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The human urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one

urethra. The body takes nutrients from food and converts them into energy. After the body takes the
necessary food components, waste products are left in the intestine and in the blood.The human
urinary system helps the body filter and remove waste products (waste) and maintain chemicals that
the body still needs.The ureteral channel connects the kidneys to the bladder. Then urine will be
stored in the bladder, and expelled through the urethra. In addition to filtering and removing body
waste, the urinary system also maintains homeostasis (balance) of water, ions, pH, blood pressure,
calcium, and red blood cells.Urine formation consists of three processes namely filtration (re-
absorption), reabsorption (re-absorption), and augmentation (collection) or secretion.

The process of formation of urine

1. Filtration

Each kidney has about one million nephrons, which are the formation of urine. At any given
time, about 20 percent of the blood goes through the kidneys to be filtered so that the body can
eliminate metabolic wastes and maintain fluid balance, blood pH, and blood levels. The first part of
the process of forming urine is filtration, which is the process of filtering blood that contains
metabolic waste that can be toxic to the body. In the picture above, the formation process is marked
with the letter A. Filtration occurs in malphigi bodies consisting of glomerulus and Bowman capsules.
Glomerulus filters water, salt, glucose, amino acids, urea and other waste to pass Bowman's
capsules. This filtration results in primary urine. Primary urine includes urea in it, which is produced
from ammonia which is collected when the liver processes amino acids and is filtered by the

2. Reabsorption

About 43 gallons of liquid passes through the filtration process, but most of it is reabsorbed
before being removed from the body. Reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubules of the nephron,
the loop of Henle (loop of Henle), distal tubules and collecting tubules. In the picture above, the
reabsorption process is marked with the letter B. Water, glucose, amino acids, sodium, and other
nutrients are absorbed back into the bloodstream in the capillaries that surround the tubules. Water
moves through the osmosis process, which is the movement of water from an area of high
concentration to a lower concentration. The result of this urine formation process is secondary
urine. Normally all glucose is reabsorbed. However, in people with diabetes, excess glucose persists
in the filtrate. Sodium and other ions are reabsorbed incompletely, with a greater proportion
remaining in the filtrate when more is consumed in food, resulting in higher blood concentrations.
Hormones regulate the active transport process where ions such as sodium and phosphorus are

3. Secretion or augmentation

Secretion is the last stage in the formation of urine, which is when the urine is finally
removed. In the picture above, the secretion process is marked with the letter C. Some substances
flow directly from the blood around the distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubules to the
tubule. The secretion of the removal of hydrogen ions through this process is part of the body's
mechanism for maintaining the right pH, or balance of the body's acids and bases. Potassium ions,
calcium ions and ammonia are also removed at this stage, like some drugs. This is so that the blood
chemical composition remains balanced and normal.
The process occurs by increasing the removal of substances such as potassium and calcium
when concentrations are high and by increasing reabsorption and reducing secretions when levels
are low. Urine made by this process then flows to the middle part of the kidney called the pelvic
kidney, then continues to flow into the ureter and then stored in the bladder. From the bladder,
urine then flows into the urethra and is discharged when urinating.