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# Solved Examples based on Progression

Example 1:

## Find the sum of the series

1 – 3 + 5 – 7 + 9 – 11 + …… upto n terms.

Solution :

This problem can be solved by different approachesm of course some one is tricky,
some one is little bit lengthy. Now you have to judge which one is suitable for
your.

Method I:

In the problem, it is not mentioned that n is even or n is odd. So, take the
different case.

Case I:

When n is even

i.e. n = 2m

## Now, given series can be broken into two series like

(1 + 5 + 9 + 13 +…m terms)

= –n

Case II:

When n is odd

i.e. n = 2m + 1.

## = m+1/2 [2 + 4m] – m/2 [6 + (m–1)4]

= m/2 [2 + 4m – 6 – 4m + 4] + 1 + 2m

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= 2m + 1

=n

Method 2:

Case I:

## When n is even i.e. n = 2m

Take two terms of given series at a time then above series becomes
(–2) + (–2) + (–2) +…… upto m times.

= –n

Case II:

## 1 + (2 + 2 + 2 +…… upto m times)

=1+2m

= n.

Method 3:

1 – 3 + 5 – 7 + 9 – 11 +… upton terms

## And seeing clearly, it is arithmetic geometric series is and common difference is 2

and the first term of geometric series is (–3) and common ratio is (–1).

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–Sn–1 = 3.(–1)2 +…+ (2n–3) (–1)n–1 + (2n–1)(–1)n

Subtracting, we get,

Case I:

When n is even

## 2 Sn–1 = –3 –2n+1 = –2 (n+1)

Sn–1 = –(n+1)

Sn = 1 + Sn–1 = –n

Example 2:

The sum of three consecutive terms in A.P. is 27 and the sum of their squares is
293, then find all three terms.

Solution:

## α – ß, α, α, α + ß are the required numbers.

so (a – ß) + α + (α + ßb) = 27

or 3α = 27

⇒α=9

or ß2 = 25

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ß = +5

So the numbers are 4, 9, 14. Negative values will just reverse the order. (Ans.)

Example 3:

Find the common difference of an A.P. whose first term is 100 and the sum of
whose first six terms is five times the sum of the next six terms.

Solution:

= 3[200 + 5d]

## S7.12 = 7thterm+12thterm/2 × 6(using equation 4)

= 100+6d+100+11d/2 × 6

## Or 1000 + 85d = 200 + 5d

Or 80 d = –800

So d = –10

Example 4:

The sum of three consecutive numbers in G.P. is 39 and their product is 729
then find all three numbers.

Solution :

## Let α/ß, α, αß are required numbers

Product = α3 = 729 = 93
∴α=9
α/ß + α + αß = 39 (given)
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α(1/ß + 1 + ß) = 39

## Multiplying each term by ß

9(1 + ß + ß2) = 39ß
Or 9ß2 + 9ß + 9 – 39ß = 0
Or 9ß2 – 30ß + 9 = 0
ß = 30+√900–324/18 = 30+√576/18
ß = 30+24/18 = 54/18, 6/18 = 3, 1/3
So numbers are 3, 9, 27 or 27, 9, 3. (Ans.)

Example 5:

## If Sp denote the sum of the series 1 + rp + r2p +…… ∝ and sp denote

the sum of series 1 – rp + r2p …… (assume |r| < 1) then prove that

Solution:

## Sp = 1 + rp + r2p +…… (i)

p
=1/1–r
sp =1/1–rp
(here common ratio is – rp)
∴ Sp + sp = 1/1–rp + 1/1–rp = 1+rp+1–rr/1–(rp)2
= 2/1–r2p
= 2 S2p

Example 6:

Solution:

## This problem could be solved by either using progression or

without progression.
Let S = 0.4232232………

Method 1:

## S = 4/10 + 23/1000 + 23/100000 +...

= 4/10 + 23/103 + 23/105 +...
= 4/10 + 23/103 [1 + 1/102 + 1/104 +...]
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= 4/10 + 23/103 [1/1–1/102]
= 4/10 + 23/103 × 100/99
= 4/10 + 23/103 = 419/990
So S is a rational number. (Proved)

Method 2:

1000 S = 423.232323 ……
10 S = 4.232323 ……..
Subtracting, we get,
990 S = 419
S = 419/990

Example:

Solution:

## So b + c, c+a, a+b are in H.P. (Proved)

Example :

If the AM between ‘a’ and ‘b’ is twice as greater as the GM, show that a/b =
7+4√3

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Solution:

A.M. =a/b

G.M. =√ab

We have given

AM = 2 GM

a+b/2 = 2√ab

a+b–4 (ab)1/2 = 0

## divide each term by ‘b’

(a/b) + 1 – 4 (a/b)1/2 = 0

or (√a/b)2 – 4 √a/b + 1 = 0

Example :

## The sequence N of natural numbers is divided into classes as follows

2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

----------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------

Solution:

## So number of elements in first j rows

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= Σ(2j-1) = 2Σ j–Σ 1

= 2 ×j(j+1)/2 – j

= j(j+1–1)=j2

## So sum of (2j-1) terms of A.P. with first term, (j-1)2

Common difference, 1

## 1 = (2j–1)/2 [2{(j–1)2 + 1}+(2j–1).1]

= (2j – 1) (j2 – 2j + 2 + j – 1)

## = (2j – 1) (j2 – j + 1). (Ans.)

Example :

If a1, a2, ……, an are in arithmetic progression, where ai > 0 for all I, show
that

## 1/√a1 + √a2, 1/√a2 + √a3, ......., 1/√an–1 + √an = n–1/√a1 + √an

Solution:

L.H.S. = 1/√a1 + √a2, 1/√a2 + √a3, ......., 1/√an–1 + √an = n–1/√a1 + √an

## = (√a1+√a2)/(√a1+√a2)(√a1–√a2), (√a2+√a3)/(√a2+√3)(√a2–√a3) +…+

(√an–1–√an)/(√an–1+√an)(√an–1–√an)

## Since a1, a2, a3, ……, an are in A.P.

So a2 – a1 = a3 – a2 = …… = an – an–1 = d (say)

## = √an+√a1/d = √an–√a1/(an–a1)/(n–1) = (n–1)(√an–

√a1)/(√an+√a1)(√an–√a1) (from I)

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= n–1/√an+√a1 = R.H.S. (Proved)

Example :

If S be the sum, P the product and R the sum of the reciprocals of n terms of a
G.P.

Solution:

## Given S = a + ar + ar2 +……+ arn–1

P = a.ar.ar2 …… arn–1

## R =1/a + 1/ar + 1/ar2 +...+ 1/arn–1

So, S =a(1–r)r/1–r

P = an.rn(n–1)/2

R =(1/a)(1–1/rn)/1–1/r

## So L.H.S. = (S/R)r = [a(1–rr)/(1–r)×1/a(1–1/rn)/(1–1/r)]

= [a2(1–rn)(r–1/r)/(1–r)(rn–1/rr)]n

## = [a2(1–rn)(r–1)rn/r(1–r)(1–rn)]n = [a2rn–1]n = [anrn(n–1)/2]2

= P2 = R.H.S. (Proved)

Example:

## Find the sum to n terms of the series

1.3.5 + 3.5.7 + 5.7.9. +……

Solution:

Here tn = (2n–1)(2n+1)(2n+3)
∴ Sn = tn = Σ(2n–1)(2n+1)(2n+3)
= Σ((2n)2 –12) (2n+3)
= Σ(4n2 –1)(2n+3)
= Σ(8n3 + 12 n2 – 2n – 3)
= 8 n2(n+1)2/4 + 12 n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 – 2 n(n+1)/2 – 3n
= n[2n (n+1)2 + 2(n+1)(2n+1)–(n+1) –3]
= n[2n (n2 + 2n + 1) +2(2n2 + 3n + 1) – n – 4]
= n[2n3 + 4n2 + 2n2 + 4n2 + 6n + 2 – n – 4]
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= n[2n3 + 8n2 + 7n – 2]
Hence Sn = n[2n3 + 8n2 + 7n – 2]

Example:

## Find the sum of n terms of the series

1/1.2.3.4 + 1/2.3.4.5 + 1/3.4.5.6 +.........

Solution:

tr = 1/r(r+1)(r+2)(r+3)
tr+1 = 1/(r+1)(r+2)(r+3)(r+4)
tr/tr+1 = r+4/r
r tr = (r + 4) tr+1
r tr = (r + 1) tr+1 + 3 tr+1
Putting r = 1, 2, ……, n–1
adding we get, t1 – ntn = 3 [t2 + t2 + t3 +…+ tn]
or 4t1 – ntn = 3[t1 + t2 +…+ tn] = 3 Sn
Sn = 1/3 [4t1 – ntn]
=1/3 [1/1.2.3 – m/3(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)]
= 1/18 – 1/3(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) (Ans.)

Example:

## Sum of the following series to n terms:

1/1.3 + 2/1.3.5 + 3/1.3.5.7 + 4/1.3.5.7.9 +......

Solution:

## tm = m/1.3.5.7 ...... (2m+1)

= 1/2 [2m+1–1/1.3.5.7 ...... (2m+1)]
=1/2 {1/1.3.5 ...... (2m–1) – 1/1.3.5 ...... (2m+1)}
m = 1: t1 =1/2 {1 – 1.3}
m = 2: t2 =1/2 {1/1.3 – 1/1.3.5}
m = 3: t1 =1/2 {1/1.3.5 – 1/1.3.5.7}
m = n: tn =1/2 {1/1.3.5..... (2n–1) – 1/1.3.5......(2n+1)}