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ABSTRACT

One of the largest form of transportation is water transportation where in the path
way to the development of the particular place. Sea port is a common part of the
socioeconomic development of the country through commitment whether national or
international to the new context of globalization. The seaport is a multidimensional system
combined between economical function, infrastructure system, geographical space and
trade. Seaport is managed under a complex legal concept and managed through an
organizational model that mostly generates the need for convergence of the public and
private sectors.

Water transportation is divided into two sector.The passenger port terminal and the
cargo vessels transportation. Passenger transportation is composed of ships, boat, ferry, or
any other water transportation which can be able to travels with aboard passenger even if
it is public or private. Cargo vessels transportation also on the field industry of delivering
baggage of the passenger including products from foreign industry. Cargo is larger than the
passenger terminal in sea port where had been processed separately.

This research can focus only in sea port passenger terminal where in the goal of
researcher is make an assessment and recommendation in all aspect of development of the
port. The research will show those existing port which will determine the strength and
weaknesses of the structure itself base on the observed processing in departure and arrival.
It will also discuss about the systematical process in two basic transaction in the terminal
where the passenger can departing and arriving in a short period of time. Finding method
on how to develop the site by analyzing the areas where can satisfy the capacity of parking
lot which composed of many land transportation whether public or private, The existing
neighbor building and the also the lot for building construction by consulting from those
standards, codes and ordinances..

In the Philippines as one of the tropical country, there is a benefits to improve the
tropical approach in plan. It also reflects to as accommodation of users in a natural
ambiance of the building especially in the sea side where the humidity of the site is
constantly feels on a open area.
Researcher can put all the data gathered on the chosen references such as existing
port terminal master plan, the annual statistics of the particular location, the development
of the facility, the adoptaion of culture and tradition of the location, the tropical approach
as adopts to the natural climatic condition on the site and method in conceptualization and
analysis all through out the projects.

This research can proceed to the Proposed sea Terminal in the Municipality of Kalibo
, Aklan, Barangay pook near in Kalibo International Airport(KIA) one of the fastest growing
airport in the Philippines. After the devastation of typhoon Yolanda, the nearby kalibo jetty
port must need to relocate to the proposed new seaport as follow to the development of
the airport even in the city. A given lot of about 69,700squaremeter could also
accommodate all needs of the port including future expansion of the port. In front of the
port are some commercial establishments and promenade in upper left side of the lot.
There is body of water in front and reclaimed areas both side.

The said project proceed to its planning while developing in applying all
recommendation from the research so let we discuss the body of research.

A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In 2013, Aklan ranks first out of 80 provinces in the Philippines with highest share of
local income to total regular income, with a rating of 45.3%. In 2014, the Province of Aklan
ranks No. 14 out of 80 provinces with highest Special Education Fund collection to fund the
operations and maintenance of public school, construction and repair of school buildings,
facilities and equipment, educational research, purchase of books and sports development.
A.1. TOURISM INDUSTRY

The province of Aklan is consistent in significantly contributing to the national economy in


2014. Tourist arrivals in the Province reached 1.6 million contributing tourists receipts of
more than 40 billion. The regular surge of tourists in the province translates to job creation
and employment generation that contributes to the country’s overarching goals of poverty
alleviation and inclusive growth.

Aklan is most famous for Boracay, a resort island one kilometer north from the tip of
Panay. It is known for its white sandy beaches and is considered as one of the more
prominent destinations in the country. Kalibo Sto. Niño Ati-atihan Festival has also been
known worldwide, hence declared “The Mother of all Philippine Festivals.” It is a feast held
annually in January in honor of the Sto. Niño (Infant Jesus), concluding on the third Sunday.
The festival showcases tribal dancing through the town’s main streets to the tune of ethnic
music, with participants in indigenous costumes and gears.

Other than the Ati-Atihan Festival, Kalibo is also famous for other tourist
attractions. Several scenic and historic places can found in the municipality

The Bakhawan Eco-Park - is a community-based eco-tourism project located in Brgy.


New Buswang, Kalibo, Aklan. The project models a fruitful partnership between the
community, LGU, Government Agencies and NGOs.
It advocates the need to protect and maintain the environment, in this case - the 170
hectares. mangrove reforestation project earlier established while giving local communities
the opportunity to increase their livelihood incomes through tourism service related
activities.

A.2. INFRASTRUCTURE and UTILITIES

The allure of Boracay Island and Ati-atihan Festival to both local and foreign tourists lead to
frequent air travels through the province’s 2 airports in Kalibo and Caticlan. The Kalibo
International Airport is considered the fastest growing airport in the Philippines in terms of
passenger traffic with more than 50% growth in 2010, and 2nd fastest for seats offered for
June 2014 over the corresponding month of the previous year (20%). The airport is classified
as an international airport by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines and now caters
to both domestic and international flights in the capital town. On the other hand, the
Godofredo P. Ramos Airport in Caticlan has been upgraded to international standards by
Transaire Holdings, a subsidiary of San Miguel Corporation through a Private-Public
Partnership (PPP) scheme. The Caticlan Port is the busiest among the four seaports in the
province as it is not only the gateway to the famous island of Boracay but also the entry
point to Panay Island as part of the Strong Republic Nautical Highway.

Aklan road networks are well in place with the well-maintained national and provincial
roads. Concreted and sand and gravel farm to market roads are constantly improved. The
Provincial Government is opening roadways such as the Aklan circumferential and by pass
roads for seamless travel experience within the province. Development and construction of
new bridges are also being carried out with the goal of linking tourist destinations. There is a
presence of renewable energy such as the wind farm in Nabas and hydro power projects in
Madalag Aklan.

More so, the province has numerous health facilities, 8 of which are Government Hospitals,
4 are Private Hospitals, Private Medical Clinics sum up to 213, a total of 19 Rural Health
Units and 109 Barangay Health Units. Aklan is also home to more than a couple of
educational centers. It has 8 Public Tertiary Schools, 6 Special Vocational Schools, 5
Technical Vocational Schools, 3 Graduate Schools, 61 Secondary Schools and 320
Elementary Schools. Financial Institutions include 35 Commercial and Government Banks.
The Public Communication/Media Facilities include 3 Telephone Exchanges, 7 Radio Stations
w/AM/FM, 5 Cable TV Companies.

A.3. THE ANNUAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROVINCE OF AKLAN


KALIBO, Aklan—The Aklan provincial government has P2,011,016,309 to spend for
this fiscal year. Vice Gov. Reynaldo Quimpo said this on Monday after the Sanguniang
Panlalawigan of Aklan unanimously approved the budget for this year.

“These will cover the various expenditures for the regular fund amounting
to P1,151,016,309. The operation of the Economic Enterprise Development Department (
EEDD) was P841,800,000,” Quimpo said. The Aklan provincial government—among the
richest provinces in the country—has enough money to spend for the year because of its
booming tourism industry.

The EEDD covers funds for the health packages of the province’s indigent residents.

Meanwhile, the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) said the province of Aklan has
the fastest-growing population in Western Visayas from year 2000 to 2015. This despite the
province’s having the second lowest population in the region. The PSA report said Aklan’s
population has grown by an average annual rate of 1.35 percent from 2010 to 2015, higher
than Antique’s 1.22 percent, Capiz’s 1.08 percent, Iloilo’s 1.34 percent, Iloilo City’s 1.02
percent and Guimaras’s 1.33 percent.

As of 2015 Aklan has a total population 575,000; Antique, 582,000; Capiz, 761,000;
Iloilo, 1.936 million; Iloilo City, 448,000; and Guimaras, 175,000. Even when compared with
Negros Occidental, excluding Bacolod City, Aklan comparatively still has a higher population,
growth rate. Negros Occidental has an annual average population-growth rate from 2010 to
2015 of 1.17 percent, 0.98 percent from 2000 to 2015 and 1.27 percent from 2000 to 2010.
Reckoned from 2000 to 2010, Aklan has an average annual population-growth rate of 1.73
percent; Antique, 1.45 percent; Capiz, 0.96 percent; Iloilo, 1.48 percent; Iloilo City, 1.49
percent; and Guimaras, 1.42 percent. From 2000 to 2015, Aklan has an average annual
population-growth rate of 1.6 percent; Antique, 1.37 percent; Capiz, 1 percent; Iloilo, 1.43
percent; Iloilo City, 1.33 percent; and Guimaras, 1.39 percent.

As to the most densely populated towns and cities in Region 6, Kalibo, Aklan’s capital
town, is the third-most populated town, with 80,605 population next to Roxas City, Capiz
and Oton, Iloilo. Being a highly urbanized city, Iloilo City is not included in the comparison.
As to barangays regionwide, three Aklan barangays are included in the top 10 most
populated barangays, with Barangay Manoc-manoc in Boracay, Malay, in No. 2 with 14,810;
Barangay Andagao in Kalibo in No. 3 with 12,703; and barangay New Buswang in No. 10 with
10,431. Three municipalities in Aklan are included in the top 10 least populated towns in the
region with Lezo in No. 3 with only 15,224; Madalag in No. 7 with 18,389; and Buruanga in
No. 8 with 19,003.

TABLE 1.1 Composition, Area and Population

Province Cities Number of Number of Land Area Population as


Municipalities Barangays (hectares) of 2007)
Aklan 17 327 181,789 495,122

A.4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

The improved quality of life in Western Visayas remains as the ultimate goal in
regional development efforts. This will be manifested by an empowered people and a
globallycompetitive economy. People are empowered when they are confident about what
they want and how to attain them. On the other hand, a globally competitive economy for
Western Visayas, will continually be driven by its diversified agri-business and tourism
sectors. Balancing the need for a high and sustained economic growth while achieving social
equity, is the kind of inclusive growth the region will pursue in its quest for development.

The attainment of regional growth and social equity will be supported by adequate
infrastructure systems to ensure better transportation, communication, and access to
power and water sources; strong and innovative research and development effort, good
public and corporate governance, as well as, adherence to the rule of law. Public-private
partnerships in infrastructure and utilities development will be encouraged, while non-
government organizations, civil society, the academe and even religious groups will also be
called upon to be involved in regional and local development efforts.
VISION

‘’Western Visayas is home to an empowered and happy people who are protective of their
rights, proud of their culture and committed stewards of their heritage and natural
resources. ‘’

‘’It is a region thriving of innovation and excellence in a globally competitive and diversified
agri-based, tourism-led economy.’’

The development vision for the region places people as the focus and object of
development. As the regional economy progresses, people’s living standards will improve
making them more empowered and satisfied. As men and women are empowered, they
become more vigilant and assertive of their rights as enshrined in the Constitution and in
various international covenants and treaties. Empowered people are also more dutiful
citizens who are obedient to laws and respectful of duly-constituted authorities. The people
of Western Visayas are proud of their rich cultural heritage, language and traditions. The
various festivals celebrated throughout the year in different localities showcase this
heritage. The Ati-Atihan Festival in Aklan, the Dinagyang Festival in Iloilo City, the Binirayan
Festival in Antique, the Halaran Festival in Capiz, the Manggahan Festival in Guimaras, the
Masskara Festival in Bacolod City, to name a few, chronicle the pre-Hispanic and Hispanic
past, and the journey of its people to the future.

B. THE PORT SETTING

In Today Panay News:The Philippine Ports Authority (PPA) is planning to build a new sea
port facility near the Kalibo International Airport, revealed Mayor Raymar Rebaldo.

Rebaldo said PPA personnel visited his office on Tuesday and discussed plans of
putting up a new sea port facility to provide tourists an alternative route from the airport
to Boracay Island.
“The PPA sees it as a convenient and faster way to transport tourists to Boracay Island if
they pass through the sea. In the same way, it is expected that tourists will enjoy the
scenery of the coastline areas of the province of Aklan,” he said.

The PPA reportedly plans to build the sea port facility in Brgy. Pook.It was learned
that a sea craft company has already expressed intent to operate a vessel bound for Boracay
Island from the airport and vice versa.

B.1. PORTS IN THE PROVINCE OF AKLAN

FIGURE 1

FIGURE 2

CATICLAN JETTY PORT, MALAY

There are two alternatives for the


crossing to and from Boracay. Firstly,
motorized outrigger boats/bangkas. The
fare is 25 pesos. Numerous of those
bangkas operate in very short time
intervals to Boracay. Second option is the
ferry crossing with Shipping company
"Oyster Ferry" (50

pesos). This vessel has an air-conditioned section. Before entering "Caticlan Passenger
Terminal" all luggage will be screened through an x-ray machine.

The ferry connection between Caticlan and Boracay is continuous and takes place at short
intervals depending on the passenger volume. The operating times are during the day as
well as at night - 24/7. Ferry crossing of Tabon Strait from "Caticlan Jetty Port" to "Cagban
Jetty Port" takes about 10 minutes. A sufficient number of life jackets are available on the
boats. Depending on the weather conditions in Boracay between June and October
(Habagat season) and strong westerly winds, ferries to Boracay can arrive at "Tambisaan
Jetty Port". Some 5-star hotels, such as the Boracay Mandarin Island Hotel, Boracay
Regency, Shangri La Boracay Resort & Spa or Fairways & Bluewater Boracay are equipped
with their own boats for their guests.

CAGBAN PORT, BORACAY

DUMAGUIT PORT, NEW WASHINGTON

Located in the oldest province in the country, New Washington is one of the
municipalities in the Province of Aklan. Formerly called Fonda Lagatik, the name derived
from Lagatik river, a tributary stretching more than nine kilometers in length. Established on
15th of January 1904 and was named after President George Washington, the first President
of the United States of America as a tribute
by Aklanons to the Thomasites.

A mere 20 minutes leisure drive via mass


transport from Kalibo City, the town of New
Washington is bounded by the
Municipalities of Banga and Balete on the
west, to the south is Altavas, and in
southeast is the Municipality of Batan. The
town of Batan by the way is the home of
Kalantiaw Shrine erected in memory of the third chief of Panay-Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw
the promulgator of the so-called Code of Kalantiaw.

BATAN PORT, BATAN

B.2. OPERATIONS AND SERVICES

The regular scheduled ferries operate between 7:00-20:00 hours whereas additional
trips may be requested in advanced up to 23:00 hours. About one day per year the waters
are too rough to allow ferry vessels to cross during hurricanes when operations are closed.

Generally, passengers debark and bags are unloaded by ferry operators onto one of
the three 14-foot wide jetties. When these activities are carried out simultaneously the
process is somewhat unsafe for passengers. Some bags are picked up immediately by
passengers while other bags are brought to the Terminal by Port staff. Passengers make
their way to Immigration and subsequently to Customs where bags can be screened or
searched and duty paid as might be required. There are two Immigration lines, one for
residents and a second for tourists. During our site visits, we noted that the Immigration-
Customs process took between 10 to 20 minutes to clear a typical ferry load although we
are told that during peak season, the processing of passengers increases significantly. We
were advised by Customs that all (100%) bags for arriving and departing passengers are to
be screened by machine or hand verified. Customs verify in-coming bags while Port Security
check outgoing passenger bags.
B.3. FACILITIES INVENTORY & UTILITIES

DEPARTURE

B.3.1. LOADING AREA

B.3.2. DEPARTURE HOLD ROOM

B.3.3. PUBLIC TOILET

B.3.4. SECURITY OFFICE

B.3.5. DEPARTURES LOBBY

B.3.6. TICKETING BOOTH

B.3.7. TAX

B.3.8. TAX OFFICE AREA

B.3.9. IMMIGRATION PASSPORT CONTROL

B.3.10. SECONDARY IMMIGRATION

ARRIVAL

B.3.11. ARRIVAL LOBBY

B.3.12. TAX DISPATH

B.3.13. CASHIER

B.3.14. COSTUMS

B.3.15. BAGGAGE CLAIM

B.3.16. UNCLAIMED BAGGAGE LOCKER

B.3.17. SECONDARY COSTUMS

B.3.18. IMMIGRATIONz
CASE STUDY OF ANGULLA JETTY PORT MASTER PLAN

1. Terminal Building

The Terminal Building is a single-storey concrete building with a three hip corrugated
galvanised steel roofs. The terminal is laid out in a simple Tee-shape plan within which
departing and arriving functions take place and these two main areas are separated by
secondary Customs and Immigration offices and restroom facilities. Recent renovations to
the existing Terminal have expanded the Arrivals Hall and added a small baggage claim area
thereby increasing the Terminal to approximately 420 square metres. Generally one has the
feeling of being cramped as the building is too
small for the level of current activity.

FIGURE 5. EXISTING FLOORPLAN FIGURE 6. TERMINAL BUIDING

2. Departures Processing

The check-in area is divided into three functions. The first position is manned by the
Ferry operators for the sale of boarding tickets. The second is the Government of
Anguilla’s collection of the departures tax and the third is the Emigration passport
control. Rapidscan screening equipment and a Garrett walk through metal detector are
installed to provide 100% baggage verification and passengers screening. The space
allocated for this equipment is very limited. The departures lounge has seating for 50
passengers. The space is about 7m x 6m and uncomfortably congested given that large
ferries can accommodate 135 passengers. There is little circulation space among the
seats. The seating layout does not provide a pleasant experience and a multitude of
signs are pasted on the walls in an ad hoc fashion. Windows are generally small with
metal security bars.

3. Arrivals Process
The western jetty is dedicated for arrivals thereby leaving the most easterly jetty for
vessel servicing requirements and use by emergency services. Passengers generally
collect smaller bags, which have been offloaded from the vessel onto the jetty and
subsequently passengers walk to the Arrivals Hall. Large bags and containers are loaded
on a motorised cart and driven to the bag claims area located on the west side of the
Terminal. The Arrivals hall is a room of about 6.4m wide by 8.8m long. Two lines
generally form for Citizens of Anguilla and Visitors. Four immigration stations are
available for Immigration processing. Visitors receive the Immigration forms from Ferry
operators. The forms are collected by the Immigration officers and information is
logged. A small secondary immigration room is located adjacent to the desks. No
detention facility is provided. Should a nondesirable be identified attempting to enter
the country, the individual is detained in the Secondary Immigration Room. The police
are called in and the individual taken to the Police Station for further processing.

FIGURE 7. TERMINAL SPACE ALLOCATION

4. Jetties & Connecting Boardwalk

Three new jetties have recently been completed. The jetties are over 50 meters long, with a
connecting boardwalk. Each jetty is over 4 meters wide, spaced about 20 meters apart,
which allows ferryboats to dock on both sides. The three jetties are designated [from the
west] the arrivals, departures and service/maintenance slips. The connecting boardwalk was
built on reclaimed land from the sea. Each of the newly constructed jetties can
accommodate 6 ferries.

5. Port Management Building (Former Cargo Warehouse)

The old Cargo warehouse is currently being used by Port Management. It is a two-storey
concrete building approximately 232 square metres with a flat roof, an exterior staircase
and a wrap-around exterior balcony which extends onto three sides of the second floor.
Port Management have an office on the second floor that doubles as a security surveillance
centre as well as harbour-master functions. The Security Cameras [CCTV System] are
monitored at one station with multi split-screens. The police and Customs Officials are also
located within the building.

5. Parking

About 60 taxis operators work at the Port on a rotational basis. There are three dedicated
spaces located immediately outside the arrivals doorway where the taxis acquire fares in
sequence. Twelve other taxi stands are allotted in the middle of the driveway and help
create a one-way driving loop for traffic circulation. Additional parking spaces are allocated
for Government officials on the east side of the parking. A small wooden shed to the
northeast functions as the waiting area for the taxi drivers. The parking area driveway
turning loop is not large enough for buses and hence these park on privately owned land
located to the north and east of the Port Facility. An estimation of the average count of
parking spaces provided in and around the Port facility is about 450 though we are advised
by Port Management and the Ministry that some 650 vehicles have been parked in and
about the Ferry Terminal.

6. Port Utilities and Services

Electrical Systems

Anguilla has a diesel operated power generation plant at Corito Bay. There is some
discussion of implementing wind generating power plants but the idea is at its early stages.
The plant generates sufficient power for the Island. The Port has emergency generating
equipment providing some 70 KVA of electricity as back-up to Terminal operations during
main electrical outages. Light standards on the jetties are new and bulbs are of the
highpressure sodium type. The Terminal generally makes use of fluorescent light fixtures.

Mechanical Equipment, Water & Wastewater Systems

The temperatures in Anguilla generally vary from 26ºC to 33ºC. The island gets the
benefit of easterly Trade winds. Minimal air conditioning is currently provided from
individual split unit systems with roof mounted condensers. Ceiling fans are used in the
waiting areas to improve passenger comfort. The Port is supplied water from the islands
reverse osmosis desalination Plant. We were told that the local population prefers rainwater
that is collected from cisterns into holding tanks constructed within the premises. The
existing Terminal has a collection tank under the ground floor. No By-law exists to define the
size of the collection tank required and it is left to individual owners to decide. A secondary
source of water is from two main aquifers on the island. The water tends to be saline, where
seawater infiltrates the aquifers, and hence, it has to be desalinated. Sewage is handled by a
three part septic system with 2 holding tanks and a filtration bed that is open on the bottom
to allow the effluent to seep into the ground. Since it is close to the shoreline, inevitably it
finds its way into the ocean. There is no provision for fire fighting at the Port. The Island Fire
Department is located at Wallblake Airport Terminal.
Garbage Collection

Garbage is disposed of into waste collection bins on the outside of the Terminal and
carted away to a landfill facility. We were told that the open-air facility is a concern as a
result of infestation by small animals and vermin.

Security System

The Terminal has a CCTV security system that is monitored within the Harbour
Master/Security Room on the upper level of the Port Management building (old Cargo
building).

Fuel Supply

Two 2000-gallon fuel tanks are located on the property to the northeast of the
Terminal building. The fuel is piped along a line mid-way within the site and then to the
service-maintenance jetty. There is current discussion of relocating the fuel-tank farm
operations to the east and for these to have a more direct route for the fuel line to the point
of use.

Privately Owned Landside Development

Small businesses have developed along the road leading to the Port Facility. Pear’s
Bar & Restaurant, Link Ferry, Splash Beach Wear, Car Rental and Big Jim’s Bar & Grill are
located immediately to the north of Port lands. Many of these set up irregular parking lots
to accommodate the need for additional parking for travelers and Port workers and vessel
operators.

PORT DESIGN AND PLANNING STANDARD

Wind area and wind loads

The area of ship above water, part projected on a plane perpendicular to the wind
direction, varies greatly, not only due to the different sizes of ships, but even more to the
different types of ships, and also depending on whether the ship is being loaded or not. As
an example, a modern general cargo ship of 30 000 ton displacement, fully loaded, has a
wind area of about 10m2 /lin m of ship, while the same ship in ballast condition has an area
of about 14m /lin m of ship. Large passenger ships will have wind areas of about 26m2 /lin
m or more.

How high the design wind velocity should be assumed to be will depend on the
location of the berth structure, but it is generally not justified to use a higher value than 40
m/s with gust factor when calculating the mooring forces. Without closer investigations, i.e.
Beaufort number 13, which corresponds to a pressure of about 1.5 kN/m2 • Therefore
assuming too small a wind velocity could be critical, keeping in mind that in the wind loading
formula the velocity occurs to the second power. Table 2.8 gives a guideline for wind loads
for design purposes.

For piers where ships can berth on both sides, the total wind load acting on the pier
should be the wind load on the largest ship plus 50 per cent of the wind load on the ship on
the other side of the pier.

Waves

Waves are traditionally, and for practical reasons, classified into the following different
types of waves:

(a) Wind waves or locally generated waves. These are generated by winds that are acting
on the sea surface bordering on the port site.

(b) Swell or ocean waves. These are normally also wind generated waves, but are created in
the deep ocean at some distance from the port site, and the wind that created them may be
too distant to be felt in the port or may have stopped blowing or changed its direction by
the time the waves reach the port.

(c) Seiching or long waves. Waves of this type have very long periods - typically from 30 sup
to the tidal period 12 h 24 min- and are mostly found in enclosed or semi-enclosed basins,
such as artificial port basins, bays or fjords.

(d) Waves from passing ships. Ship waves may be a significant problem in certain ports,
especially since they are generated by a 50 I 'Se ne nd ne tld ;a - he ne ne by te. ed lm .nt its
ods tre ial .nt r a o.,-_, Environmental forces moving source and may appear in areas where
large waves would not be expected. Ship waves may also be very complex.

(e) Tsunamis and waves created by large, sudden impacts, such as earthquakes, volcanoes
or landslides that end up in the ocean.

FIGURE 8. WAVE CHARACTERISTIC IN DEEP WAVE


Waves near ports

Where it is necessary to carry out instrumental wave recording, it is advisable to


install the recording system as early as possible to enable the recording program to be as
long as possible. A minimum recording time should be one year to enable reasonably
reliable data because any shorter duration is unlikely to yield a representative set.

In most cases, the waves that constitute the design wave condition in a port are a
combination of ocean waves and locally generated wind waves. Where the port is situated
in sheltered waters such as a bay or in a fjord, the distinction between the two types of
waves and the reason for treating them separately is quite obvious. On open coastlines,
however, the two types may become inseparable, and one may choose to consider ocean
waves only.

Harbor basin

The harbor basin can be defined as the protected water area, which should provide
safe and suitable accommodation for ships. Harbors can be classified as natural, semi-
natural or artificial. Harbors have different functions, such as commercial (municipal or
privately owned) harbors, refuge harbors, military harbors, oil harbors, etc.

Inside the harbor entrance, the harbor area should be allocated different functions
such as berthing or turning area. If the harbor receives a wide range of ships, it should for
economic reasons be divided into at least two zones, one for the larger and one for the
smaller ships. The smaller ships should be located in the inner and shallower part of the
harbor. Berths for hazardous cargoes like oil and gas should be located at a safe distance
and clearance from other berths. These activities should typically be located in isolated
areas in the outer end and on the lee side of the harbor basin.

Turning area

The turning area or basin should usually be in the central area of the harbour basin.
The size of the turning area will be a function of manoeuvrability and of the length of the
ship using the area. It will also depend on the time permitted for the execution of the
turning manoeuvre. The area should be protected from waves and strong winds. One should
remember that ships in ballast have decreased turning performance.

The following minimum diameters of the turning area are generally accepted. The
minimum diameter where the ship turns by going ahead and without use of bow thrusters
and/or tugboat assistance, should be approximately 4 times the length of the ship. Where
the ship has tugboat assistance, the turning diameter could be 2 times the length of the
ship. Under very good conditions these diameters might be reduced to 3 and 1.6 times the
length respectively as a lower limit. With use of the main propeller and rudder and the bow
thrusters, the turning diameter could be 1.5 times the length of the ship. Where the ship is
turned by warping around a dolphin or pier and usually with tugboat assistance under calm
conditions, the turning diameter could be a minimum 1.2 times the length of the ship.

Berthing area

The size of the berthing area and the berth will depend upon the dimensions of the
largest ship and the number of ships that will use the harbour. The berth layout will be
affected by many factors such as the size of the harbour basin for manoeuvring, satisfactory
arrivals and departures of ships to and from the berth, whether or not the ships are
equipped with bow rudder and bow thrusters, the availability of tugboats, and the direction
and strength of wind, waves and currents.

The length of the dredged area should be for ships with tugboat assistance not less
than 1.25 times the length of the largest ship to use the berth, and without tugboat
assistance not less than 1.5 times the length. The width of a dredged tidal berth should be at
least 1.25 times the beam of the largest ship to use the berth.

FIGURE 9. DREDGING AREA AROUND A BERTH FIGURE 10. LAYOUT FOR SINGLE PIERS

SMALL CRAFT HARBOUR BERTHING

The general area requirements for small craft harbour berthing arrangements are
shown in Figs 3.12, 3.13 and 3.14. The general measurements will vary as shown in the
figures depending on the layout of the harbour. In places with large tidal variations, or
where the harbour is exposed to wind and/or waves, the maximum figures must be used.
The normal figure for the total water area required per boat will vary between 100 and
200m2 per boat.

No rules exist for the size of the berthing area for a fishing port, but widths of about
100-150m and lengths of about 200-400m are common in existing ports. For safety reasons
and depending on the use of the port facilities, it is not desirable to have more than about
three or four fishing ships berthing side by side along the berth.
FIGURE 11. GENERAL LAYOUT OF SMALL CRAFT HARBOUR BERTHING ARRANGEMENT

BERTH STRUCTURES

The purpose of a berth structure is mainly to provide a vertical front where ships can
berth safely.

Solid berth structure: the fill is extended right out to the berth front where a vertical
front wall is constructed to resist the horizontal load from the fill and a possible live load on
the apron. The solid berth structures can be divided into two main groups, depending on the
principle on which the front wall of the structure is constructed in order to obtain sufficient
stability.

Open berth structure: from the top of a dredged or filled slope and out to the berth
front a load-bearing slab is constructed on columns or lamella walls.

FIGURE 12TYPES OF BERTH STRUCTURES


CONCLUSION

Ports are continually being developed in response to changing traffic patterns and
climate. has been involved in many new port projects around the world and can assist port
authorities and municipalities with all design aspects of such projects from planning and
conceptual design through detailed design and supervision.

A port contains all components of a city. The planning and design of port complexes
therefore requires a vast number of interrelated services which will provide all necessary
services and will assist clients through all phases of a project.

Coastal protection and shoreline management has received increasing attention


during recent years. New developments of coastal zones and more extreme variability in the
oceanographic and meteorological conditions impact existing assets and set new demands.
Therefore, carries out planning and design of coastal protection solutions, provides expert
consultancy for shoreline management, and prepares coastal protection strategies.

l plans and designs urban waterfront developments and marinas in an integrated


process, according to our Liveable Cities Concept and welldeveloped holistic Master
Planning Approach.
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