. Truncation
 Teacher abruptly ends an activity.
5. Flip-flop
 Teacher terminates the activity, introduces a new one
and then goes back to the terminated activity.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Overdwelling
 It happens when too many explanations are given
which are no longer necessary. This may come in the
form of too much lecturing, nagging, and over
emphasizing.
Fragmentation
 Giving too much details or duplicating activities. It
also means breaking an activity into too many steps
when it can be simplified.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
5. GROUP GUIDANCE APPROACH
 This is based on changing students’ behaviour on a
group basis. Teacher maintains group focus on the
content and tasks of the groups.
 Discipline and control of classroom are produced
through a group atmosphere that encourages rapport
among the members.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Causes of Disciplinary Problems:
1. Individual case history. A child’s disruptive
behaviour is part of his larger emotional problem.
Whatever repetitive problems there are, can be
traced from the individual case.
2. Group conditions. The existing problem reflects
one which is common to the group.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Causes of Disciplinary Problems:
3. Mixture of individual and group cases. The
problem may be manifested by an individual but is
triggered by something in the group.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
6. ACCEPTANCE APPROACH
 It is anchored on the principle that every person
needs to be accepted. As a social being, he needs to
belong and relate to members of the group.
 Applied to learning, it is teaching that is democratic
in that it allows participation by students in decision-
making.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
6. ACCEPTANCE APPROACH
 Educators and psychologists as well recognize the
need for acceptance in developing appropriate
behaviour and achievement in school. Being
successful in receiving recognition will give way to
mistaken goals like:
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
6. ACCEPTANCE APPROACH
1. Attention getting. Failure to get the much needed
recognition may drive individuals to resort to antics like
teasing classmates, refusing to cooperate, and
demonstrating inability to work independently thereby
seeking help from others as form of getting attention.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
6. ACCEPTANCE APPROACH
2. Power seeking. Desire for recognition may be
manifested by expressed defiance to
teachers/classmates. The individual may be
argumentative and hard-headed. He flares up, with no
reason at all and can even exhibit hostile behaviour.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
6. ACCEPTANCE APPROACH
3. Revenge seeking. Rejection drives an individual to
try to get even with someone who fails to recognize
his efforts. Feeling unwanted and unloved he can be
violent and cruel and can cause injury to others.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
6. ACCEPTANCE APPROACH
4. Withdrawal. If a student feels rejected he may
become withdrawn. He shies away from the company
of his classmates, fearful of exposing his
inadequacies.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
7. SUCCESS APPROACH
 This approach focuses on psychological and social
conditions as determinants of appropriate behaviour.
 Good behaviour results from good choices and that
behaviour is a matter of choice.
 Teachers should guide his students to make good
choices.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
4. The Curriculum
 It is commonly referred to as course of study or
program of study.
 The sum total of all the learning experiences inside
and outside the school
 The set of learnings and experiences for
students/learners planned by the school to attain the
aims of education
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING

1. In a curriculum development class, the teacher asked


the students to give an enriched definition of the
curriculum. Which among the following encompasses the
true essence of the term?
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
a. Curriculum is a list of subjects to take to complete a
course.
b. Curriculum is the sum total of all the learning experiences
in the teaching-learning process.
c. Curriculum is a list of courses in order to graduate.

d. Curriculum is a never ending process in education.


ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING

2. Ordinary people consider curriculum as ___________.


I. a list of subjects
II. courses to complete
III. subjects to undertake
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
a. I only

b. II only

c. III only

d. I, II, and III


ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING

3. Curriculum may be defined in many ways. What does


this prove?
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
a. The concept of curriculum is based on those given by
experts.
b. The concept is limited and narrow in scope.

c. The curriculum is characterized as fragmentary, elusive


and confusing.
d. The concept of curriculum may be defined from different
perspectives.
TYPES OF CURRICULA IN
SCHOOLS
1. Recommended
 These are recommendations in the form of
memoranda or policy, standards and guidelines that
came from government agencies such as DepEd,
CHED and TESDA and professional organizations or
international bodies such as UNESCO.
TYPES OF CURRICULA IN
SCHOOLS
2. Written
 This includes documents based on the
recommended curriculum. They come in the form of
course of study, syllabi, modules, textbooks,
instructional guides among others.
 Example of written curriculum is the teacher’s lesson
plan.
TYPES OF CURRICULA IN
SCHOOLS
3. Taught
 The teacher and the learners will put life to the
written curriculum. The skill of the teacher to facilitate
learning based on the written curriculum with the aid
of instructional materials and facilities is necessary.
TYPES OF CURRICULA IN
SCHOOLS
4. Supported
 These are support materials that the teacher needs.
This includes print materials like books, charts,
worksheets, and non-print materials like PowerPoint
presentations and other electronic illustrations. It also
includes facilities like science laboratory and
playground.
TYPES OF CURRICULA IN
SCHOOLS
5. Assessed
 This is the curriculum that is evaluated after it has
been taught. It can either be assessment for learning,
assessment as learning or assessment of learning.
TYPES OF CURRICULA IN
SCHOOLS
6. Learned
 these are measured by tools in assessment, which
can indicate the cognitive, affective and psychomotor
outcomes. Learned curriculum also demonstrates
higher order and critical thinking and lifelong skills.
TYPES OF CURRICULA IN
SCHOOLS
7. Hidden / Implicit
 This is the unwritten curriculum – peer influence,
school environment, media, parental pressures,
societal changes, cultural practices, natural
calamities are some factors that create hidden
curriculum.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING

1. The Philippine Association for Teachers and Educators


(PAFTE) proposed a new curriculum for Teacher
Education to make the graduates globally competitive.
What type of curriculum is this?
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
a. Supported Curriculum

b. Hidden Curriculum

c. Assessed Curriculum

d. Recommended Curriculum
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING

2. In order to have an effective teaching and learning,


there must be an adequate utilization of learning
materials. What type of curriculum is this?
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
a. Assessed Curriculum

b. Hidden Curriculum

c. Recommended Curriculum

d. Supported Curriculum
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING

3. When teachers conduct a series of evaluation to


determine the extent of teaching, what must be
implemented?
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
a. Hidden Curriculum

b. Taught Curriculum

c. Learned Curriculum

d. Assessed Curriculum
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
4. Materials of Instruction
 These refer to various resources available to the
teachers and learners which will help facilitate
instruction and learning.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
1. Two-dimensional Materials
A. Flat picture
 They are sometimes referred to as universal
language because anybody can read pictures,
although people have different ability in reading
pictures.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
1. Two-dimensional Materials
B. Graphics
 Webster defines it as the art or science of drawing,
especially mechanical drawing. It includes variety of
visual forms such as: graphs, diagrams, charts,
posters, cartoons, comics, and maps.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Three-dimensional Materials
A. Model
 It is a representation of a real thing that is infinitely
large, like the earth, or a thing that is small, like an
atom. A model, therefore, reduces or enlarges
objects to sizes we can observe.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Three-dimensional Materials
B. Realia
 It is an inclusive term that covers the tangible or
visible things which serve the purpose of teaching. It
is classified into objects, specimens, relics, replicas,
and exhibits.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Three-dimensional Materials
C. Mock-up
 It is a full-size dummy or structural model designed
to be worked with directly by the learner for analysis
or training.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Three-dimensional Materials
D. Diorama
 It is a three-dimensional material scene in depth
using a group of modelled objects and figures in a
natural setting.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
2. Three-dimensional Materials
E. Puppets
 Small, usually jointed figures in the forms of human
beings, animals, etc. moved with the hands or by
strings, wires, or rods, usually in a puppet show.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
3. Audio-recording Materials
A. Recordings
 This registers sound or visual images in some
permanent form as on a phonograph disc, magnetic
tape, etc., for reproduction on a playback device.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
3. Audio-recording Materials
B. Radio
 This is an audio device used by teachers in social
studies, music, science, etc. The radio is an effective
audio-device inasmuch as it can be used anywhere
with or without electricity.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
4. Projected Materials
A. Still projection
 Slides, transparencies, filmstrips, overhead
projection, opaque projection, microfilm, microfiche,
microprojection.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
4. Projected Materials
B. Motion pictures
 It is an edited version of reality. This editing which
may involve manipulation of time, space, objects that
can heighten reality by eliminating distractions and
by pointing up relationships that might well be
overlooked.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND
LEARNING
4. Projected Materials
C. Educational television
 TV can provide enrichment and meaning, teach
skills, perform drills, encourage research work and
other projects, and stimulate students to new
insights, perceptions, and discoveries.
MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION
 An effective learning experience is a product of
careful planning.
 Objectives
 Teaching-learning activities
 Classroom environment

 A classroom must be set up in the


consideration of the individual
differences.
MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION

1. HOMOGENEOUS
 It came from a Greek word meaning “same kind” is the
type of grouping that is based on similar characteristics.
 The more alike the members are, the more
homogeneous the group is.
MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION

2. HETEROGENEOUS
 It is derived from a Greek word meaning “different
kinds.”
 It is characterized by the presence of dissimilar
characteristics of the members of the group.
 The more heterogeneous the group is, the more
dissimilar are the members.
BLOOM’S
TAXONOMY

Jamaica C. Olazo
https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
TAXONOMY
• comes from the Greek word
“taxis=arrangements” and “nomos=science”
• Science of arrangements
• means 'a set of classification principles', or
'structure', and
• Domain simply means 'category'.
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Who is BENJAMIN BLOOM?

BENJAMIN SAMUEL BLOOM


- was a Jewish-American educational
psychologist.
Contributions:
1. Classification of Educational
(Feb. 1913 – Sep. 1999) Objectives
2. Theory of Mastery-Learning

125
THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING
Cognitive Domain
(Knowing/Head)

• Mental Skills (KNOWLEDGE)

Psychomotor Domain
(Doing/Hands)

• Manual or physical skills (SKILLS)

Affective Domain
(Feeling/Heart)

• Growth in feelings or emotional areas (ATTITUDE)

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Evolved function, High
complexity

Higher-order
Thinking Skills
to

Lower-order
Thinking Skills
Basic function, Low
complexity
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Development of critical Attitude and
thinking skills emotions domain
PSYCHOMOTOR
DOMAIN
COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE
DOMAIN Physical tasks such as DOMAIN
the manipulating of objects

Origination
Evaluation Adaptation Characterization
Complex Overt Response Organization
Synthesis
Mechanism Valuing
Analysis
Guided Response Responding
Application
Comprehension Set Receiving
Perception
Knowledge

128
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives
in the Cognitive Domain
Higher-order
The Cognitive Domain Thinking Skills
Evaluation
1956
Synthesis
Lower-order
Thinking Skills
Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge 129
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives
in the Cognitive Domain
Higher-order
The Cognitive Domain Thinking Skills

2001(Revised) Creating

Evaluating
Lower-order
Thinking Skills
Analyzing

Applying

Understanding

Remembering 130
ORIGINAL TAXONOMY (1956) ---> REVISED TAXONOMY (2001)

• Knowledge  Remember (I know)


• Comprehension  Understand (I comprehend)
• Analysis  Apply (I can use it)
• Application  Analyze (I can be logical)
 Evaluate (I can judge)
• Synthesis
 Create ( I can plan) 131
• Evaluation Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
R
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy E
M
E
M
B
• REMEMBERING E
- Recall previous learned information. R
I
- Recalling relevant knowledge from long term N
G
memory.
- Rote learning or memorization.

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U
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy N
D
E
R
S
• UNDERSTANDING T
- Comprehending the meaning, translation, A
N
interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and D
problems. State a problem in one's own words. I
N
- Construct meaning and explain. G

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A
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy P
P
L
Y
I
• APPLYING N
- Use a concept in a new situation or G

unprompted use of abstraction.


- applies what was learned in the classroom into
novel situations.
- abstract ideas into practical
situations

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A
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy N
A
L
Y
Z
• ANALYZING I
- Breaking the concept into parts and N
G
understand how each part is related to one
another.
- Illustrate relationships to
one another.

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E
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy V
A
L
U
A
• EVALUATING T
- Making judgments based on a set of I
N
guidelines and the value of ideas or materials. G
- Judge, criticize and assess information using
what you know to make decisions and
support your views.

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C
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy R
E
A
T
I
• CREATING N
- Builds a structure or pattern from diverse G

elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with


emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.
- Putting information together in an innovative
way.

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PSYCHOMOTOR
• Perception
- uses sensory cues to guide
color note listen
describe observe look
find record measure

“The student will identify by its feel a type of visual


aid.”

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PSYCHOMOTOR
• Set
- Demonstrates a readiness to take action to perform
the task or objective
assemble create handle
construct demonstrate imitate
copy execute perform

“The student will demonstrate how to step on a gear.”

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PSYCHOMOTOR
• GUIDED RESPONSE
- Knows steps required to complete the task or
objective
assemble determine use measure
connect experiment relate
convert handle manipulate

“The student will imitate how a particular vowel


sound is produced.”

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PSYCHOMOTOR
• Mechanism
- Performs task or objective in a somewhat
confident, proficient, and habitual manner.
devise manipulate spell out
execute operate use
install perform
“The student will set the microscope for testing
accumulation of bacteria.”

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PSYCHOMOTOR
• Complex Overt Response
- Performs task or objective in a confident,
proficient, and habitual manner.
assemble convert
conduct label use
connect match measure
“The student will encode in the computer.”

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PSYCHOMOTOR
• Adaptation
- Performs task or objective as above, but
can also modify actions to account for new or
problematic situations.
alter move shift
change refine shove
modify revise sift
“The student will arrange the exhibits according to
subject area.”

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PSYCHOMOTOR
• Origination
- Creates new tasks or objectives incorporating
learned ones.
create reflect repair and use
discard and substitute recall and use
recycle and use remember and apply

“The student will create steps for a new folkdance.”

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AFFECTIVE
• Receiving
- Demonstrates willingness to participate in the activity
accept follow locate point to
ask hold name select
choose identify observe sit
describe listen participate

“The student listens to classmates who express


opinions/views.”
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AFFECTIVE
• Responding
- shows interest in the objects, phenomena, or
activity by seeking it out or pursuing it for
answer conform initiate practice
assist discuss intensify read
assume exert label recite
comply greet perform share

“The student will answer a call for sand bagging at


Bucayao River.”
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AFFECTIVE
• Valuing
- Internalizes an appreciation for (values) the
objects, phenomena, or activity.
admire complete find pleasure in
appreciate differentiate invite
commemorate describe sustain
“The student will express appreciation for ancient
Ambahan Mangyan poems.”

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AFFECTIVE
• Organizing
- begins to compare different values, and
resolves conflicts between them to form an
internally consistent system of values.
adhere compare complete equalize
adjust combine control generalize
alter arrange defend organize
“The student will prefer reading newspaper than
playing video games.”

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AFFECTIVE
• Characterizing
- Adopts a long-term value system that is
pervasive, consistent and predictable.
act generate use
display influence solve
conserve modify generate
follow perform verify
“The student will follow the standard norms – a set
of rules adapted in school.”

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SELECTION AND
ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
 One guiding principle related to subject matter
content is to observe the following qualities in
the selection and organization of content:
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
1. Validity
 This means teaching the content that we ought to
teach according to national standards explicit in the K
to 12 Basic Education Curriculum.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
1. Validity
 It also means teaching the content in order to realize
the goals and objectives of the course as laid down in
the basic education curriculum.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
2. Significance
 What we teach should respond to the needs and
interests of the learners, hence meaningful and
significant.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
2. Significance
 Content is reflective of the current needs of
community and the society in general.
 A well-selected content will lead to an educational
efficiency manifested by technically competent
workers.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
3. Balance
 Content included not only facts but also concepts and
values. The use of three level approach ensures a
balance of cognitive, psychomotor and affective
lesson content.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
3. Balance
 Content must not be confined to a particular class,
status, level, place, and person.
 There should not be an exclusion of a particular group
or groups from representation.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
4. Self-sufficiency
 Content fully covers the essentials. The essentials are
sufficiently covered and are treated in-depth.
 Content preparation affords an opportunity for self-
learning.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
5. Interest
 Teachers consider the interest of the learners, their
developmental stages and cultural and ethnic
background.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
6. Utility
 Will this content be of use to the learners?
 It is not meant only to be memorized for test and
grade purposes. What is learned has a function even
after examinations are over.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
7. Learnability
 Language used must be simple, precise, and easily
understood.
 Graphics must provide for clearer explanation /
discussion of topics.
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CONTENT
8. Feasibility
 The content is feasible in the sense that the essential
content can be covered in the amount of time
available for instruction.
 Capable of being done with conditions as they are.
THE HOW OF
TEACHING
Approach
Method

Technique
Approach
 It is a set of principles, beliefs or ideas about the
nature of learning which is translated into the
classroom. It springs from a teacher’s own philosophy
of education, the nature of education, the role of the
teacher and that of the student.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
1. Teacher-centered approach
 The teacher is perceived to be the only reliable
source of information in contrast to the learner-
centered approach which is premised on the belief
that the learner is also an important source because
he/she too knows something and is therefore capable
of sharing something.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
1. Teacher-centered approach
 Teaching consists in teacher telling and prescribing
what learners should do.
 The learner is passive recipient of instruction.
 Teacher-dominated
Examples of Teaching Approaches
2. Subject matter-centered approach
 Subject matter gains primacy over the learner.
 By all means teacher finishes teaching subject matter
as scheduled even if learners have not learned it.
 Sticking to course syllabus or lesson plan is priority of
subject matter-centered teachers.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
2. Subject matter-centered approach
 The teacher does what he/she planned without
necessarily considering learner’s interests, concerns
and situation.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
3. Constructivist approach
 Students are expected to construct knowledge and
meaning out of what they are taught by connecting
them to prior experience.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
4. Banking Approach
 Teacher deposits knowledge into the “empty” minds of
students for students to commit to memory.
 The students are perceived to be “empty receptacles”
waiting to be filled.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
5. Research-based approach
 As the name implies, teaching and learning is
anchored on research findings.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
6. Whole child approach
 The learning process itself takes into account not only
the academic needs of the learners, but also their
emotional, creative, psychological, spiritual and
developmental needs.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
7. Metacognitive Approach
 The teaching process brings the learner to the
process of thinking about thinking.
 The learner reflects on what he learned and on
his/her ways of learning.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
8. Problem-based approach
 The teaching-learning process is focused on
problems.
 Time is spent on analyzying and solving problems.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
9. Discovery Approach
 The discovery approach refers to an inductive method
of guiding learners to discuss and organize ideas and
processes by themselves.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
9. Discovery Approach
 Instead of telling either by teacher or a textbook
explanation, self-discovery sets up learning situations
whereby children are encouraged to explore a
process or discover rules.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
10. Conceptual Approach
 It is choosing and defining the content of a certain
discipline
Examples of Teaching Approaches
11. Process Approach
 Teaching in which knowledge is used as a means to
develop students’ learning skills.
 Students are actively engaged in the activities so the
competencies needed in the subject could eventually
be acquired by them.
Examples of Teaching Approaches
12. Inquiry Approach
 It is the search for truth, information, or knowledge. It
pertains to research and investigation and to seeking
for information by asking questions.
 It is also a search for the solution to a problem
through an exploration and evaluation of alternatives.
Method
 It is an organized, orderly, systematic, well-planned
procedure aimed at facilitating and enhancing student’s
learning.
 It is undertaken according to some rule which is usually
psychological in nature. That is, it considers primarily
the abilities, needs, and interests of the learners.
Technique
 It is a well-defined procedure used to accomplish a
specific task or activity. It is the teacher’s particular
style or trick used to accomplish an immediate
objective.
Categories of Teaching Methods
1. Deductive Method

 The teacher tells or shows directly what he/she wants


to teach.
 It makes use of a generalization to begin with, followed
by specific examples and situations to support the
general statement.
Categories of Teaching Methods
2. Inductive Method

 It begins with questions, problems and details and end


up with answers, generalizations, and conclusions.
Categories of Teaching Methods
3. Lecture Method

 Predominantly teacher-directed aimed at providing


needed information. It involves factual presentation
and textual explanation of a particular topic or few,
selected topics.
Categories of Teaching Methods
3. Lecture Method

 Preparation for the lecture


 Introduction to the lecture
 Giving the body of the lecture
 Conclusion of the lecture
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Lecture Method
1. Outlining technique
 Involves a cognitive framework in which the subject
matter is presented from general to specific.
 There is hierarchy of ideas developed from big to
small, from complex to simple, and from general to
specific.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Lecture Method
2. Component technique
 Instead of breaking up the whole into its parts, the
lecturer organizes his ideas from small to large.
 As the lecture proceeds, more pertinent data are
presented
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Lecture Method
3. Sequential technique
 Provides the most effective, cognitive framework
around which the whole lecture revolves.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Lecture Method
3. Sequential technique
 The chronological arrangement of events in history;
 Stages in the cycle of communications;
 The development of a story plot or a novel
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Lecture Method
4. Relevance technique
 Presentation of a central thought or the singular idea
 Giving all impressions about this idea
 Separating the correct impressions from the incorrect
ones
 Concentrating the lecture on the explanation of the
correct impressions
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Lecture Method
5. Transitional technique
 It presents an in-depth treatment of a particular
topic. It aims to expand and provide different but
acceptable perspectives about the subject of the
lecture.
Categories of Teaching Methods
4. Discussion Method

 A face-to-face encounter between the teacher and the


students and/or between students and students under
the guidance of the teacher aimed at a free exchange
of ideas about a particular topic.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Discussion Method
1. Small-group discussion technique
 It is breaking down the whole class into small
groups in order to encourage and maximize free
exchange of ideas about a familiar topic.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Discussion Method
2. Socialized classroom discussion technique
 It involves a free exchange of ideas between the
class and the teacher.
 The teacher acts as a moderator, guiding and
directing the class discussion.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Discussion Method
3. Direct instruction / classroom teaching technique
 It is a combination of teacher’s exposition and follow-
up discussion on the part of the students.
 The teacher initially provides an information which will
be adopted, supported, and affirmed by the students.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Discussion Method
4. Panel discussion technique
 It is a direct, conversational, and interactional
discussion among a small group of experts or well-
informed persons.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Discussion Method
5. Recitation technique
 It is highly cognitive, highly teacher-directed, highly
structured, student-dominated, and aimed at
developing the study habits of students.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Discussion Method
5. Interview technique
 It involves inviting a resource person to the class and
asking him to answer preconceived questions about a
specific topic.
Categories of Teaching Methods
5. Reporting Method
 It aims to provide students with information in a direct,
uninterrupted manner. It resembles a popular television
format.
 The teacher presents the scope and coverage of the
subject he teaches and later assigns each student
particular topic/s to research on.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Reporting Method
1. Unit or Morrison technique
 It is the process of taking the contents of a particular
subject as big blocks and not as isolated and
fragmentary bits of information.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Reporting Method
2. Individual or group reporting
 It can be done either by individual or by groups of
students.
 It could imitate the format of any popular television
and radio programs.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Reporting Method
3. Reading or story-telling technique
 Pupils could simply be allowed to read from their
books or to narrate their own experiences in relation
to a given topic.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Reporting Method
4. Schematic technique
 It is a type of reporting which considerably makes use
of hardware of instruction. Hence, the products of
instructional technology are extensively used to aid
the reporter.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Reporting Method
5. Symposium technique
 It is closely identified with school forum which is open
to all faculty members and students.
 This is particularly true when there are school
celebrations being commemorated.
Categories of Teaching Methods
6. Demonstration Method
 It is a method of teaching that relies heavily upon
showing the learner a model performance that he
should match or pass after he has seen a presentation
that is live, filmed or electronically operated.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Demonstration Method
1. Teacher-directed technique
 The teacher performs the demonstration, especially
when there is only one set of materials available for
instructional purposes, making it impossible for the
students to work in groups.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Demonstration Method
2. Student-directed technique
 Students, especially the most capable ones could be
taught how to show a demonstration although it could
be done with joint teacher-student participation.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Demonstration Method
3. Teacher-student directed technique
 The teacher performs the demonstration with the
students helping in handling the materials over to the
teacher as he needs them during the demonstration.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Demonstration Method
4. Resource speaker directed technique
 An invited resource speaker could be the
demonstrating teacher himself.
Categories of Teaching Methods
7. Investigatory Method
 It is a method that de-emphasizes the teacher’s
authoritative role in the classroom and focuses more
greatly on the learner’s active involvement.
 It requires the teacher to stay behind the scene while
his students are busy doing an experiment, conducting
an investigation, etc.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Investigatory Method
1. Laboratory technique
 Students manipulate and study a given situation upon
which a given problem lies. The situation being
manipulated is contrived and it necessarily involves
the use of materials.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Investigatory Method
2. Problem-solving technique
 It requires learners to work actively in the solution of a
difficulty or an undesirable situation.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Investigatory Method
3. Research technique
 It is a careful and an organized study designed to
serve a specific purpose. The purpose depends
greatly on the specific type of research.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Investigatory Method
4. Field study technique
 The student investigates a given situation by being a
part of an integral component of it.
 The ultimate purpose is to get a first-hand information
to clear up some uncertainties and doubts.
Categories of Teaching Methods
8. Activity Method
 It refers to a classroom encounter whereby students
are actively engaged in a first-hand, direct experience.
 This is a teaching method in which students’
participation is fully maximized.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Activity Method
1. Project technique
 It calls for an activity that is directly planned,
controlled, executed, and evaluated by students in
order to accomplish a specific goal.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Activity Method
2. Field trip technique
 It is a well-planned excursion, a trip to a special
location which provides students an opportunity to
manipulate knowledge they possess.
 It is also defined as an out-of-the-classroom
experience, primarily for the purpose of observation.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Activity Method
3. Dramatization technique
 It involves telling a story in one’s own distinctive way.
The story is told through acting on a stage by actors
before an audience.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Activity Method
4. Role-playing technique
 It involves an activity in which a student or a group of
students dramatizes his or their real reactions to a certain
problematic situation.
 The purpose is to find out how students will normally
conduct themselves once they are confronted with a
particular kind of conflict.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Activity Method
5. Simulation game technique
 It involves contrived experience previously prepared
aimed at providing students with an illusion of real life
experience.
Bases for Techniques
Comparison
Dramatization Role playing Simulation

Nature theatrical psychological Imitative of a model

Pre-planned
Pre-planned
Performance (feeling in role)
Spontaneous (training for acquiring
skills)

Natural Approximating the


Requirement Concentration of the role
(being oneself) expected behaviour

As much as possible, all


Need for ready script, Stage materials and
needed materials are
Use of Materials props, costumes, sound designs are usually
made real; condition is
effects, etc. imaginary
truthful
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Activity Method
6. Brainstorming technique
 It calls for an activity in which a deliberate attempt is
made to think and speak out freely and creatively
about all possible approaches and solutions to a
given problem.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Activity Method
7. Debate technique
 It is a formal presentation of arguments on both sides
of a question before an audience in accordance with
standardized procedure.
 The purpose of this activity is to present two sides of
an issue – its merits and demerits, etc.
Categories of Teaching Methods
9. Self-pacing Method
 It calls for an activity whereby provision is made for the
individual student to set his own schedule for learning
or rate of achievement, and to monitor his own
progress.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Self-pacing Method
1. Programmed instruction
 It is a system of teaching and learning within which
pre-established subject matter is broken down into
small, discrete steps and carefully organized into a
logical sequence in which it can be learned readily by
students.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Self-pacing Method
2. Modular learning technique
 It is a technique which allows each student to
proceed at his own rate.
 Module – is a self-contained and independent unit of
instruction with a primary focus on a few well-defined
objectives.
Categories of Teaching Methods
10. Traditional Method
 It is learning a subject without actually going through
the expected experiences.
Categories of Teaching Methods
Techniques in the Traditional Method
1. Textbook learning
2. Rote learning
3. Memorization