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Normally there are three modes of transfer of heat from one place to

another viz., conduction, convection and radiation.

Conduction : Conduction refers to the heat transfer that occurs across the medium. Medium can

be solid or a fluid.

Convection: It is the process in which heat is transferred from hotter end to colder end by the

actual movement of heated particles.

transfer between two surfaces at different temperatures in the form of

electromagnetic waves.

The specific heat capacity of a material is the amount of energy (in Joules)

needed to increase the temperature of one kilogram of mass of the material by one

Kelvin.

Consider a long rod AB of uniform cross section heated at one end A as shown in figure.

Then there is flow of heat along the length of the bar and heat is also radiated

from its surface. B is the cold end.

Consider the flow of heat between the sections P and Q at distance x and

x+δx from the hot end.

d

Temperature gradient at section P =

dx

d 2 d

KA x AxS

dx 2 dt E x

KAx KAx KAx

d 2 S d Ep

dx 2 K dt KA

d

Excess temperature at section Q = x

dx

d d

Temperature gradient at Q = x

dx dx

d d

2

= x

dx dx

2

Heat flowing (entering) through P in one second

d

Q1 = KA …………………………(1)

dx

Heat flowing (leaving) through Q in one second

d d

2

Q2 = KA x

dx dx

2

d d 2

Q2 = KA K x 2

…………(2)

dx dx

Net heat gain by the element x in one second

Q = Q1- Q2 ………………………. …… (3)

d d d 2

= - KA KA KA x

2

dx dx dx

d d d 2

= - KA + KA KA x 2

dx dx dx

d 2

Q= KA x ………………………..(4)

2

dx

Before the steady state is reached, the amount of heat Q is used in two ways.

A part of the heat is used in raising the temperature of the rod and the remaining heat is

lost by radiation from the surface.

d

= mass x specific heat capacity x

dt

= (A x δx)ρ x S x …………(5)

ρ – Density of the rod

S – Specific heat capacity of the rod

- Rate of rise in temperature

Where

E – Emissive power of the surface

p - Perimeter of the bar

δx – Surface area of the element

- Average excess of temperature of the element over that of the

surroundings

Amount of heat (Q) = Amount of heat absorbed + Amount of heat lost

Q = (A x δx)ρ x S x + E p δx …….(7)

On Comparing the eqns (4) and (7)

d 2

KA 2 x = (A x δx)ρ x S x + E p δx ………(8)

dx

Dividing both LHS and RHS of the above equation by KA, we have,

d 2 d

KA 2 x AxS

dx dt Ex

KAx KAx KAx

d 2 S d Ep

………………………(9)

dx 2 K dt KA

The above equation is standard differential equation for the flow of heat through the rod.

Special cases:-

Case – 1: when heat lost by radiation is negligible.

of heat due to radiation.

Hence Epδx = 0

d 2 S d 1 d

…………….(10)

dx 2 K dt h dt

K

where, h , thermal diffusivity of the rod.

S

\ Case – 2: After the steady state is reached.

d

Hence, =0

dt

equation (9) becomes

d 2 Ep

dx 2 KA

Substituting,

Ep

2 , we have

KA

d 2

2

2 ……….(11)

dx

d 2

2

2 0 (This represent second order differential equation).

dx

Ae x Be x ……..(12)

Where A and B are two unknown constants which can be determined from the

boundary conditions of the problem.

Suppose the bar is of infinite length,

Excess temperature above the surrounding of the rod of the hot end = 0

Excess temperature above the surrounding of the rod at the cold end = 0

Boundary condition

0 = Ae

As we know e cannot be zero, therefore A should be zero

i.e., A=0

then, 0 = B

Substituting A and B in equation (12), we have

= 0e-μx ………(13)

The above equation represents the excess temperature of a point at a distance x from

the hot end after the steady state is reached and it exponentially falls from hot end.

HEAT CONDUCTION THROUGH A COMPOUND MEDIA

(SERIES AND PARALLEL)

thermal conductivity K1 & K2 respectively. Let the thickness of these two layers A & B

be d1 and

d2 respectively

Let the temperature of the end faces be θ1 & θ2 and temperature at the contact

surface be θ, which is unknown. Heat will flow from A to B through the surface

of contact only if θ1 > θ2. After steady state is reached heat flowing per second (Q)

through every layer is same. A is the area of cross section of both layers

K 1 A( 1 )

Q= …………(1)

x1

K 2 A(1 )

Q= …………(2)

x1

The amount of heat flowing through the materials A and B is equal in steady

conditions

K 1 A( 1 ) K 2 A(1 )

= ……….(3)

x1 x1

K1A(1-)x2 = K2A(-2)x1

K11 x2 K 2 2 x1

= ………..(4)

K 2 x1 K1 x2

series.

K1 A K11 x2 K 2 2 x1

Q= 1

x1 K 2 x1 K1 x2

=

x1 K 2 x1 K1 x2

K1 A K 21 x1 K 2 2 x1

=

x1 K 2 x1 K1 x2

K1 K 2 A 1 x1 2 x1

=

x1 K 2 x1 K1 x2

K1 K 2 A(1 2 )

=

K 2 x1 K1 x2

A(1 2 )

=

K 2 x1 K1 x2

K1 K 2 K1 K 2

A(1 2 )

Q = ……………..(5)

x1 x2

K1 K 2

‘Q’ is the amount of heat flowing through the compound wall of two

materials.

This method can also be extended to comp[osite slab with more than two

slabs.

Generally, the amount of heat conducted per sec for any number of slabs is

given by ,

A(1 2 )

Q=

x

K

BODIES IN PARALLEL

conductivities K1 and K2 and of thickness d1 and d2 respectively. These two

material layers are arranged in parallel.

The temperatures θ1 is maintained at one faces of the material A and B and opposite

faces of the material A and B are at temperature θ2 . A1 & A2 be the areas of cross-section

of the materials.

Amount of heat flowing through the first material (A) in one second.

K 1 A1 (1 2 )

Q1 = …………….(1)

x1

Amount of heat flowing through the second material (B) in one second.

K 2 A2 (1 2 )

Q2 = …………….(2)

x2

The total heat flowing through these materials per second is equal to the sum of Q1 and

Q2

Q = Q1+Q2 ……………………….(3)

K 1 A1 (1 2 ) K 2 A2 (1 2 )

Q= +

x1 x2

K A K A

Q = 1 2 1 1 2 2

x1 x2

In general, the net amount of heat flowing per second parallel to the composite slabs is

given by

KA

Q (1 2 )

x

RADIAL FLOW OF HEAT

In this method heat flows from the inner side towards the other side along the

radius of the cylindrical shell. This method is useful in determining the thermal

conductivity of bad conductors taken in the powder form.

Consider a cylindrical tube of length l, innerradius r1 andouter radius

r2. The tube carries steam or some hot liquid. After the steady state is

reached, the temperature on the innersurface is θ1 and on the outer surface is

θ2 in such a way θ1>θ2. Heat is conducted radially across the wall of the

tube. Consider an element of thickness dr and length l at a distance r from

the axis.

Working:

Steam is allowed to pass through the axis of the cylindrical shell.

The heat flows from the inner surface to the other surface radially.After the

steady state is reached, the temperature at the inner surface is noted as 1 and

on the outer surface is noted as 2.

Calculation:

The cylinder may be considered to consists of a large number of co-

axial cylinders of increasing radii. Consider such an elemental cylindrical

shell of thr thickness dr at a distance ‘r’ from the axis. Let the temperatures

of inner and outer surfaces of the elemental shell be and +d. Then,

d

The Amount ofheat conducted per second Q KA

dr

Here Area of cross section A = 2πrl

d

Q 2rlK

dr

Rearranging the above equation we have

dr 2lK

d

r Q …………(1)

The Thermal conductivity of the whole cylinder can be got by, integrating

equation (1) within the limits r1 to r2 and 1 to 2,

r

2 dr 2 lK 2

d

r r Q

1 1

r 2 lK

log

e

2

1 2

r

1

Q

Rearranging we get,

r

Q. log 2

e r 1

K =

2 l

1 2

Q 2.3026 log

r

r

2

K=

10

W m-1K-1

1

2 l 1 2

By knowing the values in RHS, the thermal conductivity of the given material

can be found.

It is based on the principle of radial flow of heat through a cylindrical shell.

Description: It consists of a calorimeter, stirrer with a thermometer. The setup is kept inside

the woodenbox. The space between the calorimeter and the box is filled with insulating

materials such as cotton, wool, etc. to avoid radiation loss, as shown in fig.

Working:

The empty calorimeter is weighed, let it be (w1).

It is filled with two third of water and is again weighed, let it be (w2)

A known length of rubber tube is immersed inside the water

contained in the calorimeter.

Steam is passed through one end of the rubber tube and let out

through the other end of the tube.

The heat flows from the inner layer of the rubber tube to the outer

layer and is radiated.

The radiated heat is gained by the water in the calorimeter.

The time taken for the steam flow to raise the temperature of the

water about 10C is noted, let it be ‘t’ seconds.

Observation and calculation:

Let w1 Weight of calorimeter

w2 Weight of calorimeter and water

w2 – w1 Weight of the water alone

1 Initial temperature of the water

2 Final temperature of the water

2 -1 Rise in temperature of the water

S Temperature of the steam

l Length of the rubber tube (immersed)

r1 Inner radius of the rubber tube

r2 Outer radius of the rubber tube

s1 Specific heat capacity of the calorimeter

s2 Specific heat capacity of the water

3 Average temperature of the rubber tube.

1 2

3 =

2

We know from the theory of cylindrical shell method the amount of heat conducted

by the rubber tube per second is given by

K 2 l S 3

Q= ……………….(1)

r2

log e

r1

The amount of heat gained by

w s

1 1 2 1

……………(2)

calorimeter per second =

t

The amount of heat gained by

water per second =

w2 w1 s2 2 1 ……(3)

t

The amount of heat gained by the water and calorimeter per second is obtained

by

(2) +(3)

Q=

t

( )w s w2 w1 s2

Q= 2 1 1 1 ..............(4)

t

Under steady state

rubber tube per second = the water and the calorimeter

per escond

=

r t

log e 2

r1

1 2

Substituting 3 =

2

K = r1 Wm-1K-1

( )

2 lt s 1 2

2

By substituting the values in RHS, the thermal conductivity of the rubber can be

determined.

Methods to determine thermal conductivity

2. Forbe’s method - for determining the absolute conductivity of metals

3. Lee’s disc method – for bad conductors

4. Radial flow method – for bad conductors

CONDUCTIVITY OF BAD CONDUCTOR

The thermal conductivity of bad conductor like ebonite or card board is determined

by this method.

Description:

The given bad conductor (B) is shaped with the diameter as that of the circular

slab (or) disc ‘D’. The bad conductor is placed inbetween the steam chamber (S) and the

disc (D), provided the bad conductor, steam chamber and the slab should be of same

diameter. Holes are provided in the steam chamber (S) and the disc (D) in which

thermometer are inserted to measure the temperatures. The total arrangement is hanged

over the stand as shown in fig.

Working:

Steam is passed through the steam chamber till the steady state is reached .

Let the temperature of the steam chamber (hot end) and the disc (cold end) be 1

and 2 respectively.

Observation and Calculation:

Let ‘x’ be the thickness of the bad conductor (B), ‘m’ is the mass of the slab, ‘s’

be the specific heat capacity of the slab. ‘r’ is the radius of the slab and ‘h’ be the height

of the slab, then

KA(1 2 )

Bad conductor per second = …….(1)

x

Area of the cross section is = πr2 ……………… (2)

Kr 2 (1 2 )

Amount of heat conducted per second = ……(3)

x

The amount of heat lost by

slab per second = m x s x Rate of cooling

= msRc…………..(4)

The amount of heat conducted by the = Amount of heat lost by the slab

Bad conductyor (B) per second (D) Per second

Kr 2 (1 2 )

= msRc

x

msxRc

K = …….(5)

r 2 (1 2 )

Rc in equation (3) represents the rate of cooling of the disc along with the steam

chamber. To find the rate of cooling for the disc alone, the bad conductor is removed and the

steam chamber is directly placed over the disc and heated.

When the temperature of the slab attains 5C higher than 2, the steam chamber is

removed. The slab is allowed to cool, simulataneously a stop watch is switched ON.

A graph is plotted taking time along ‘x’ axis and temperature along ‘y’ axis, the

d

rate of cooling for the disc alone (i.e) is found from the graph as shown in fig.

dt

Case(i)

Steam chamber and bad conductor are placed over slab, in which radiation takes

place from the bottom surface of area (πr2) of the slab and the sides of the of area (2πrh).

Rc = 2 πr2 + 2πrh

Rc = πr(r+2h)………(6)

Case(ii)

The heat is radiated by the slab alone, (i.e) from the bottom of area(πr2), top

surface of the slab of area (πr2) and also through the sides of the slab of area 2πrh.

d

= πr2 + πr2 + 2πrh

dt 2

d

= 2 πr2 + 2πrh

dt 2

d

= 2πr(r+h)……..(7)

dt 2

From (6) and (7)

Rc r r 2h)

d 2r r h)

dt 2

(r 2h) d

Rc = ………(8)

2(r h) dt 2

d

msx ( r 2h)

dt 2

K= 2 Wm-1K-1

r (1 2 )2(r h)

Hence, thermal conductivity of the given bad conductor can be determined from

the above relation.

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