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CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS USING LAPLACE TRANSFORM

1

Transforms

A mathematical conversion from one way of thinking to another to make a problem easier to solve.

transform

transform

solution

solution

in transform

in transform

way of

way of

thinking

thinking

inverse

inverse

transform

transform

2

Introduction

Time domain

Laplace
Transformation

Frequency domain

unknown f(t), d/dt, Diff Eqs

Solve

Differential

Equations

unknown F(s), Alg Eqs

Solve

Algebraic

Equations

Time domain

Frequency domain

known f(t)

known F(s)

Inverse

Laplace

Transform

Review of Complex Variables and

Complex functions

s j

Re( s )

Im( s )

tan

1

 
2
2

 

s

| s |

s | s | cos(s ) j sin(s )

Laplace

Transformation

L [

f t

( )]

t

t 

0

st

f t e dt

( )

1( )

t

0,

t

0

1, t 0

,

L [1(

t

) ]

t 

t

0

1 t

( ) e

st

d

t

L [1( )]

t

t

t



0

1

s

e

st

1( )

t e dt

st

t

t



0

t 

t

0

1

s

  lim

t 

e

st

e dt

st

1  

1

s

 Laplace L [ n At e  at 1( )]  t An ! Transformation ( s  a ) n  1 f t ( )  A A cos(  t t  )1( ) , t t  L  A e j  t  e   j t t  L [  cos( L A 2    A 1 )1( e j  t 2 )] 1( ) t A     1   L    A e A 2   j t 2 1( ) t 1( )     s  j      ( s  j  )     s  j  s  j 2 s  j As 2   s  j   s 2   2

Inverse Transforms

Example:

Two of these roots are distinctnamely, at s = 0 and s = 3. A multiple root of multiplicity 2 occurs at s = 1

Partial Fraction Expansion:

Distinct Real Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion: Distinct Complex Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion:

Repeated Real Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion:

Improper Rational Functions

Inverse Laplace Transformation

F ( s )

s 3

(

s

1)(

s

2)

F

( s )

A

s

1

B

s

2

Partial fraction Expansion. “Cover up Rule”

f t

( )

 

A:

Ae

s 3

(

s

B:

2)

s 3

(

s

1)

t

Be

2

t

 

1( )

t

A

(

s

(

s

s 3

(

s

1)

( s

1)

 

  1)( s s B  2   

s

3

2)

(

s

2)

(

s

1)(

s

2)

 

s

A

1

B

2)

 

1)

( )

f t

2

t

e

(

1)

2

t

 e    s A  1 s s 

(

3

2)

B

(

s

s 2

A

s  1

(

s

2)

 

A

s

1

s

B

2

 

B

s 3

(

s

1)

s  2

 

1( )

t

A 2

B 1

Laplace transform of a derivative

L

d

dt

f t

( )

(

sF s

)

f

(0)

Note:

Lower case f indicates function of time. Upper case F indicates function

of s.

(Multiplication by s) =

(differentiation wrt time)

Primes and dots are often used as alternative notations for the derivative.

Dots are almost always used to denote time derivatives.

Primes might denote either time or space derivatives.

In problems with both time and space derivatives, primes are space derivatives and dots are time derivatives.

Inverse Laplace Transformation

F

( s )

 s  5 s  9 s  7 s  s 

(

1)(

2)

3

2

 

s

2

s 3

(

s

1)(

s

2)

s

2

 A B   s  1 s  2

f t

( )

 

t

'( )

2

t Ae

( )

t

Be

2

t

 

1( )

t

A and B same as in previous problem.

 

f t

( )

t

'( )

t

( )

e

t

2

t

 

2

2

1( )

t

e

Inverse Laplace Transformation

 ( F s )  2 s  12 2 s 2  2 s  5 , s F ( s )  2 s  12 ( s 1   j 2)( s 1   j 2)

f t

( )

f t

( )

 

Ae

 

(1

j

 

2.6926

2)

t

e

t

f t

( )

Ae

 

(1

j

2)

e

j

(2

t

 

1.1903)

  2 s 5   A ( s 1   j 2)( s A 1   j 2)   ( s 1   j 2) ( s 1   j 2)

t

 

1( )

t

e

j

(2

t

1.1903)

e

t

cos(2

t

1( )

t

1.1903)   1( )

t

5.3852

A

2

s

12

2(

1

 

j

2)

12

12.5 j 2.6926 e

1.1903 j

1

s  

j

2

j

 

2

1

e

j

2

 

1

j

2

s

1

 

A

2.6926

1.1903 j

Inverse Laplace Transformation

s

2

2

3

A

t

2

1

C

2

3

B

(

s

t

 

1)

2

1( )

t

s

1)

3

C

(

s

1)

3

A

s

1

B

(

s

1)

2

C

(

s

1)

3

s

F ( s )

 

(

s

Ae

t

1)

3 s

( t )  

  1( t )

f t

( )

Bte

2

t e

f

2

C

  e  t e C ( s  1) 3

t

2

t

s

2

B

(

s

1)

2

s

A

s

1

(

s

1)

3

(

(

s

2

1)

3

2

s

2 s 3 ( s 1) A ( s 1) B C

2

2

s

d

ds

3  

s



1

s

2

2 s

  

(

1)

s

3   

s  1

2

A

(

s

2

s

2

1)

s

 

B C

2

s



1

B

0

s  1

A

 

d

2

ds

2

 

s

2

2 s

3  

s  1

  

d

ds

  2 s

2

2   

s  1

2

Inverse Laplace Transformation

sa b 3

  a s 2  3 s  2  t  Be  2

t

X ( s )

)   Ae

(

x t

 

A

 

sa

b

3

a

s 2

 

s

 1

b 2a

 sa  b  3 a A  ( s  1)( s  2) s  1 1( )   t B (2 a  sa  ) b e  t  b  3  a (     s  1  

s

B b a

B

s 2

a b e

)

2 t

1( )

t

 2

Solving DEs

x 2 x 5 x 3, x (0) 0, x (0) 0

s

2 X ( s )

2 sX ( s )

5 X ( s )

3

A .6

s

.3

B  

.15

j

    5 X ( s )  3 s 3 ( s s A 1   2 B j )( s 1   2 j B )  s  s   1 A Be   (1 2 2 j ) j t  s Be   1 2   (1 2 ) j t j  

  s

2

2 s

j 2.6779

.3354 e

.3

B  

.15

j

X

( s )

j 2.6779

.3354 e

X

( s )

 

x t

( )

1( )

t

The Laplace Transform

Transform Pairs:

 f(t) F(s) F(s)  ( t ) 1 u ( t ) f ( t ) F ( s ) 1 s e  st 1 s  a 1 t s 2 t n n ! s n  1

The Laplace Transform

Transform Pairs:

 f(t) F(s) F(s)  a t w e sin( wt ) ( s  a ) 2  w 2  a t cos( wt ) s  a e ( s  a ) 2  w 2 s sin   w cos  sin( wt   ) s 2  w 2 s cos   w sin  cos( wt   ) s 2  w 2

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Element Modeling

i(t)

v(t)

+
_
I(s)
+
V(s)
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Element Modeling

Resistance

+
+
Time Domain
R
v(t) = Ri(t)
v(t)
_
_
+
+
V(s) = RI(s)
R
V(s)
_
_
+
+
V(s) = I(s)
G
V(s)
G
_
_

Complex Frequency Domain

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Element Modeling

Inductor

i(t)
+
v

t
L
_

=L

di(t)

dt

+
I(s)
sL
(s)
V L (s) = sLI(s) - Li(0)
Best for mesh
V L
_
+ Li(0)
_
+
I(s)
i(0)
Best for nodal
V L (s)
sL
s
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Capacitor

+
i(t)
t
1
v
( )
t
i t dt
( )
v
(0)
c
c
C
0
_
+
I(s)
1
sC
v
c (0)
I(s)
V C (s)
Mesh
V C (s) =
+
+
V C (0)
s
sC
_
s
_
+
I(s)
1
v
C (s)
v
c (0)C
sC
Nodal
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Time domain to complex frequency domain

v 1 (0)
_
L 2
R 2
R !
+
_
_
v 2 (0)
+
C
i 2 (t)
1
C
2
+
V A (t)
V B (t)
L 1
_
i 1 (t)
+
v 1 (0 )
L
2 i 2 (0)
_
_
s
+
+
sL 2
R !
R 2
1
1
sC 1
sC 2
_
v 2 (0 )
+
+
s
+
V
A (s)
V
B (s)
_
_
sL 1
+
L
1 i 1 (0)
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Application:

Given the circuit below. Assume zero IC’s. Use Laplace to find v c (t).

The time domain circuit:

2u(t) V

t = 0
100 
+
+
0.001 F
v c (t)
_
_
 V ( s )  c V ( s )  c

2  

s  

1000

s

100

20

1000

s

s

(

s

10)

Laplace circuit

2

s

t = 0
100 
+
+
1000
I(s)
V c (s)
s
_
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Application:

t = 0
100 
+
+
1000
2
I(s)
V c (s)
s
s
_
_
20
2
2
V
(
s
) 
c
s
(
s
10)
s
s  10
 10 t
2
v
( ) 
t
 2
e
u t
( )
c

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Application:

Given the circuit below. Assume v c ( 0 ) = - 4 V.

Use Laplace to find v c (t).

The time domain circuit:

2u(t) V

t = 0
100 
+
+
0.001 F
v c (t)
_
_

Laplace circuit:

2

s

100

4

s

) 100

6

s 10

1000

s

(

I s

(

I s

)

2

s

t = 0
100 
+
1000
+
s
_
I(s)
V c (s)
4
_
s
+
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Application:

t = 0
100 
+
1000
+
s
2
_
I(s)
V c (s)
s
4
_
s
+
_
2
4
s
20
A
B
V
(
s
) 
c
s
(
s 
10)
s
s 
10
2
6
V
(
s
) 
c
s
s  10
 10 t
2
v
( ) 
t
6
e
u
( )
t
1
2
100
I
(
s
)
V
(
c
s
)
0
s
2
6
 V
(
c
s
)
s s  10

Check the boundary conditions

3

v c (0) =

- 4 V

v c (oo) = 2 V

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Find i 0 (t) using Laplace

Circuit Application:

2 H
1 
2 
i 0 (t)
+
4u(t)
1 
e
-t u(t)
1 F
_
2s
1 
2 
+
4
1
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
I 3 (s)
1 
s
s
s+1
_

Time Domain

Laplace

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Application:
Find i 0 (t) using Laplace
2s
1 
2 
+
4
1
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
1 
I 3 (s)
s
s
s+1
_
Mesh 1
 ( s  s 1) I 1 ( s )  I 2 ( s s )  4 s ( s  1) I 1 ( s )  I 2 ( s )  4

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Find i 0 (t) using Laplace

Circuit Application:

4

s

1 
2 
+
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
1 
I 3 (s)
s
_

1

s+1

 Mesh 2  1 3 s  1 s I 1 ( s )  s I ) 2 ( s  I 3 ( s )  0  1 s I 1 ( s )  3 s  s 1 I 2 ( s )  1 s  1  0  I 1 ( s )  (3 s  1) I 2 ( s )  s s  1  ( s  1) I 1 ( s )  ( s  1)( 3 s  1) I 2 ( s )  s

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Find i 0 (t) using Laplace

Circuit Application:

4

+

_

I 1 (s)

1

s

I 2 (s)

1

I 3 (s)

s+1

s

1

( s 
1)
I s  I
(
)
(
s 
)
4
1
2

( s 1) I ( s )( s 1)(3 s 1) I ( s ) s

1

2

s (3

s

4)

I s s

2

(

)

4

equations

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Circuit Application:
Find i 0 (t) using Laplace
+
4
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
1 
I 3 (s)
s
s
_
 s (3 I s  4) I s  s  2 ( ) )   1 3  ( s  4)  4 1  2 3 2 ( s s