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DEVELOPMENT OF POWDERED ASHITABA (Gyunara nepalensis) LEAVES

AS CANTON FLAVOR

(PHILIPPINE ASHITABA)

Submitted By:

Group 8

Ferreol, Mhaycie

Pegal, Rubelyn

De Castro, Shella Marie

Magsino, Lea Jane

Jalop, Angel John


ABSTRACT

In the past, the Chinese people has influenced many Filipinos to eat

noodles or canton. This is the food that the Filipino people loves to eat even

today. This is because of its convenience and simplicity. Canton is generally

prepared in some occasions such as birthdays, parties, fiestas and other special

occasions. It can be cooked in different ways and can be added with a variety of

ingredients. In addition, canton is considered as one of the best mirienda among

the Filipino people.

The researchers of the powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor was

inspired to develop this canton in order to help many people obtain a healthy life

style. In addition, this canton will be a great help for those people who does not

eat raw vegetables. This is not an ordinary canton mainly due to its main

ingredient which is Ashitaba (Gyunara nepalensis) is a great medicinal plant that

can cure an array of diseases. In developing this product, we powdered Ashitaba

leaves and added it in the dough. Then using a noodle cutter, we cut the dough.

Then we deep fried the noodles for five minutes using moderate heat.

To test the acceptability of the taste, appearance, packaging, cost and

value of the powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor in the economy. The

researchers gathered data by presenting the product, giving a free taste of the

cooked product, and using a questionnaire for the evaluation. In the results, the

researchers concluded that it is possible to develop a healthy and tasty canton

from powdered Ashitaba leaves. In addition, it can be accepted in the market with

its affordable price and can be purchased by anyone.


CHAPTER I
PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

INTRODUCTION
Herbal medicines have vital roles to every country since the pre-historic

times. We are aware that medicinal plants are commonly employed for

therapeutic purposes throughout the world. The researchers come up with this

idea of developing Ashitaba leaves, not only for the purpose of treating diseases

but also used as a main ingredient for canton. Ashitaba is an herbal plant which

is known as “tomorrow leaf’’ because of its ability to generate new leaves and

grow very fast. Ashitaba takes charge in cleaning the intestines and also protects

the stomach from gastric acids and the special mucus that is secreted in the

interior of the stomach resulting to a healthy state. It is also known because it

contains different types of vitamins and minerals that we can use to treat

numerous ailments including influenza, hepatitis, indigestion, fever and other

microbial infections. Ashitaba has been known for different names in different

countries such as “Gyunara nepalensis, Gyunara procumbens” the ashitaba

grown in the Philippines and the “Angelica keiskie kodzumi” that originated in the

island of Hachijo, Japan.

Most people nowadays are living in a fast paced world and are patronizing

instant products. We always look for a new one. According to Ang (2017),

ashitaba tea is now a very popular beverage sold nationwide. It seems that

throughout the world ashitaba has been used. Now, the ashitaba canton has

been developed. It is made with the use of ashitaba leaves and the careful
procedure, Ashitaba leaves is heated through an oven that causes dehydration

followed by blending it to produce a powder. A separate process is done after

making the noodles and then other ingredients are added.

We, Filipinos are known for being fond of eating noodles. Canton is a stir

fry noodles and one of the perennial item on the Filipino dining table. The

traditional noodles that we know are made up of wheat flour that looks plain with

nothing else on it. Even though the usual noodles we already know has nutrients

on its own, this research is a new one and it is much healthier because of the

ashitaba leaves being used. Varieties of noodles have been popular throughout

the world because of its convenience and simplicity. Noodles became part of our

lives because of its uses. We use it as special delicacies in every occasion, a

snack and viand as well. It is easier to cook than rice and a food combination

friendly. Due to this facts, the researchers were given the ideas on how to

explore this problem by creating the ashitaba canton.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aims to develop a powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor.


Specifically, it is aimed to:

1. develop powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor;

2. test the acceptability of powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor in


terms of appearance, taste and packaging;

3. find the cost and value of the product in the economy.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents related literature and studies which helped the

researchers broaden their knowledge on this research. Those that were included

in this chapter helps in familiarizing information that were relevant and similar to

the present study.

RELATED LITERATURE

The following are the literatures explored by the researchers to provide

information and ideas in developing this research.

Foreign Literature

Caesar (2016), stated that ashitaba is a botanical medicine in Japan

containing diverse bioactive components including prenylated chalcones linear

and angular coumarins, and flavanones. This review provides an overview of the

current knowledge of ashitaba metabolites and biological activities. Ashitaba is

purported to possess cytotoxic, antidiabetic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory

antihypertensive and antimicrobial properties.

In an article of Science Direct website (2015), stated that ashitaba sap is a

consumed plant extract with medicinal properties. Ashitaba in Japan is widely

consumed for its medicinal properties and in Asia as a dietary supplement. It has

a myriad health benefits from inducing the cancer cells, anti-oxidant, anti-

inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Ashitaba green tea is also consumed

in China, Japan and India as a health promoting drink; it is a perennial herb in


Korea as a vegetable juice ingredient and ashitaba leaves have been consumed

as food and medicine.

In an article of WebMD (2009), it was cited that ashitaba is a large herb

that grows primarily in the central region of Japan. Its root, leaf and stem are

used to make medicine. It is used for heartburn, stomach ulcers, high blood

pressure while the fresh leaves and dried powder of ashitaba leaves are used as

food.

In the review from the Journal of Medicinal Foods (2010), ashitaba was

found to have anti-tumor, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic capabilities. Currently,

many healthful benefits from ashitaba were associated with everything from rapid

wound healing to anti-aging cures from around the world.

Okuyama (2013) stated that ashitaba extracts can help treat skin and lung

cancers. In his research, the mice with skin melanomas were given an external

application of ashitaba extracts and were found to have a significant inhibition on

cancer cells. In the tobacco induced lung cancer the mice were given the extract

of ashitaba in fluid and food form. It stated that the lung cancer progression

stopped with the ashitaba therapy.

Local Literature

Lumen (2005), on her blog ‘’Republic of Pancit’’, stated that next to rice,

pancit is the perennial item on the Filipino dining table. Then there comes the

different varieties of Filipino Pancit. The key to its popularity in this country is its

convenience and simplicity of this starchy food. But more importantly, it is a


veritable Pinoy comfort food. It is easier to cook than rice, and more versatile and

food combination-friendly.

Eberle (2013), stated that Ashitaba can help relieve constipation and ease

the bad feeling of rectal blockage and much discomfort in your stomach.

Ashitaba takes charge in cleaning the intestines and also protects the stomach

from gastric acids and the special mucus that is secreted in the interior of the

stomach resulting to a healthy state. Adding ashitaba tea or ashitaba in capsule

form to your diet will help your body to stay normal.

Ursulom and Rialubin (2017), described that Ashitaba (Gynura nepalensis,

Gynura procumbens, Gynura acutifolia) is the Ashitaba grown in the Philippines.

While (Angelica keiskei Kodzumi) is the Ashitaba that was originated in the Island

of Hachijo, Japan. Both Ashitaba have been studied by researchers using

animals and in test tubes and have been claimed to be anti-oxidant, anti-cancer,

anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic.

Martinez (2014), described that Ashitaba is an antioxidant. It is a

superfood with a rare class of flavonoids called Chalcone. The function of

chalcones are it purifies blood, strengthens immune system, monitors cholesterol

level, regulates blood pressure, suppresses acid secretion, prevents thrombus,

suppresses cytophy, anti-bacterial, prevents cancer, and promotes metabolism.

Ang (2017), developed a new product out of the different parts of the

plant, including leaves, stems and roots which are all rich in beneficial elements.

The new product is the Ashitaba powder which has many money-making
possibilities. Ashitaba powder can also be used in many other byproducts. It can

be used to fortify noodles so that they become more nutritious. The powder can

also be added to ice cream, pandesal and other baked products, polvoron,

shampoos, soaps and other beauty products. The powder can also be added to

rice being cooked, to champorado, arroz caldo and noodle soups.

RELATED STUDIES

The following are the studies explored by the researchers to provide

information and ideas in developing this research.

Foreign Studies

Nagata et.al., (2007) on his study entitled “The Effects of Dietary Angelica

Keiskei (Ashitaba) on Serum and Liver Lipid Profiles and Body Fat Accumulation

in Rats” stated that Ashitaba is a perennial plant belonging to the umbelliferae

family. In this study the results indicates that the large intake of ashitaba products

may supply dietary fiber.

Gracilla and Bagunu (2011) on their research entitled “Radiation

Cytogenetic Studies on Philippine Ashitaba (Gynura Nepalensis)” stated that

Philippine ashitaba at 100% and 50 % of leaf extract concentrations when

administered to white mice before radiation treatment where found to reduce the

incidence of chromosomal aberrations. Furthermore, gynura leaf acquaint to

mice for 15 days after irradiation with the same exposure treatment. Gynura leaf

extracts treatment for 15 days after irradiation is not conclusive at this point that

gynura leaf extract possess potential against radiation adverse effects.


Lee et.al., (2015) on their study entitled “Separation of Two Major

Chalcones from Angelica Keiskei by High Speed Counter-Current

Chromatography” cited that Angelica keiskei (ashitaba) is an edible higher plant

with the beneficial preventive effects on cancer, hypertension and coronary heart

disease with the use of a high- speed counter- current.

Ursulom (2013) on her study entitled “Beneficial Effects of Ashitaba

(Gynura Nepalensis); User’s Testimonies” stated that both Ashitaba have been

studied by the researchers using animals and in test tubes and have been

claimed to be anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-

hypertensive and anti-diabetic. Generally this study aimed to widen the

dissemination of the beneficial effects of the Ashitaba based from the testimonies

of the users. Based on the findings of the study, we can conclude that Ashitaba is

a health enhancer, and good medicine for health maintenance. The result is

widely disseminated to be helpful to people.

Ohkura et.al., (2016), on their study entitled “Anti–Platelet Effects of

Chalcones from Angelica Keiskei Koidzumi (Ashitaba) In Vivo” cited that

Ashitaba roots extracted to inhibit platelet aggregation activity in vitro was

determined. However, anti-platelet activities of Ashitaba chalcones in vivo ave

remained unclear. The results suggest that the major chalcone subtype in

ashitaba has anti-platelet activities in vivo.


Local Studies

Dela Pena et.al., (2017) in the research entitled “Gynura Nepalensis: A

Potential Wonder Medicinal Plants”, stated that medicinal plant locally known as

Philippine Ashitaba was utilized as an ethynomedicine to cure a wide array

human sickness such as indigestion, diabetes, cut wounds, cough, asthma,

kidney stones, urinary track bleeding, hepatitis, gall bladder stones, hemmoroids,

constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, blood poisoning, septicima, fertility problems,

skin allergy, rheumatism, high cholesterol level, and high blood pressure.

In the research entitled “Beneficial Effects of Ashitaba”, (Gynura

Nepalensis) Ursulom and Rialubin (2013), reported that some have shown that

the Philippine ashitaba (Gynura Nepalensis) which they suggest to have the

same anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and anti-

hypertensive and anti-diabetic capabilities.

In the research entitled “Radiation Cytogenetic Studies on Philippine

Ashitaba”, Gracilla and Baganu (2014), stated that the ethno pharmacological

and phytochemical properties of the Philippine Ashitaba have been established

and that extract contains alkanoids, catehic tannins, saponins and flavonoids.

Quiming et.al., (2016), in their study entitled “A-glucosidase Inhibition and

Anti-Oxidant Properties of Partially Purified Ethanolic Extracts of Antidesma

Bunius Fruits and Gyunara Nepalensis Leaves” cited that diabetes mellitus is a

metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Current

treatments involved the use of sulfonylureas, a-glucosidase inhibitors, and other


synthetic drugs. After ethanol extraction, the extracts were fractionated using

normal phase liquid column chromatography, with elution solvents ethyl acetate,

methanol and water.

Monteclaro et.al., (2014) in their research entitled “Ginger Ashitaba

Oregano Brew”, cited that the medicinal values of combined ginger, Ashitaba and

oregano can help address health problems such as diabetes, skin diseases and

many more and gave much better benefits to those who want to have a healthy

and enjoyable life.

We chose the above studies as they mentioned the benefits of Ashitaba

like its vitamins and minerals. Many Filipino people loves to eat noodles, pansit

canton, and others because of its simplicity and convenience. We added

Ashitaba leaves in our canton as a main ingredient. It is because ashitaba is full

of vitamins and minerals that are good for the human body. It can help in

constipation and it can also protect the stomach from acid that can cause gastric

and ulcer pain. Ashitaba is an anti-cancer and anti-oxidant it can replenish dead

skin to make your skin skinny and younger. Also, Ashitaba can be mix in other

foods, since unlike other medicinal plants it has no bitter taste.


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter shows the methodology of this study and discusses how the

study was conducted.

A. SUPPLY, TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

1. Supply

Ashitaba Leaves All-purpose flour

Egg Iodized salt

Lye solution Corn oil

Ashitaba Leaves Cooking oil

2. Tools

Tray Mixing bowl

Stainless screen basket Casserole

Measuring cup Stainless oven tray

Sifter

Noodles cutter

3. Equipment

Weighing scale

Oven dryer

Blender

Dough roller
B. PROCEDURE

1. Drying Method

 The cleaned leaves of ashitaba were placed in a stainless oven tray

that has an adequate space for better result.

 The leaves are dried in an oven dryer for 4 hours with the

temperature of 60°.

 Then, blend the dried leaves in a blender to make it powder.

2. Cooking Method

 Sift the all-purpose flour separate to the third class flour.

 Mix it with 3 tbps. of ashitaba powder and then add the 4 eggs, 1

teaspoon of iodized salt, 3 tbps of lye solution and 1 cup of corn oil.

 Then mashed it until the mixture will combines together and then

flattened with the use of dough roller.

 The dough will be cut through the use of noodle cutter and then

transfer it in a stainless screen basket and fried in a deep boiling

cooking oil.

 The powdered ashitaba leaves as canton flavor was packaged and

labeled.
C. CONCEPTUAL MODEL

Preparation of Ashitaba leaves in drying to become powder

Prepare the ashitaba Wash the leaves.


leaves.

Put the leaves into oven Weigh out the leaves.


dehydration.

Leaves after the Use blender to powder the


dehydration. leaves.
Cooking of Powdered Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor

Mix the ingredients. Damping of dough. Use dough roller to


make the dough flatten.

Prepare for frying. Use noodle cutter to Cut the dough.


form dough into
noodles.

Frying of noodles. Packaging of Ashitaba Finish product with label


Canton. and packaging.
D. Product assessment

The research design is composed of the sensory evaluation which is the

analysis of the use of human senses (sight, smell, taste touch and hearing), for

the purpose of evaluating consumer products. It is used to determine the

acceptability of the powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor in terms of taste,

odor, efficiency and convenience of the aesthetic form. This sensory evaluation

was conducted on 30 teachers and students who are food experts and

enthusiasts.

The acceptability of powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor of the

respondents was described using a hedonic scale and its limitation as shown

below.

NUMERICAL STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION

SCALE LIMITS
TASTE/APPEARANCE PACKAGING
9 8.50-9.49 Extremely Liked Extremely convenient and
appealing
8 7.50-8.49 Very Much Liked Very convenient and
appealing
7 6.50-7.49 Moderately Liked Moderately convenient and
appealing
6 5.50-6.49 Slightly Liked Slightly convenient and
appealing
Neither convenient and
5 4.50-5.49 Neither Liked or Disliked
appealing nor inconvenient
and not appealing
4 3.50-4.49 Slightly Disliked Slightly inconvenient and not
appealing
3 2.50-1.49 Moderately Disliked Moderately inconvenient and
not appealing
2 1.50-2.49 Very Much Disliked Very inconvenient and not
appealing
1 1.00-1.49 Extremely Disliked Extremely inconvenient and
not appealing
CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data gathered in the study from the

respondents. These were analyzed and interpreted as follows:

1. Developed Powdered Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor

Figure 1. The final product of powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor and
with its packaging and labeled.

This developed canton is made up of powdered ashitaba leaves, soft flour,

all-purpose flour, egg, water, corn oil, iodized salt, cooking oil and lye solution. It

was made by finikin process started from powdering the leaves to frying. The

packaging for ashitaba canton that we used is foil pack to ensure that it is

properly sealed and to maintain its crispiness for the better result of cooked

canton.

Powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor contains different vitamins and

minerals. It has Vitamin B12 which is commonly sourced from animal products

like liver egg and meat. It contains powerful anti-oxidants that improves skin.
2. Acceptability of the powdered Ashitaba leaves as a canton flavor

There was a table that shows different quality attributes, weighted mean

score and the description in terms of:

2.1. Appearance

The appearance of the canton is a round small strip, green dots

which is the powdered ashitaba leaves and with a crunchy look of canton.

Table 1, shows the computed mean score for the appearance of

the canton. The mean score for the appearance of the product is 8.33. The

computed mean score shows that the respondents was very much like the

powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor.

Furthermore, based on the findings on both tables, it implies that

majority of the respondents extremely like the powdered Ashitaba leaves as

canton flavor but the mean score implies that respondents very much like the

powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor.

2.2. Taste

The taste of the cooked canton was accepted by the evaluators

because of its delicious taste. It is like ordinary canton without the aftertaste of

the Ashitaba.

As seen from table 1, it shows the computed mean for the taste of

the canton. The results show that the respondents have the same description for

the evaluation of the canton. The total mean score of the product in terms of

taste is 8.50 wherein the respondents like it very much.


Based on the results, it implies that the taste of the canton was

accepted by the respondents as they liked it very much.

2.3. Packaging

The packaging of the powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor is

made up of foil which we ensure that it is properly sealed to maintain the

crispiness of the canton.

Table 1 shows the result of the aesthetic form (foil packaging) of

the Ashitaba which was very much liked by the evaluators.

It can be noted that the respondents have the same description of

evaluation as very convenient and appealing on the aesthetic form which has the

mean score of 8.30 of the product.

The overall mean score of the quality attributes of powdered

Ashitaba leaves as canton flavor is 8.38 which described as very much liked.

Based on this finding of the different quality attribute, it is possible to make

Ashitaba leaves as a flavor for canton because of the response of the

respondents as we gathered a study from them.


Table 1. Mean perception of the respondents in different quality attributes
(appearance, taste and packaging) of the powdered Ashitaba leaves as canton
flavor.
QUALITY ATTRIBUTES WEIGHTED MEAN DESCRIPTOR

Appearance 8.33 Very Much Liked

Taste 8.50 Extremely Liked

Packaging ( foil pack) 8.30 Very Much Liked

Overall Mean 8.38 Very Much Liked

3. Computational Cost of the Powdered Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor

3.1 Capital Cost of Powdered Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor

Table 2 shows the total recipe cost of the powdered Ashitaba

leaves as canton flavor. It includes the quantity as purchased, quantity in edible

portion, unit cost as purchased, and extension cost.

A recipe costing process was used to compute the cost analysis of

the product (Bernedez, et. al.)

Step 1. Put the recipe data EP (Edible Portion) Quantity

Step 2. Determine AP (As Purchased) Quantity.

Step 3. Put the price list data.

Step 4. Compute unit price of ingredients.

Step 5. Compute extension cost (Extension cost=AP Qty. x Cost Unit AP).

Step 6. Compute total recipe cost


Table 2. Capital Cost of Powdered Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor

Ingredients Quantity Quantity Purchase Price Cost Unit Extension


(AP) (EP) (AP) Cost
Ashitaba 20 g 5g 50php/20g 2.50 php 12.50 php
Soft flour 1 kl 1 kl 32php/kl 0.032 php 32.00 php
All -purpose 1 ½ kl 1 ½ kl 20php/kl 0.02 php 30.00 php
flour
Egg 4 pcs 4 pcs 6.50php/pc 6.50 php 26.00 php
Iodized salt 150 g 5g 10php/150g 0.07 php 0.35 php
Corn oil 250 ml 50 ml 90php/250ml 0.36 php 18.00 php
Cooking oil 2L 2L 100php/L 0.10 php 200.00
php
Lye solution 1L 15 ml 150 php/L 0.15 php 2.25 php
Total recipe cost 320.40 php

3.2 Mark up price of Powdered Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor

The total recipe cost of flavored powdered Ashitaba leaves as

canton flavor will be divided to the numbers of packs made. Then add the other

expenses which will result to the total amount per pack plus the mark up price of

20%. The result will become the selling price per pack. If the selling price is with

the decimal numbers, round it off.

Table 3 Mark up Price of Powdered Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor

Total Recipe Cost Recipe Cost per Other expenses Price per Foil
pack pack
Php 320.40 Php 10.68 Php 9.15 Php 19.83
Mark Up (20%) 3.97
Selling price Php 24.00
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and

recommendations based on the data gathered, analyzed and interpreted in the

preceding chapter. This research developed the study entitled Powdered

Ashitaba Leaves as Canton Flavor. The following results and findings are hereby

presented.

Summary of Findings

1. It is possible to develop a tasty and healthy canton using the Ashitaba

leaves as a main ingredients.

2. The respondents obtained a high mean score of 8.50 in terms of taste and

a low score of 8.30 in terms of appearance. The overall mean score is

8.38 which shows that the development of powdered Ashitaba leaves as a

canton flavor is very much liked and convenient.

3. In terms of product cost, with the use of 20% mark up: the selling price of

the product is Php 24.00 per foil pack. This new product will be ready for

the local market and the price will be affordable to the costumers.
Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusion were drawn:

1. This product has the potential and could be used to make the Ashitaba

canton a business for micro, small, and medium enterprises.

2. In terms of taste and appearance, all of it were generally accepted. The

aesthetic form is much appealing and convenient most especially when

the user plans to bring them to some other place.

3. The cost of the product is affordable, worth it and can be purchased even

by an average consumer.

Recommendation

The following recommendations are given based on the foregoing

conclusion:

1. The development of powdered Ashitaba leaves is recommended for those

who doesn’t want the taste of vegetables.

2. It can be recommended and used in some pancit cookeries especially the

pancit guisado.

3. To achieve the desire appearance of canton, the pre-frying must be quick

with the moderate heat.

4. Further improvement of the complete packaging of Ashitaba canton,

including the label and quality of materials used should also be taken into

consideration especially the nutritional facts.

5. Further statistical treatment should be used in order to determine the most

appropriate cost analysis of the product.