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Ulasan Energi Terbarukan dan Berkelanjutan 114 (2019) 109331

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Terbarukan dan Berkelanjutan Ulasan Energi

jurnal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Karbon dioksida sebagai kerja panas bumi fl uid: Sebuah Tinjauan

Ana Filipa Esteves, Francisca Maria Santos, José Carlos Magalhaes Pires *
LEPABE - Laboratorium Rekayasa Proses, Lingkungan, Bioteknologi dan Energi, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal

ARTICLEINFO ABSTRAK

Kata kunci: Karbon dioksida (CO 2) telah diusulkan untuk digunakan sebagai kerja panas bumi fl uid, karena menyajikan ditingkatkan sifat termodinamika untuk
menangkap karbon aplikasi ini jika dibandingkan dengan sistem berbasis air. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menyajikan gambaran tentang penelitian terbaru uang muka
Pemanfaatan dan penyimpanan CO 2 - Sistem CO 2- sistem panas bumi berdasarkan, terutama CO 2- sistem ditingkatkan dan CO 2- plume teknologi energi panas bumi. Hasil dari proyek operasional
panas bumi ditingkatkan CO 2 plume energi
baru-baru ini juga dijelaskan. teknologi baru ini dapat meningkatkan e FFI siensi sistem panas bumi dan dampak lingkungan mereka, mempromosikan
panas bumi geothermal Kerja Keberlanjutan fl uid
keberlanjutan proses dan membantu untuk mengatasi beberapa masalah yang paling penting yang Kemanusiaan sedang menghadapi: (i) perubahan
iklim global; (Ii) ketersediaan energi; dan (iii) kelangkaan air. Untuk penyebaran teknologi ini pada skala besar, beberapa masalah dan ketidakpastian
yang mengidentifikasi fi ed. perhatian khusus difokuskan pada dasar fi Temuan dicapai dalam proyek-proyek operasional.

1. Perkenalan akhir proses untuk mengontrol CO yang 2 emisi, juga disebut end-of-pipe teknologi [ 3 ]. Dalam kegiatan
produksi, listrik dan panas generasi, industri dan transportasi adalah kontributor utama untuk CO
Pesatnya pertumbuhan penduduk dunia dan kegiatan antropogenik yang terkait telah global yang 2 emisi. Emisi dari sektor ini dapat e ff ectively dikendalikan dengan penerapan beberapa
meningkatkan konsentrasi rumah kaca gas (GHG) di atmosfer, terutama karbon dioksida (CO 2). Untuk pendekatan dan kebijakan: (i) peningkatan energi e FFI siensi dan mempromosikan konservasi energi;
menunjukkan dimensi kepedulian lingkungan ini, CO atmosfer 2 Konsentrasi adalah sekitar 200 bagian (Ii) penggunaan transportasi umum; (Iii) menghasilkan energi dari sumber terbarukan, seperti
per juta (ppm) pada periode glasial, sementara tingkat ini secara historis melebihi 400 ppm pada matahari atau panas bumi [ 4 . 5 ]. Menggunakan sistem panas bumi untuk menghasilkan energi
tahun 2013 [ 1 ]. Peningkatan CO atmosfer 2 Konsentrasi ini terutama disebabkan oleh tindakan memiliki beberapa keunggulan dibandingkan sumber terbarukan lainnya, yaitu: (i) produksi listrik
manusia (misalnya pembakaran bahan bakar fosil), dan itu mengarah ke perubahan iklim yang terus menerus; (Ii) pembangkit energi bersih dan berkelanjutan; (Iii) mengurangi CO 2 emisi dan
menyebabkan dampak negatif di seluruh dunia. Terus meningkat dari CO 2 konsentrasi atmosfer kontaminan udara dan air lainnya; (Iv) air tawar kecil penggunaan [ 6 ].
menciptakan ketidakseimbangan energi merupakan bumi karena pengurangan radiasi inframerah
yang dipancarkan ke angkasa, yang menyebabkan peningkatan suhu global. Selain itu, hilangnya
gletser, dan snowpack, permafrost mencair, intensi fi kation fenomena parah cuaca (hujan lebat dan
badai kuat) dan munculnya permukaan laut dapat beberapa dampak ireversibel [ 2 ]. Selain itu,
munculnya CO atmosfer 2 konsentrasi meningkatkan pembubaran gas ini di laut, menyebabkan acidi Pada dasarnya, pembangkit listrik panas bumi bergantung pada ekstraksi energi termal dan
nya fi kation dengan dampak negatif yang terkait pada keanekaragaman hayati. untuk itu, tiga teknologi utama, berdasarkan suhu operasional, dapat dibedakan: (i) fl uap abu; (Ii) uap
kering; dan (iii) siklus biner. Itu fi pertama dua teknologi yang digunakan ketika sumber daya panas
bumi memiliki suhu yang tinggi, sementara yang terakhir digunakan untuk suhu yang lebih rendah [ 7 - 10
]. Sistem ini beroperasi dengan menggunakan kerja yang

fl uid, umumnya air [ 11 ]. Pada siklus biner, diperlukan suatu kerja kedua fl uid, di mana yang paling
Konsekuensi yang disebutkan di atas dari tren saat ini CO atmosfer 2 tingkat menjadi salah satu umum fl UID adalah propana, i-butana, nbutane, i-pentana, n-pentana dan amonia (NH 3) [ 8 ]. Sistem
isu lingkungan yang paling penting bagi kelangsungan dunia; Oleh karena itu, hal ini sangat panas bumi biasanya menggunakan air dingin untuk mengangkut ke permukaan panas yang diserap
mendesak untuk dari batu panas. Di permukaan, energi panas di dalam air berubah menjadi energi listrik dengan
fi nd solusi untuk mengurangi CO 2 konsentrasi. Mitigasi emisi ini dapat dicapai dengan dua cara: (i) menggunakan turbin dan generator [ 11 ]. Siklus biner beroperasi dalam dua siklus dipisahkan,
mengurangi emisi yang dihasilkan dari kegiatan produksi; atau (ii) menggunakan teknologi oleh

*
Penulis yang sesuai.
Alamat email: jcpires@fe.up.pt (JC Magalhães Pires).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.109331
Menerima 28 November 2018; Diterima dalam bentuk direvisi 4 Agustus 2019; Diterima Agustus 2019 8
1364-0321 / © 2019 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
AF Esteves, et al. Ulasan Energi Terbarukan dan Berkelanjutan 114 (2019) 109331

singkatan GA-TOUGH2 - algoritma genetika - Transportasi Jenuh


Air Tanah dan Panas Versi 2 GRK - Gas rumah
CCS - BERSAMA 2 Menangkap dan Penyimpanan CCUS - BERSAMA 2 Capture, kaca HDR - Hot LCA batu kering -
Pemanfaatan dan Penyimpanan CNRS

Pusat Nasional untuk Ilmiah fi c Penelitian CPG - Penilaian siklus hidup


BERSAMA 2 Plume Geothermal EGS - TOUGH2 Transportasi Jenuh Air Tanah dan Panas Versi 2
sistem panas bumi ditingkatkan atau direkayasa

lingkaran panas bumi, yang mengangkut panas yang diserap dari batu panas untuk evaporator, dan dampak lingkungan dan biaya). Dengan demikian, makalah ini bertujuan untuk meninjau kemajuan
loop daya, di mana kerja kedua fl uid muncul sebagai uap jenuh (proses pertukaran panas pada penelitian terbaru di CO 2- sistem panas bumi berbasis, mencoba untuk menjawab kesenjangan
evaporator), yang berkembang di turbin dan menghasilkan listrik di generator [ 8 . 12 ]. sistem panas pengetahuan yang disebutkan. Fokus khusus akan diberikan kepada penemuan dasar yang dicapai dalam
bumi beroperasi melalui sirkulasi terus menerus panas dan fl uid [ 13 ]. proyek operasional baru-baru ini.

2. CO 2- sistem panas bumi berdasarkan


sistem panas bumi ditingkatkan atau direkayasa (EGS) adalah teknologi panas bumi lebih e FFI sien
untuk memproduksi listrik karena merupakan sistem suhu tinggi. EGS fokus pada ekstrak energi
Seperti disebutkan di atas, CO 2 telah diusulkan sebagai kerja panas bumi
panas bumi dari zona dimana permeabilitas alami rendah atau daerah batuan kering panas. Untuk
fl uid karena sifat termodinamika yang ditingkatkan dibandingkan dengan sistem berbasis air, yang
meningkatkan permeabilitas, rekah hidrolik diterapkan untuk membuat atau membuka patah tulang
mewakili kesempatan untuk menyimpannya geologis. Dalam tulisan ini, CO 2- sistem panas bumi
yang ada melalui suntikan bertekanan fl uid [ 10 ]. Kemudian, sumur produksi dan sistem injeksi
berdasarkan maksud baik CO 2- EGS dan CO 2 membanggakan panas bumi (CPG) sistem. Aplikasi CO 2
dibangun beredar panas bumi fl uid untuk mengekstrak panas [ 14 ]. Perbaikan yang dapat dibuat di
sebagai kerja panas bumi fl uid adalah fi pertama dijelaskan dalam EGS [ 14 . 18 . 23 . 24 ]; Namun,
daerah ini terutama terkait dengan biaya pengeboran dan kehilangan air [ 11 ]. Namun,
Randolph dan Saar [ 25 ] Disajikan inovatif CO pendekatan yang ditunjuk 2- membanggakan panas bumi
pengembangan EGS mungkin menyajikan beberapa dampak lingkungan, menjadi penghalang untuk
(CPG) sistem ( Gambar. 1 ). Membandingkan sistem ini, CO 2- EGS membutuhkan arti yang fi Generasi
aplikasi di seluruh dunia. Sebagai contoh, mungkin termasuk polusi udara dan air, yang disebabkan resmi dari waduk permeabel tinggi dengan CO terbatas 2 kapasitas penyimpanan. Di sisi lain, CPG
kegempaan dan konsumsi air. menghilangkan kebutuhan untuk patahan batu untuk membuat daerah permeabel tinggi.
Menggunakan permeabilitas cekungan sedimen tinggi alami dengan CO yang tinggi 2 kapasitas
penyimpanan. Biasanya, di CO 2- sistem panas bumi berdasarkan, CO 2 disuntikkan dalam bentuk
superkritis nya (SCO 2); Oleh karena itu, adalah mungkin untuk memiliki CO 2 dalam fase cair atau gas
Tabel 1 menunjukkan dampak lingkungan yang potensial dan hambatan pelaksanaan EGS. Selain
atau campuran dua fase. Dalam nya bentuk superkritis, CO 2 dapat berubah dari fase gas ke fase cair
dampak lingkungan yang potensial, ada kelembagaan, regulasi, teknologi dan fi aspek keuangan yang dan sebaliknya tanpa batas fase [ 26 ]. Di CO 2 injeksi ke reservoir, tiga utama
memaksakan kelemahan dalam menyebarkan EGS [ 6 ].

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, CO 2 telah diusulkan sebagai kerja sebuah fl uid, menggantikan air
dalam sistem panas bumi [ 15 - 17 ]. Penggunaan CO 2 di EGS memiliki sebagai keuntungan utama: (i) CO 2 adalah
pelarut yang buruk untuk mineral di batu; (Ii) viskositas rendah, yang memungkinkan tingkat ekstraksi
panas yang lebih tinggi (bila dibandingkan dengan air); (Iii) kompresibilitas besar dan kemungkinan
Tabel 1
memperluas yang dapat menghasilkan gaya apung; (Iv) menyita dari CO 2 dapat terjadi di dalam bawah Potensi dampak dan hambatan dari EGS penyebaran [ 6 ] (Hak Cipta 2019, Elsevier).
permukaan [ 18 ]. Namun, penggunaan CO 2 sebagai kerja yang

dampak Deskripsi
fl uid tergantung pada kemajuan CO 2 penangkapan dan penyimpanan (CCS) teknologi. BERSAMA 2 dapat
ditangkap dari sumber industri atau dari atmosfer berikut dengan penyimpanan di formasi bawah Tanah dan lanskap Penggunaan lahan; perubahan pemandangan alam

tanah (misalnya habis reservoir minyak dan gas atau akuifer garam dalam) atau di laut. Diperkirakan vegetasi yang toleran terhadap panas Peningkatan suhu rizosfer
Induced kegempaan Injeksi tekanan tinggi fl UID ke dalam formasi yang mendalam
bahwa 90% dari CO yang 2 emisi dari sumber besar bisa terjebak dan disimpan dengan aman.
Penggunaan teknologi CCS dapat mengurangi CO 2 emisi sebesar 19% pada tahun 2050 [ 19 ].
tanah longsor yang disebabkan Disebabkan oleh suhu dan air tingkat, terutama di daerah dengan
Menurut Perjanjian Paris (ditandatangani oleh beberapa negara), penggunaan teknologi CCS penting tingkat tinggi aktivitas tektonik
karena emisi GRK harus dikurangi untuk membatasi peningkatan suhu rata-rata global di bawah 2 ° C
penggunaan air kelangkaan sumber daya
[ 20 ]. Dalam Dimaksudkan Kontribusi nasional Ditentukan, Uni Eropa menetapkan tujuan
limbah panas Ine FFI siensi dalam konversi listrik
pengurangan 40% dari emisi GRK pada tahun 2030 (membandingkan dengan nilai-nilai pada tahun
Kebisingan Pengeboran, debit dan mesin
1990) [ 21 ]. Selain penyimpanan geologi, CO 2 dapat digunakan dalam proses industri lainnya, seperti Kualitas udara Emisi CO 2, hidrogen sul fi de (H 2 S), metana (CH 4), merkuri (Hg) dan
produksi bahan bakar, bahan kimia nilai tambah, hijau dan tinggi nilai tambah produk (misalnya amonia (NH 3)

kaca-keramik) atau digunakan untuk meningkatkan proses biologis [ 22 ]. Oleh karena itu, CO 2 menangkap Kualitas air Cairan yang mengandung logam berat, NH 3, H 2 S, dan klorida (Cl)

dan valorisation o ff er kesempatan untuk mempromosikan keberlanjutan proses, sementara juga


hambatan
menghasilkan pendapatan. Penggunaan CO 2 sebagai kerja panas bumi fl uid dapat meningkatkan e FFI
Kelembagaan kesesuaian lahan dan ketersediaan Kurangnya kesadaran dari lembaga
siensi sistem panas bumi dan, secara bersamaan, gas ini dapat terjebak dalam waduk geologi, pemerintah tentang bene yang fi ts energi panas bumi
memberikan kontribusi untuk pengurangan CO 2 emisi ke atmosfer (Namun, CO bersih 2 capture
potensi terbatas bila dibandingkan dengan CCS). peraturan Kompleks hukum dan peraturan birokrasi regulasi yang tidak
jelas dalam penilaian prosedur Ketidaksesuaian antara
peraturan dan tindakan
teknologi kesenjangan pengetahuan dan ketidakpastian teknologi
Kurangnya keahlian dan pusat penelitian akses terbatas ke data
risiko tinggi

Keuangan Tidak ada kelayakan ekonomi harga tinggi


untuk penggunaan air harga beli listrik
Sejauh diketahui, tidak ada karya yang diterbitkan menyajikan gambaran sistematis penerapan Rendah
CO 2 panas bumi fl uid baik dari segi energi dan iklim isu-isu (termasuk analisis Lainnya Kurangnya penerimaan sosial dan kesadaran masyarakat kurangnya

pemangku kepentingan / investor swasta

2
AF Esteves, et al. Ulasan Energi Terbarukan dan Berkelanjutan 114 (2019) 109331

Gambar. 1. BERSAMA 2- sistem membanggakan panas bumi [ 25 ] (Hak Cipta 2011, Wiley).

zona diciptakan (lihat Gambar. 2 ). Di zona 1, fl uid adalah CO 2 dalam bentuk superkritis nya. Di zona 2, fl Sebaliknya, CPG menghilangkan kebutuhan untuk hydrofracturing sejak panas pemulihan dilakukan

uid terdiri dari campuran dua fase CO 2 melalui besar, waduk alami berpori [ 25 . 47 . 48 ]. The di utama ff Erences antara CPG dan CO 2- EGS
adalah permeabilitas dan kedalaman reservoir. Teknologi CPG diterapkan untuk waduk sedimen
dan air, dan fi akhirnya, di zona 3, fl uid telah dibubarkan CO 2 dan dalam satu air fase [ 27 ]. Meja 2 menyajikan
beberapa studi penelitian terbaru tentang CO 2- sistem panas bumi berbasis. alami yang memiliki permeabilitas tinggi dan porositas, yang ditindih rendah permeabilitas cap batu [ 38
. 49 ]. waduk ini biasanya dangkal (1 - 4 km bukannya 4 - 7 km), dan karena itu, suhu lebih rendah (<100
° C). Oleh karena itu, sistem ini memungkinkan eksplorasi formasi geologi dengan rendah

2.1. Properties dan desain sistem

Konsep EGS terdiri dari Hot Kering Batu (HDR). HDR terdiri dari memperoleh panas dari batuan
yang secara alami tidak memiliki patah tulang dengan permeabilitas yang rendah [ 11 ]. Umumnya, air
digunakan sebagai kerja suatu fl uid yang dipompa melalui bidang batu panas, di mana terjadi
pertukaran panas [ 41 ]. Karena batu tidak memiliki patah tulang, proses bernama hydrofracturing
digunakan untuk membuat area pertukaran panas antara HDR dan kerja fl uid. Proses ini dapat
menyebabkan kegempaan karena exceedance disengaja tekanan fraktur kritis [ 42 ]. Dengan
mempertimbangkan sifat-sifat kerja panas bumi fl UID, CO 2

menyajikan keuntungan sebagai berikut bila dibandingkan dengan air: (i) kompresibilitas besar dan
kemungkinan memperluas yang dapat menghasilkan gaya apung, yang mengarah ke konsumsi
memompa lebih rendah untuk menjaga fl uid beredar; (Ii) CO 2 tidak pelarut ionik dan itu adalah pelarut
yang buruk untuk mineral batuan; (Iii) CO 2 memiliki tingkat pertukaran panas yang lebih besar bila
dibandingkan dengan air; (Iv) viskositas rendah, yang memungkinkan tinggi fl kecepatan ow yang akan
menghasilkan tingkat ekstraksi massa yang lebih besar, untuk gradien tekanan yang diberikan.
Sebagai kerugian, CO 2 memiliki spesifik lebih kecil fi curang; Namun, ini dikompensasi oleh viskositas
yang lebih rendah [ 14 . 43 ]. Sebagai viskositas CO 2 sedikit meningkat dengan suhu, sebagian besar
tekanan dapat digunakan dalam produksi sumur daripada menggunakan untuk memindahkan fl uid [ 31
]. Bila dibandingkan dengan air-EGS, CO 2- EGS mengambil keuntungan ketika: (i) pembentukan
sekitarnya memiliki permeabilitas yang tinggi; (Ii) permeabilitas reservoir rendah; dan (iii) lubang
sumur memiliki jari-jari besar, dan suhu waduk awal rendah [ 14 . 33 . 44 - 46 ]. di

Gambar. 2. Zona dibuat ketika CO 2 disuntikkan di panas retak batu [ 27 ] (Hak Cipta 2015, Elsevier).

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A.F. Esteves, et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 114 (2019) 109331

Table 2
Summary of CO 2- based geothermal systems latest studies.

Type Scope Ref.

Experimental Experimental investigations of laminar convection heat transfer of supercritical CO 2 in an arti fi cial smooth parallel-plate fracture and a rough fracture for enhanced geothermal systems. [ 28 ]

Experimental investigation of laminar convective heat transfer of CO 2 at supercritical pressures in an arti fi cial horizontal fracture of granite rock to analyse the e ff ects of mass fl ow rate [ 29 ]
and initial rock temperature on the heat-transfer performance in the fracture.
Experimental and Modelling Numerical simulations to evaluate the interaction between the fl uid and the rock that occur in the CO 2- EGS. [ 27 ]
Modelling Comparative analysis between CO 2 versus H 2 O as an EGS working fl uid and analysis of alternative working fl uids. [ 30 ]
Numerical simulations to extract the heat through subsurface fl ow in CO 2- EGS simulations using the multi-phase fl ow solver TOUGH2 and optimisation. [ 31 ]

Evaluation of enhanced geothermal systems performance using impure CO 2 as fl uid for large-scale CO 2 utilisation. [ 32 ]
Simulation of heat extraction and CO 2 sequestration simultaneously in a CO 2- EGS based on a developed 3D thermal-hydrologic model, and comparison between CO 2- EGS and [ 33 ]
water-EGS for di ff erent parameters.
Study of the impact of fl uid-rock interactions in CO 2- geothermal systems and their impact on fl uid circulation. [ 34 ]
Description of hybrid solar and EGS system using a CO 2- EGS system and a supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle and e ffi ciency comparison between the hybrid system and the two [ 35 ]
systems separately.
Study of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of di ff erent geothermal fi elds to evaluate the mechanisms of CO 2 trapping in hydrothermal reservoirs. [ 36 ]

Development of a model for simulating CO 2 fl ow in a geothermal horizontal well. [ 37 ]


Performance of a geothermal horizontal well using CO 2 as working fl uid [ 16 ]
Numerical simulations and comparison between CPG, CO 2- EGS and water-EGS [ 26 ]
Comparison of CO 2- based geothermal systems (CPG and CO 2- EGS) with water-EGS and with conventional water-based geothermal reservoir systems. [ 25 ]

Evaluation of the thermosiphon e ff ect at di ff erent depths and geothermal gradients [ 38 ]


Numerical modelling to evaluate the heat extraction at a CPG with multi-layered [ 39 ]
Review Review the studies about analytical analyses, lab-scale experiments, fi eld-scale modelling methods, heat transfer in the reservoir energy conversion in EGS using water/CO 2 as [ 40 ]
working fl uid.

suhu dan permeabilitas yang umumnya tidak ekonomis layak [ 50 ]. CPG waduk jauh lebih besar, dan increased with the geothermal gradient, and this value was two times higher than water losses.
permeabilitas yang tinggi memungkinkan lebih tinggi fl uid fl kecepatan transfer ow dan panas Another important parameter to be analysed is exergy that represents the maximum amount of
menghasilkan kuat termosipon e ff dll. The termosipon e ff ect is developed through the combination of mechanical work that an energy carrying fl uid at a given temperature and pressure can provide [ 51 ].
the CO 2 properties, which can generate a large pressure gradient even at low temperatures (the result Water and CO 2 were compared to determine which fl uid o ff ers an enhanced geothermal energy
of the shallower depth). Additionally, since the reservoirs are much larger, the CO 2 sequestration extraction. Depending on the temperature and pressure of the fl uid, CO 2 can carry a total exergy 4.3
potential is higher compared to CO 2- EGS [ 48 , 50 ]. to 15.7 times higher than water. Olasolo et al. [ 30 ] studied the possibility of using other geothermal fl uids
rather than water and CO 2 and studied which thermodynamic properties of geothermal working fl uids
are considered important for this application. In their study, they compared cyclopentane, acetone,
hydrazine, carbon suboxide and nitrous oxide with CO 2 as a working fl uid. The high performance of
CO 2
2.2. Simulation and optimisation

Several simulation studies were performed to evaluate di ff erent phenomena in CO 2 geothermal


systems: (i) the system performance with di ff erent geothermal working fl uids; (ii) mass and heat
as a working fl uid compared to water was corroborated. The working
transfer; (iii) geochemical reactions, among others. For instance, Pruess [ 14 ] evaluated the e ffi ciency
fl uid properties to take into account are: (i) high compressibility and expansibility; (ii) low viscosity and
of the use of CO 2 instead of water through modelling of CO 2 injection, energy production, and increase in viscosity for lower temperatures; and (iii) high mass heat capacity. Taking into account
fractured reservoir development using their thermophysical properties. CO 2- EGS generate 50% larger these properties, the nitrous oxide was also considered a potential alternative to the most studied
net heat extraction rates compared to water-EGS. The use of CO 2 also presents advantages in terms working fl uids (water and CO 2). However, the presented results depend on the considered
of hydraulics. Its large compressibility and expansibility reduce the parasitic power consumption of the assumptions and parameters. For di ff erent EGS plants, a new analysis should be performed. Zhang
fl uid circulation system. However, the simulations were performed without considering the creation of et al. [ 32 ] studied the possibility of using impure CO 2 as a working fl uid rather than treating CO 2 only
the EGS reservoir. Moreover, the environmental bene fi t associated with this technology (CO 2 to be stored underground. They evaluated the system performance for large-scale CO 2 utilisation and
predicted the temperature and pressure variation in the injection, production wells and the reservoir
between them. However, to use impure CO 2 in this system, there are some limitations: (i) the impure
CO 2- EGS design must guarantee a self-driven cycle (since the compressibility and expansibility is
reduced, which can increase the power consumption due to the pumping necessity); (ii) the Organic
geological storage) was only estimated based on the water-based system tested in the Fenton Hill hot
Rankine cycle working fl uid choice should be made in accordance to the temperature of the impure
dry rock project, remaining uncertainties regarding the chemical interactions between the fl uid and CO 2 during its production; (iii) when the impurity fractions are high, the e ffi ciency of the EGS
rocks. Several parameters may in fl uence the loss of CO 2 in the circulation system: (i) rock decreases and should not surpass 10%.
permeability; (ii) porosity; (iii) water chemistry; and (iv) reservoir mineralogy. Contrary to water-based
systems, the loss of CO 2

could provide economic bene fi ts and incentives (improving the economics of CO 2- EGS), if CO 2 emissions
are taxed for climate change mitigation. The study of CO 2 geochemistry is also important due to the
modi fi cation of porosity and permeability of the reservoir, a ff ecting the heat extraction e ffi ciency.
Wang et al. [ 33 ] compared CO 2- EGS and water-EGS for di ff erent parameters and simulated heat During the EGS processes, supercritical pressure conditions (P > P crit) are achieved [ 40 ]. When
extraction and CO 2 sequestration simultaneously in a CO 2- EGS. Their study showed that the amount this occurs, the properties of the
of sequestered CO 2 increased with the permeability of the surrounding formation. Besides, the fl uid can change, which mainly a ff ects the heat extraction ratio. In the case of the CO 2- EGS, the heat
cumulative amount of CO 2 extraction is higher in supercritical conditions than in subcritical conditions (P < P crit) due to the low

4
A.F. Esteves, et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 114 (2019) 109331

density of the CO 2 in subcritical conditions [ 24 , 41 ]. One of the main problems of CO 2- EGS is that CO 2 sequestration mechanism is the storage in the stimulated reservoir. The existing Habanero 1 − Habenero

along with the production well the CO 2 4 doublet model estimated CO 2


expands, causing the temperature drop. Therefore, the production well needs to be isolated thermally storage of 94,500 tonnes per year and this value could increase to
[ 40 ]. Concerning heat transfer of this system, Zhang et al. [ 28 ] compared the convective heat transfer 572,000 tonnes of CO 2 per year in the next stage base project with a sixspot well pattern (assuming of
in a smooth parallel-plate fracture and a rough and tortuous fracture. This study is important to predict 5% fl uid loss). The use of supercritical CO 2 may require the water removal from the reservoir. CO 2 mixed
the heat transfer performance in EGS. The heat extracted was less in the rough and tortuous fracture with water form an acidic solution, causing dissolution and precipitation problems in the reservoir and
than in a smooth parallel-plate fracture, with an equivalent hydraulic aperture (measured in volumetric corrosion of the pipes.
fl ow and pressure drop based on a cubic law). The cause of the lower heat exchange e ffi ciency was
the channelling (occurrence of a region of local stagnation where the fl uid fl ow around) and Biagi et al. [ 31 ] optimised a CO 2- EGS system by numerical simulations, combining a genetic
disturbance (the Nusselt number increases for higher Reynolds number) e ff ects. Jiang et al. [ 29 ] algorithm and a multi-phase fl ow solver TOUGH2 (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat
evaluated the e ff ect of mass fl ow and initial rock temperature on the convective heat transfer by Version 2), designated as GA-TOUGH2. The GA-THOUGH2 optimised the CO 2 injection rate with
supercritical CO 2 in an arti fi cial granite rock fracture. The experiments were carried out with mass fl ow constant mass and pressure to control the production temperature variation and to guarantee the heat
rates of 0.35 and 0.75 kg·h − 1 ( with initial rock temperature of 80 °C and 200 °C) and with initial rock extraction. The simulations were performed in a timeline of 35 years with an optimisation baseline of
temperature of 200 bar and 200 °C for the injection of the CO 2. The optimal constant mass injection rate was 34.92 kg
·s − 1, which gives a production temperature after 35 years slightly higher than 100 °C. However, for a
constant mass injection rate, the injection well pressure declines with time. Therefore, the
temperature pro fi le for a constant pressure injection was optimised, and the pressure drop between
the injection and the production was 19.3 bar. For this optimised pressure injection, the reservoir has
50, 150 and 250 °C. The heat transfer was enhanced by a higher mass a slower temperature decline, which was kept above 100 °C for the entire 35 years. Additionally, the
fl ow (CO 2 approaches its pseudocritical point) and a lower initial rock temperature. The determined heat extraction is less than the baseline case; however, the upgraded temperature pro fi le results
relationships between variables may be incorporated in the fi eld-scale simulations to evaluate the improve the sustainability of the EGS operation. Jiang et al. [ 35 ] compared the potential of using a
performance of EGS reservoirs and to optimise their design. hybrid system (a combination of a CO 2- EGS and a closed-loop supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles for
solar thermal) with the two systems used separately. The hybrid system had equal or higher e ffi ciency
Concerning the study of geochemical reactions, Na et al. [ 27 ] performed batch experiments than the two separated systems. Additionally, there was no need for a compressor in a hybrid system
under in-situ reservoirs of the Songlian Basin (China) to analyse fl uid-rock interaction of a CO 2- EGS. due to the reduction of the operation pressure, which reduces the installation and maintenance costs.
Additionally, the experimental data were used to validate the numerical model. Experiments were
performed at high temperature and pressure reactors. This study aimed to evaluate the change of
minerals solubility due to the presence of water in CO 2- EGS, which can have an impact on reservoir
longevity. Signi fi cant mineral composition changes were identi fi ed at CO 2- EGS reservoir, which
changes the fl uid fl ow. The injection of supercritical CO 2 led to the dissolution of primary minerals (e.g.
calcite and K-feldspar) and the precipitation of secondary carbonate (e.g. calcite and ankerite).
However, the numerical simulations were partially successful in the prediction of the laboratory
results. Some factors were identi fi ed for the achieved deviations: (i) solubility and kinetic data using in
the simulations; and (ii) impurities not considered in the minerals that could a ff ect the solubility of Oldenburg et al. [ 53 ] evaluated the performance of a U-shape closed-loop geothermal system
other minerals. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals were also identi fi ed as a result of the using CO 2 as a working fl uid. The reservoir permeability, the injection temperature and the fl ow rate
injection of supercritical CO 2 by Xu et al. [ 34 ]. In this study, reactive transport modelling was had an important impact on energy recovery. Natural convection favoured the heat transfer, and the fl ow
performed using thermal conditions and composition of minerals of two reservoirs: Songliao and Cran fi rate should be about 25 kg·s − 1 for a 15 cm pipe with CO 2 at 35 °C to produce a sustainable
eld sites. Besides the evaluation of mineral dissolution and precipitation, the authors aimed to analyse thermosiphon. Moreover, although water presented better heat extraction for certain fl ow rates, CO 2 achieved
the porosity change (a ff ecting fl uid and heat transfer) and CO 2 loss rates. Based on the simulations, higher pressures at the production well, which can help the super fi cial energy recovery. Sun et al. [ 16 ]
the precipitation of carbonates did not a ff ect the porosity and the fl uid fl ow signi fi cantly and can evaluated the performance of the geothermal horizontal well and concluded that a larger mass fl ow
contribute to the sequestration of CO 2. However, as in other referred studies, the results are speci fi c to rate and lower injection temperature are suggested to improve the energy extraction rate. Higher
the considered conditions and parameters (e.g. salinity). Elidemir and Güleç [ 36 ] studied high- and injection pressure might overload the equipment. The parameters to improve the economic
low-temperature geothermal performance of the horizontal well were also optimised [ 37 ], where a low injection rate and pressure
were recommended.

Regarding CPG systems, Randolph et al. [ 50 ] evaluated the hypothesis of considering the
wellbore fl ow and heat transfer as an adiabatic process. The authors used a quasi-one-dimensional
reservoirs from western Anatolia heat transfer model, assuming only radial heat transfer. The model was developed using the
(Turkey), trying to evaluate the mechanisms of CO 2 sequestration. Temperature showed to be an Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software in combination with MATLAB. The initial conditions for
important variable for CO 2 stabilisation, as high values promote mineral trapping (by carbonate the CO 2 at the inlet of the well were fi xed at 25MPa, 100 °C, and 80 kg·s − 1. The authors concluded that
precipitation). At the low-temperature geothermal reservoir, carbonate precipitation is followed by its adiabatic conditions are achieved approximately
dissolution. In this case, base cations should be supplied to mineral trapping. Xu et al. [ 52 ] analysed
the interactions between the CO 2 and the rocks around, using one and two-dimensional models and
realised that the CO 2 had been sequestrated in the rock. By carbonate precipitation, a maximum of 50 fi ve days after the system operation and that the fl ow rate of 80 kg·s − 1
kg CO 2 ·m − 3 of the medium was trapped. However, the precipitation and mineral alteration generally will extract 9MW of thermal energy. The authors recommended that new CPG studies should
decreases the porosity, which reduces the heat transfer rate of the reservoir. Therefore, additional consider adiabatic fl ow in the well.
research studies should be performed to Cui et al. [ 48 ] performed a numerical simulation to analyse the e ff ect of CO 2 geochemical
reactions and salt precipitation on the heat mining rate of CPG. The evaporation induced by the
negative gas-liquid capillary pressure gradient can result in salt precipitation, which its accumulation
can reduce heat mining rate. Additionally, salt precipitation has a greater impact than CO 2 geochemical
fi nd a trade-o ff between geothermal energy production and CO 2 sequestration. Xu et al. [ 17 ] analysed reactions because it can in fl uence its fl ow and distribution, a ff ecting heat mining rate up
the sequestration capacity of the Habanero geothermal fi eld (Australia) and discovered that the major

5
A.F. Esteves, et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 114 (2019) 109331

to 2/5. For the CPG application, geothermal reservoirs with high temperature, high porosity and stored in geological reservoirs, and the energy produced by geothermal energy can be greater than
permeability and low salinity should be selected fi rst. Moreover, to solve the energy problem caused the energy stored (ratio between produced and stored energy from 1 to 3). The electrical energy is
by the salt precipitation, injections of low salinity water prior CO 2 injection demonstrated to improve stored in the form of pressure and heat (with supercritical CO 2), enabling the temporal separation
the production rate from 13 to 30 kg·s − 1 and the heat mining rate from 6 to 14MW after 30 years. between power production and consumption. Also, this storage system can operate with any cycle
Vernooij [ 54 ] also indicated that the reservoir salinity has an important factor to have in consideration duration that may be required by the intermittent renewable energy sources.
in CPG systems. Also, the most important parameters that can a ff ect the CPG energy generation are
the temperature and depth (high at low depths or depths of 4 – 4.5 km) of the reservoir, the injection
rate (optimum value 140 kg·s − 1), the mixing rate and the presence of impurities from previous
injections. However, some limitations of the developed model were identi fi ed concerning operational 3. Environmental e ff ects and cost
and infrastructure issues.
Some limitations of the CO 2 based geothermal system are the cost of the CO 2 and the cost of its
pressurisation and transportation [ 57 ]. Therefore, to overcome this limitation, it is important to improve
CCS economic feasibility by coupling it with electricity production, renewable energy capture, and/or
district heating leading towards CO 2 capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS). The use of CO 2 in
Fleming et al. [ 55 ] simulated the CPG development in a saline reservoir and combined with geothermal systems could o ff set the sequestration and operation costs of CCS [ 26 ].
Active CO 2 Reservoir Management (ARM). The ARM techniques allow limiting the reservoir
overpressures mainly during the initial CPG development through brine production. The use of ARM
techniques for the development of a CPG can reduce the CO 2 Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies showed that the GHG emissions produced by an EGS plant
are frequently below 79 g CO 2 eq·kWh − 1,
breakthrough time (moment, at the production well, with a gas saturation of>1%) up to 7% and with a median value of 32 CO 2 eq· kWh − 1 [ 58 ]. In the future, technological developments will enable
overpressures up to 30%. Additionally, by combining the CPG with ARM, electricity can be generated the reduction of GHG emissions of EGS plants close to the emissions of nuclear plants (20 g CO 2 eq·kWh
from the produced hot brine before the CO 2 breakthrough. − 1),

not havingthe environmental problems related with nuclear power production (thus, with high social
Adams et al. [ 38 ] performed a numerical modelling to estimate the intensity of the thermosiphon acceptance for the development of this renewable energy technology) [ 59 ].
e ff ect at di ff erent depths and geothermal gradients for CO 2 and 20wt% NaCl brine. CO 2 generates
high convective mass fl ow rates than brine without mechanical pumping. With CO 2, a reservoir Frick et al. [ 60 ] performed a LCA of geothermal binary power plants using enhanced
pressure drop of 3 – 12 times less than brine was achieved at the same fl ow rate, presenting a larger low-temperature reservoirs at sites A1 and B1. At site A1, the reservoir had 3.8 km of depth, two wells
thermosiphon induced mass fl ow rate. The di ff erence between the heat extraction rates became more and an installed capacity of 1240 kW; at site B1, the reservoir had 4.7 km of depth, two wells and
signi fi cant for low-depth reservoirs (with a geothermal gradient of 35 °C km − 1, the heat extraction rate 1290 kW of installed capacity. The estimations of GHG emissions were 54 g CO 2 eq·kWh − 1 and 53
is 300 times higher). The use of CO 2 as working fl uid should be particularly more advantageous at gCO 2 eq·kWh − 1 at the site A1 and B1, respectively. Lacirignola and Blanc [ 61 ] analysed the
depths between 0.5 km and 3 km. Randolph and Saar [ 25 ] compared the conventional water-based, environmental performance of EGS systems with 10 di ff erent design options. The depth studied was
the water-EGS and CO 2- EGS with CPG. Heat extraction when CO 2 was used as working fl uid was between 2.5 and 4 km, the number of wells between 2 and 3 and the installed capacity ranging 0.91
signi fi cantly higher. The CPG compared to water-based and water EGS, show a superior geothermal and 4.37MW. The obtained values of GHG emissions were within the range of 16.9 and 49.8 g CO 2 eq·kWh
heat energy extraction up to 2.9 and 5.0, respectively. Also, CPG may improve the economic viability − 1.

of geothermal energy production and CO 2 capture and storage. Geothermal energy can be produced
continuously or intermittently. Thus, this renewable energy can ful fi l the energy requirement (peak
demand) that is di ffi cult to do with other renewable energies (solar and wind). Gupta and Vashistha [ 26
] performed a numerical simulation to compare the CPG with CO 2- EGS and water-EGS. CPG An EGS power plant is similar to binary power plants, so do not produce GHG emissions during
provides a better heat extraction rate than CO 2- EGS, and the CPG system is economically and energy production. Therefore, the GHG emissions are generated mainly during the construction
technologically more advantageous to produce electricity in regions with relatively low-moderate phase due to the use of diesel in drilling and during operation associated with the infrastructure [ 62 , 63 ].
surface temperatures and heat fl ow rates (e.g. in India provinces). Garapati et al. [ 39 ] analysed the e ff ectsTo reduce the GHG emissions during the construction phase, it is possible to use as energy supply
of multi-layered geothermal reservoirs on CPG system performance analysing the CO 2 mass fraction electricity from the grid instead of diesel [ 59 ].

in the produced fl uid, pore- fl uid pressure, and heat extraction rate. The geothermal reservoir was
divided into two, three, or four horizontal layers and each layer had a di ff erent permeability. It was
simulated two di ff erent scenarios: (i) low-permeability layers at the top; and (ii) high-permeability at The capital costs of EGS technologies in 2030 were estimated to be between 6600 and 20,000

the top. The CO 2 USD·kW − 1, the operation and maintenance costs between 130 and 390 USD·kW − 1 and the Levelized
Cost of Energy ranging from 92 to 270 USD·kW − 1 [ 64 ].

4. Research and demonstration projects

ECO2G ™ is a project held by GreenFire Energy with U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),
and the Paci fi c Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as research partners [ 65 ]. ECO2G ™ involves
using an underperforming hydrothermal well for geothermal power generation using sCO 2. This
mass fraction is dependent on the high-permeability layers (at either the top or the bottom) and demonstration project will be located at the Coso KGRA (California), and it is expected to generate
independent on the number of the layers. The pore- fl uid pressure is a ff ected by the permeability of data to further develop commercial projects from geothermal plants ranging from 20 to 1000MW [ 66 ].
the layers, which e ff ect is more pronounced with low-permeability layers at the top and by the number The experimental tests started in April 2019, and a report with fi nal results will be available at the end
of layers that decreases as the number increase. Regarding the heat extraction rates, it is constant for of 2019 [ 67 ].
the low permeability layers at the top and decreases as the permeability of the bottom layers
decrease.

Research projects that studied the geological storage of CO 2 are also important to understand
Besides energy production, CPG was also proposed as an energy storage option, due to the the behaviour of this geothermal working fl uid in the reservoir. This knowledge can be helpful for
intermittency of wind and solar energy production systems [ 56 ]. Using this renewable energy, CO 2 can further studies of the CO 2- based geothermal systems.
be

6
A.F. Esteves, et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 114 (2019) 109331

The In Salah CCS project was a pioneer onshore CO 2 capture and storage project in operation the bedrock. The in fl uence of this chemical process on reservoir permeability and porosity should be
between 2004 and 2011. This project was a partnership between BP, Sonatrach, and Statoil and evaluated as it reduces the storage capacity due to limited pore space and lowered rocks reactivity.
aimed to provide evidence that geologic storage of CO 2 can be cost-e ff ective, and that long-term More extensive studies should include models that considered the reactivity of the transport,
assurance can be given with short-term monitoring [ 68 ]. Additionally, this project aimed to experiments on hydrothermally altered basalts to observe the water-gas-rock interaction, and deeper
demonstrate to stakeholders that geological storage of CO 2 is a viable GHG mitigation option. For the characterisation of the reservoir rocks are needed to better constrain these storage potential
injections, the CO 2 was extracted from di ff erent gas fi elds, treated with MEA amine process, estimates.
compressed, and then, transported and storage at about 1.9 km deep at the Krechba fi eld (Algeria).
The injection was monitored using several geophysical and geochemical methods such as 4D
seismic, microseismic, groundwater aquifer monitoring, satellite InSar data, among others. Along with
these methods, procedures to collect and evaluate the data were developed, which gave appropriate 6. Conclusions
insights on the Monitoring, Modelling and Veri fi cation (MMV) approaches. A total of 3.8 million tonnes
of CO 2 was storage in the Krechba fi eld [ 68 , 69 ]. The CO 2- based geothermal system is an emerging technology to replace water-based systems.
Using CO 2 as a working fl uid has several advantages, such as: (i) the high fl ow velocities due to its
lower viscosity; (ii) it is a poor solvent for rock minerals; (iii) its large compressibility and expansibility
reduces the power energy consumption for geothermal fl uid pumping. Therefore, using the
anthropogenic CO 2 as geothermal working fl uid will enable the production of low carbon energy (being
able to achieve negative carbon emissions), which is a requirement for sustainable development.
In the Snohvit gas fi elds at Barents Sea (Norway), Statoil started, in Additionally, this technology can help tackle three of the most challenging problems that Humanity is
2008, reinjecting Snohvit's CO 2 emissions. First, natural gas is pumped to a carbon capture plant at facing: (i) global climate change; (ii) energy availability; (iii) water resources conservation. However,
Melkoya (on-shore), and CO 2 is separated from the gas stream using amine. Then, the rich-CO 2 stream this technology is not fully mature, and the impacts of the physicochemical transformations of injected
is transported by pipeline back to the Snohvit fi eld (o ff shore) and injected at CO 2

2.6 km deep into a sandstone formation. In collaboration with Statoil, the Imperial College, as part of
the CO 2 ReMoVe project (funding of the 6th Framework Program), analysed the short-term injection
pressure performance using a 4D seismic survey [ 70 ]. By August 2012, a total of 1600 ktonnes of CO 2 are not completely understood. The development of CO 2- based geothermal systems is also
was injected [ 71 ]. dependent on overcoming barriers related to advances in CCS technologies, mainly the increase of
social acceptance. Besides the wide range of advantages of CO 2- based systems, the development
The Development of innovative technology for the CO 2 fi xation by GEOREACTOR ” program is a and exploitation of this technology are far below the expectations, mainly due to the absence of strict
collaboration between the Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry and the Research policies to reduce the carbon intensity of the energy sector in di ff erent countries.
Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. The research and development program is funded by
the Ministry of Economy, Trade & Industry of Japan. In 2007, at the Ogachi HDR site (Japan), fi eld
experiments of CO 2 sequestration were performed. The fi eld study involved the injection of 1wt%
dissolved CO 2 at a depth between 700 and 1100m with a temperature of 200 °C. The injection also Declaration of interest
contained tracers to investigate the mineralisation of CO 2 as carbonates through interaction with
rocks. The results of the experiments yielded evidenced that, within a few days, CO 2 was partially None.
sequestrated in the precipitation of calcite [ 72 , 73 ]. At the Hijori HDR site (Japan), around 6 tonnes of
dissolved CO 2 was injected over 3months at a depth of 2000 Acknowledgements

This work was fi nancially supported by the Project UID/EQU/ 00511/2019 - Laboratory for
Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy – LEPABE funded by national funds
through FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC). J.C.M. Pires acknowledges the FCT Investigator 2015 Programme
m. In this experiment, 68% of the CO 2 precipitated in the production well with lower temperature, while (IF/01341/2015).
in the production well with a higher temperature, only 20% of the CO 2 precipitated as calcite [ 74 ].

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