Anda di halaman 1dari 41
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS USING LAPLACE TRANSFORM 1

CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS USING LAPLACE TRANSFORM

1

Transforms

A mathematical conversion from one way of thinking to another to make a problem easier to solve.

transform

transform

solution

solution

in transform

in transform

way of

way of

thinking

thinking

inverse

inverse

transform

transform

solution in transform in transform way of way of thinking thinking inverse inverse transform transform 2
solution in transform in transform way of way of thinking thinking inverse inverse transform transform 2
solution in transform in transform way of way of thinking thinking inverse inverse transform transform 2
solution in transform in transform way of way of thinking thinking inverse inverse transform transform 2

2

solution in transform in transform way of way of thinking thinking inverse inverse transform transform 2

Introduction

Time domain

Laplace Transformation
Laplace
Transformation

Frequency domain

unknown f(t), d/dt, Diff Eqs

Solve

Differential

Equations

unknown f(t), d/dt, Diff Eqs Solve Differential Equations unknown F(s), Alg Eqs Solve Algebraic Equations Time

unknown F(s), Alg Eqs

Diff Eqs Solve Differential Equations unknown F(s), Alg Eqs Solve Algebraic Equations Time domain Frequency domain

Solve

Algebraic

Equations

Time domain

Frequency domain

known f(t)

known F(s)

F(s), Alg Eqs Solve Algebraic Equations Time domain Frequency domain known f(t) known F(s) Inverse Laplace

Inverse

Laplace

Transform

F(s), Alg Eqs Solve Algebraic Equations Time domain Frequency domain known f(t) known F(s) Inverse Laplace

Review of Complex Variables and

Complex functions

s j

Re( s )

Im( s )

tan

1

  2 2
 
2
2

 

s

| s |

s | s | cos(s ) j sin(s )

     2 2   s | s |  s 
     2 2   s | s |  s 
     2 2   s | s |  s 

Laplace

Transformation

L [

f t

( )]

t

t 

0

st

f t e dt

( )

1( )

t

0,

t

0

1, t 0

,

L [1(

t

) ]

t 

t

0

1 t

( ) e

st

d

t

L [1( )]

t

t

t



0

1

s

e

st

1( )

t e dt

st

t

t



0

t 

t

0

1

s

  lim

t 

e

st

e dt

st

1  

1

s

 t t   0 t  t   0  1 s 

Laplace

 

L [

n

At e

at

1( )]

t

 

An !

 

Transformation

 

(

s

a

)

n 1

 

f t

( )

A

A

cos(

t

t

)1( ) ,

t

t

L

A

e

j

t

e

j

t

t

 

L [

cos(

L

A

2

A

1

)1(

e

j

t

2

)]

1( )

t

A

1

L

A

e

A

2

j

t

2

1( )

t

1( )

s

j

(

s

j

)

 

 

 
     

s

j

 

 

s

j

2

s

j

As

 

2



s

j

 

 
 

s

2

2

 
Inverse Transforms Example:  Two of these roots are distinct — namely, at s =
Inverse Transforms Example:  Two of these roots are distinct — namely, at s =
Inverse Transforms Example:  Two of these roots are distinct — namely, at s =
Inverse Transforms Example:  Two of these roots are distinct — namely, at s =

Inverse Transforms

Inverse Transforms Example:  Two of these roots are distinct — namely, at s = 0
Example:
Example:

Two of these roots are distinctnamely, at s = 0 and s = 3. A multiple root of multiplicity 2 occurs at s = 1

roots are distinct — namely, at s = 0 and s = — 3. A multiple
roots are distinct — namely, at s = 0 and s = — 3. A multiple
roots are distinct — namely, at s = 0 and s = — 3. A multiple
roots are distinct — namely, at s = 0 and s = — 3. A multiple

Partial Fraction Expansion:

Distinct Real Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion: Distinct Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Distinct Real Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion: Distinct Complex Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion: Distinct Complex Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion:

Repeated Real Roots of D(s)

Partial Fraction Expansion: Repeated Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Repeated Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Repeated Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Repeated Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Repeated Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Repeated Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Repeated Real Roots of D(s)
Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions
Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions
Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions
Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions

Partial Fraction Expansion:

Improper Rational Functions

Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions
Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions
Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions
Partial Fraction Expansion: Improper Rational Functions

Inverse Laplace Transformation

F ( s )

s 3

(

s

1)(

s

2)

F

( s )

A

s

1

B

s

2

Partial fraction Expansion. “Cover up Rule”

f t

( )

 

A:

Ae

s 3

(

s

B:

2)

s 3

(

s

1)

t

Be

2

t

 

1( )

t

A

(

s

(

s

s 3

(

s

1)

( s

1)

 

1)(

s

s

B

2

 

s

3

2)

(

s

2)

(

s

1)(

s

2)

 

s

A

1

B

2)

 

1)

( )

f t

2

t

e

(

1)

2

t

 

e

 

s

A

1

s

s

(

3

2)

B

(

s

s 2

A

s  1

(

s

2)

 

A

s

1

s

B

2

 

B

s 3

(

s

1)

s  2

 

1( )

t

A 2

B 1

Laplace transform of a derivative

L

d

dt

f t

( )

(

sF s

)

f

(0)

Note:

Lower case f indicates function of time. Upper case F indicates function

of s.

(Multiplication by s) =

(differentiation wrt time)

Primes and dots are often used as alternative notations for the derivative.

Dots are almost always used to denote time derivatives.

Primes might denote either time or space derivatives.

In problems with both time and space derivatives, primes are space derivatives and dots are time derivatives.

In problems with both time and space derivatives, primes are space derivatives and dots are time

Inverse Laplace Transformation

F

( s )

s

5

s

9

s

7

 

s

s

 

(

1)(

2)

3

2

 

s

2

s 3

(

s

1)(

s

2)

s

2

 

A

B

 

s

1

s

2

f t

( )

 

t

'( )

2

t Ae

( )

t

Be

2

t

 

1( )

t

A and B same as in previous problem.

 2 t   1( ) t A and B same as in previous problem.
 2 t   1( ) t A and B same as in previous problem.

 

f t

( )

t

'( )

t

( )

e

t

2

t

 

2

2

1( )

t

e

Inverse Laplace Transformation

(

F s

)

2

s

12

 

2

 

s

2

2

s

5

,

s

F ( s )

 

2

s

12

 

(

s

1

 

j

2)(

s

1

 

j

2)

f t

( )

f t

( )

 

Ae

 

(1

j

 

2.6926

2)

t

e

t

f t

( )

Ae

 

(1

j

2)

e

j

(2

t

 

1.1903)

2

s

5

 

A

(

s

1

 

j

2)(

s

A

1

 

j

2)

 
 

(

s

1

 

j

2)

(

s

1

 

j

2)

 

t

 

1( )

t

e

j

(2

t

1.1903)

e

t

cos(2

t

1( )

t

1.1903)   1( )

t

5.3852

A

2

s

12

2(

1

 

j

2)

12

12.5 j 2.6926 e

1.1903 j

1

s  

j

2

j

 

2

1

e

j

2

 

1

j

2

s

1

 

A

2.6926

1.1903 j

Inverse Laplace Transformation

s

2

2

3

A

t

2

1

C

2

3

B

(

s

t

 

1)

2

1( )

t

s

1)

3

C

(

s

1)

3

A

s

1

B

(

s

1)

2

C

(

s

1)

3

s

F ( s )

 

(

s

Ae

t

1)

3 s

( t )  

  1( t )

f t

( )

Bte

2

t e

f

2

C

 

e

t e

C

 

(

s

1)

3

t

2

t

s

2

B

(

s

1)

2

s

A

s

1

(

s

1)

3

(

(

s

2

1)

3

2

s

2 s 3 ( s 1) A ( s 1) B C

2

2

s

d

ds

3  

s



1

s

2

2 s

  

(

1)

s

3   

s  1

2

A

(

s

2

s

2

1)

s

 

B C

2

s



1

B

0

s  1

A

 

d

2

ds

2

 

s

2

2 s

3  

s  1

  

d

ds

  2 s

2

2   

s  1

2

3      s  1     d ds 

Inverse Laplace Transformation

sa b 3

 

 

a

s

2

3

s

2

 

t

Be

2

t

X ( s )

)   Ae

(

x t

 

A

 

sa

b

3

a

s 2

 

s

 1

b 2a

 

sa

b

3

a

 

A

 
 

 
 

(

s

1)(

s

2)

s

1

1( )  

t

B

(2

a

sa

)

b e

t

b

3

a

(

 

 

 

s

1

 

s

B b a

B

s 2

a b e

)

2 t

1( )

t

  s  1   s B  b  a B s  2

 2

Solving DEs

x 2 x 5 x 3, x (0) 0, x (0) 0

s

2 X ( s )

2 sX ( s )

5 X ( s )

3

A .6

s

.3

B  

.15

j

 

5

X ( s )

3

 

s

 

3

(

s s

A

1

 

2

B

j

)(

s

1

 

2

j

B

)

 
 

s

s

 

1

A Be

 

(1

2

2

j

)

j t

s

Be

 

1

2

 

(1

2

)

j t

j

  s

2

2 s

j 2.6779

.3354 e

.3

B  

.15

j

X

( s )

j 2.6779

.3354 e

.3354 e .3 B   .15 j X ( s )   j 2.6779
.3354 e .3 B   .15 j X ( s )   j 2.6779

X

( s )

 

x t

( )

1( )

t

The Laplace Transform

Transform Pairs:

 

f(t)

 

F(s)

 

F(s)

(

t

)

1

 
 

u

(

t

)

f

( t )

F ( s )

1

 
 

s

 

e

st

 

1

 

s

a

1

 

t

s

2

t

n

 

n !

s

n 1

 
st   1   s  a 1   t s 2 t n   n
st   1   s  a 1   t s 2 t n   n

The Laplace Transform

The Laplace Transform Transform Pairs:   f(t) F(s)       F(s)  a t w
The Laplace Transform Transform Pairs:   f(t) F(s)       F(s)  a t w

Transform Pairs:

 

f(t)

F(s)

   
 

F(s)

a t

w

   

e

sin(

wt

)

 
 

(

s

a

)

2

w

2

 

a t

cos(

wt

)

 

s

a

e

 

(

s

a

)

2

w

2

 

s

sin

w

cos

sin(

wt

)

   
 

s

2

w

2

 

s

cos

w

sin

cos(

wt

)

 

s

2

w

2

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Element Modeling i(t) v(t) + _ I(s) + V(s) _
Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Element Modeling i(t) v(t) + _ I(s) + V(s) _

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Element Modeling i(t) v(t) + _ I(s) + V(s) _

Circuit Element Modeling

i(t)

i(t)

i(t)
v(t) + _

v(t)

+ _
+
_
v(t) + _
I(s) + V(s) _
I(s)
+
V(s)
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Element Modeling Resistance + + Time Domain R v(t) = Ri(t) v(t)

Circuit Element Modeling

Resistance

+ + Time Domain R v(t) = Ri(t) v(t) _ _ + + V(s) =
+
+
Time Domain
R
v(t) = Ri(t)
v(t)
_
_
+
+
V(s) = RI(s)
R
V(s)
_
_
+
+
V(s) = I(s)
G
V(s)
G
_
_

Complex Frequency Domain

v(t) = Ri(t) v(t) _ _ + + V(s) = RI(s) R V(s) _ _ +
Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Element Modeling Inductor i(t) + v  t L _ =L
Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Element Modeling Inductor i(t) + v  t L _ =L

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Element Modeling Inductor i(t) + v  t L _ =L di(t)

Circuit Element Modeling

Inductor

i(t) + v  t L _
i(t)
+
v

t
L
_

=L

di(t)

dt

+ I(s) sL (s) V L (s) = sLI(s) - Li(0) Best for mesh V
+
I(s)
sL
(s)
V L (s) = sLI(s) - Li(0)
Best for mesh
V L
_
+ Li(0)
_
+
I(s)
i(0)
Best for nodal
V L (s)
sL
s
_
sL (s) V L (s) = sLI(s) - Li(0) Best for mesh V L _ +
sL (s) V L (s) = sLI(s) - Li(0) Best for mesh V L _ +

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Capacitor + i(t) t 1 v ( ) t   i t

Capacitor

+ i(t) t 1 v ( ) t   i t dt ( )
+
i(t)
t
1
v
( )
t
i t dt
( )
v
(0)
c
c
C
0
_
+
I(s)
1
sC
v
c (0)
I(s)
V C (s)
Mesh
V C (s) =
+
+
V C (0)
s
sC
_
s
_
+
I(s)
1
v
C (s)
v
c (0)C
sC
Nodal
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Time domain to complex frequency domain v 1 (0) _ L 2 R

Time domain to complex frequency domain

v 1 (0) _ L 2 R 2 R ! + _ _ v 2
v 1 (0)
_
L 2
R 2
R !
+
_
_
v 2 (0)
+
C
i 2 (t)
1
C
2
+
V A (t)
V B (t)
L 1
_
i 1 (t)
+
v 1 (0 )
L
2 i 2 (0)
_
_
s
+
+
sL 2
R !
R 2
1
1
sC 1
sC 2
_
v 2 (0 )
+
+
s
+
V
A (s)
V
B (s)
_
_
sL 1
+
L
1 i 1 (0)
_
_ s + + sL 2 R ! R 2 1 1 sC 1 sC 2

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: Given the circuit below. Assume zero IC’s. Use Laplace to find

Circuit Application:

Given the circuit below. Assume zero IC’s. Use Laplace to find v c (t).

The time domain circuit:

2u(t) V

t = 0 100  + + 0.001 F v c (t) _ _
t = 0
100 
+
+
0.001 F
v c (t)
_
_

V

(

s

)

c

V

(

s

)

c

2  

s  

1000

s

100

20

1000

s

s

(

s

10)

Laplace circuit

2

2 s t = 0 100  + + 1000 I(s) V c (s) s _

s

t = 0 100  + + 1000 I(s) V c (s) s _ _
t = 0
100 
+
+
1000
I(s)
V c (s)
s
_
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: t = 0 100  + + 1000 2 I(s)
Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: t = 0 100  + + 1000 2 I(s)

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: t = 0 100  + + 1000 2 I(s) V

Circuit Application:

t = 0 100  + + 1000 2 I(s) V c (s) s s
t = 0
100 
+
+
1000
2
I(s)
V c (s)
s
s
_
_
20
2
2
V
(
s
) 
c
s
(
s
10)
s
s  10
 10 t
2
v
( ) 
t
 2
e
u t
( )
c
2 V ( s )    c s ( s  10) s s
2 V ( s )    c s ( s  10) s s

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: Given the circuit below. Assume v c ( 0 ) =

Circuit Application:

Given the circuit below. Assume v c ( 0 ) = - 4 V.

Use Laplace to find v c (t).

The time domain circuit:

2u(t) V

t = 0 100  + + 0.001 F v c (t) _ _
t = 0
100 
+
+
0.001 F
v c (t)
_
_

Laplace circuit:

2

s

100

4

s

) 100

6

s 10

1000

s

(

I s

(

I s

)

2

s

t = 0 100  + 1000 + s _ I(s) V c (s) 4
t = 0
100 
+
1000
+
s
_
I(s)
V c (s)
4
_
s
+
_

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: t = 0 100  + 1000 + s 2 _

Circuit Application:

t = 0 100  + 1000 + s 2 _ I(s) V c (s)
t = 0
100 
+
1000
+
s
2
_
I(s)
V c (s)
s
4
_
s
+
_
2
4
s
20
A
B
V
(
s
) 
c
s
(
s 
10)
s
s 
10
2
6
V
(
s
) 
c
s
s  10
 10 t
2
v
( ) 
t
6
e
u
( )
t
1
1
2  100 I ( s )  V ( c s )  0
2
100
I
(
s
)
V
(
c
s
)
0
s
2
6
 V
(
c
s
)
s s  10

Check the boundary conditions

3
3

v c (0) =

- 4 V

v c (oo) = 2 V

0 s 2 6   V ( c s ) s s  10 Check
Laplace Circuit Analysis Find i 0 (t) using Laplace Circuit Application: 2 H 1 

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Find i 0 (t) using Laplace Circuit Application: 2 H 1  2

Find i 0 (t) using Laplace

Circuit Application:

2 H 1  2  i 0 (t) + 4u(t) 1  e -t
2 H
1 
2 
i 0 (t)
+
4u(t)
1 
e
-t u(t)
1 F
_
2s
1 
2 
+
4
1
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
I 3 (s)
1 
s
s
s+1
_

Time Domain

Laplace

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: Find i 0 (t) using Laplace 2s 1  2
Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: Find i 0 (t) using Laplace 2s 1  2

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: Find i 0 (t) using Laplace 2s 1  2 
Circuit Application: Find i 0 (t) using Laplace 2s 1  2  + 4
Circuit Application:
Find i 0 (t) using Laplace
2s
1 
2 
+
4
1
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
1 
I 3 (s)
s
s
s+1
_
Mesh 1

(

s

s

1)

I

1

( s )

I

2

(

s

s

)

 

4

s

   

(

s

1)

I

1

(

s

)

I

2

(

s

)

4

  4 s     ( s  1) I 1 ( s )  I
  4 s     ( s  1) I 1 ( s )  I
Laplace Circuit Analysis Find i 0 (t) using Laplace Circuit Application: 4 s 1 
Laplace Circuit Analysis Find i 0 (t) using Laplace Circuit Application: 4 s 1 

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Find i 0 (t) using Laplace Circuit Application: 4 s 1  2

Find i 0 (t) using Laplace

Circuit Application:

4

s

1  2  + 1 I 1 (s) I 2 (s) 1  I
1 
2 
+
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
1 
I 3 (s)
s
_

1

s+1

Mesh 2

1

3

s

1

 

s

I

1

(

s

)

 

s

I )

2

(

s

I

3

(

s

)

 

0

1

s

I

1

(

s

)

3

s

s

1

I 2

(

s

)

1

s 1

0

 

I

1

(

s

)

(3

s

1)

I

2

(

s

)

s

s 1

 
   

(

s

1)

I

1

(

s

)

(

s

1)( 3

s

1)

I

2

(

s

)

s

s  1) I 1 ( s )  ( s  1)( 3 s 
s  1) I 1 ( s )  ( s  1)( 3 s 

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Find i 0 (t) using Laplace Circuit Application: 4 + _ I 1

Find i 0 (t) using Laplace

Circuit Application:

4

+

_

4 + _ I 1 (s) 1 s I 2 (s) 1  I 3 (s)
I 1 (s) 1 s I 2 (s) 1  I 3 (s)

I 1 (s)

1

s

I 2 (s)

1

I 3 (s)

s+1

s

s 1

1

( s  1) I s  I ( ) ( s  ) 4
( s 
1)
I s  I
(
)
(
s 
)
4
1
2

( s 1) I ( s )( s 1)(3 s 1) I ( s ) s

1

2

s (3

s

4)

I s s

2

(

)

4

Add these 2

equations

1)(3 s  1) I ( s )  s 1 2 s (3 s 

Laplace Circuit Analysis

Laplace Circuit Analysis Circuit Application: Find i 0 (t) using Laplace + 4 1 I 1
Circuit Application: Find i 0 (t) using Laplace + 4 1 I 1 (s) I
Circuit Application:
Find i 0 (t) using Laplace
+
4
1
I 1 (s)
I 2 (s)
1 
I 3 (s)
s
s
_

s

(3

I

s

4)

I s s

2

(

)

)

1 3
1
3

(

s

4)

4

1

2 3
2
3
 

2

(

s

s