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# Unit –II Thermal Physics

## Introduction- Modes of Heat Transfer

Normally there are three modes of transfer of heat from one place to
another viz., conduction, convection and radiation.
Conduction : Conduction refers to the heat transfer that occurs across the medium. Medium can
be solid or a fluid.

Convection: It is the process in which heat is transferred from hotter end to colder end by the
actual movement of heated particles.

## .Radiation : In radiation, in the absence of intervening medium, there is net heat

transfer between two surfaces at different temperatures in the form of
electromagnetic waves.

## Specific Heat Capacity

The specific heat capacity of a material is the amount of energy (in Joules)
needed to increase the temperature of one kilogram of mass of the material by one
Kelvin.

## RECTILINEAR FLOW OF HEAT THROUGH A ROD

Consider a long rod AB of uniform cross section heated at one end A as shown in figure.

Then there is flow of heat along the length of the bar and heat is also radiated
from its surface. B is the cold end.
Consider the flow of heat between the sections P and Q at distance x and
x+δx from the hot end.

## Excess temperature above the surroundings at section P = 0

d
Temperature gradient at section P =
dx

d 2 d
KA x AxS
dx 2  dt  E x
KAx KAx KAx

d 2 S d Ep
  
dx 2 K dt KA

d
Excess temperature at section Q =   x
dx
d  d 
Temperature gradient at Q =   x 
dx  dx 
 d d  
2

=  x 
 dx dx 
2
Heat flowing (entering) through P in one second

d
Q1 =  KA …………………………(1)
dx
Heat flowing (leaving) through Q in one second

 d d  
2

Q2 =  KA  x 
 dx dx 
2

d d 2

Q2 =  KA K x 2
…………(2)
dx dx
Net heat gain by the element x in one second
Q = Q1- Q2 ………………………. …… (3)

d  d d  2

= - KA    KA  KA x 
 
2
dx dx dx
d d d 2

= - KA + KA  KA x 2
dx dx dx
d 2

Q= KA x ………………………..(4)
2
dx

## Before the steady state is reached

Before the steady state is reached, the amount of heat Q is used in two ways.
A part of the heat is used in raising the temperature of the rod and the remaining heat is
lost by radiation from the surface.

## Heat absorbed per second to raise the temperature of the rod

d
= mass x specific heat capacity x
dt

= (A x δx)ρ x S x …………(5)

## where A – Area of the cross-section of the rod

ρ – Density of the rod
S – Specific heat capacity of the rod
- Rate of rise in temperature

## Heat lost per second due to radiation = E p δx  …………..(6)

Where
E – Emissive power of the surface
p - Perimeter of the bar
δx – Surface area of the element
 - Average excess of temperature of the element over that of the
surroundings
Amount of heat (Q) = Amount of heat absorbed + Amount of heat lost

Q = (A x δx)ρ x S x + E p δx  …….(7)
On Comparing the eqns (4) and (7)

d 2
KA 2 x = (A x δx)ρ x S x + E p δx ………(8)
dx
Dividing both LHS and RHS of the above equation by KA, we have,

d 2 d
KA 2 x AxS
dx  dt  Ex
KAx KAx KAx

d 2 S d Ep
   ………………………(9)
dx 2 K dt KA
The above equation is standard differential equation for the flow of heat through the rod.
Special cases:-
Case – 1: when heat lost by radiation is negligible.

## If the rod is completely covered by insulating materials, then there is no loss

Hence Epδx = 0
d 2 S d 1 d
  …………….(10)
dx 2 K dt h dt

K
where,  h , thermal diffusivity of the rod.
S
\ Case – 2: After the steady state is reached.

## After the steady state is reached, there is no raise of temperature

d
Hence, =0
dt
 equation (9) becomes
d 2 Ep
 
dx 2 KA
Substituting,

Ep
  2 , we have
KA
d 2
2
  2 ……….(11)
dx

d 2
2
  2  0 (This represent second order differential equation).
dx

## The general solution of this equation is

  Ae  x  Be  x ……..(12)

Where A and B are two unknown constants which can be determined from the
boundary conditions of the problem.
Suppose the bar is of infinite length,

Excess temperature above the surrounding of the rod of the hot end = 0

Excess temperature above the surrounding of the rod at the cold end = 0

Boundary condition

## 0 = A+B 0 = Ae + Be-

0 = Ae
As we know e cannot be zero, therefore A should be zero
i.e., A=0
then, 0 = B
Substituting A and B in equation (12), we have

 = 0e-μx ………(13)
The above equation represents the excess temperature of a point at a distance x from
the hot end after the steady state is reached and it exponentially falls from hot end.
HEAT CONDUCTION THROUGH A COMPOUND MEDIA
(SERIES AND PARALLEL)

## Consider a composite slab of two different materials, A & B of

thermal conductivity K1 & K2 respectively. Let the thickness of these two layers A & B
be d1 and
d2 respectively

Let the temperature of the end faces be θ1 & θ2 and temperature at the contact
surface be θ, which is unknown. Heat will flow from A to B through the surface
of contact only if θ1 > θ2. After steady state is reached heat flowing per second (Q)
through every layer is same. A is the area of cross section of both layers

K 1 A( 1 )
Q= …………(1)
x1

## Amount of heat flowing per sec through B

K 2 A(1   )
Q= …………(2)
x1

The amount of heat flowing through the materials A and B is equal in steady

conditions

## Hence (1) and (2) are equal

K 1 A( 1   ) K 2 A(1   )
= ……….(3)
x1 x1

## Rearranging the (3), we have

K1A(1-)x2 = K2A(-2)x1

## K11x2 +K22x1 = ( K2x1+ K1x2)

K11 x2  K 2 2 x1
= ………..(4)
K 2 x1  K1 x2

series.

## Substituting  from equation (4) in equation (1), we get

K1 A   K11 x2  K 2 2 x1 
Q= 1   
x1   K 2 x1  K1 x2 

## K1 A  K 21 x1  K11 x2  K11 x2  K 2 2 x1 

=  
x1  K 2 x1  K1 x2 

K1 A  K 21 x1  K 2 2 x1 
=  
x1  K 2 x1  K1 x2 

K1 K 2 A  1 x1  2 x1 
=  
x1  K 2 x1  K1 x2 

K1 K 2 A(1  2 )
=
K 2 x1  K1 x2

A(1  2 )
=
K 2 x1 K1 x2

K1 K 2 K1 K 2
A(1  2 )
Q = ……………..(5)
x1 x2

K1 K 2

‘Q’ is the amount of heat flowing through the compound wall of two

materials.

This method can also be extended to comp[osite slab with more than two

slabs.

Generally, the amount of heat conducted per sec for any number of slabs is

given by ,

A(1  2 )
Q=
x
 
K

BODIES IN PARALLEL

## Let us consider a compound wall of two different materials A and B of thermal

conductivities K1 and K2 and of thickness d1 and d2 respectively. These two
material layers are arranged in parallel.
The temperatures θ1 is maintained at one faces of the material A and B and opposite
faces of the material A and B are at temperature θ2 . A1 & A2 be the areas of cross-section
of the materials.

Amount of heat flowing through the first material (A) in one second.

K 1 A1 (1   2 )
Q1 = …………….(1)
x1

Amount of heat flowing through the second material (B) in one second.

K 2 A2 (1   2 )
Q2 = …………….(2)
x2

The total heat flowing through these materials per second is equal to the sum of Q1 and
Q2

Q = Q1+Q2 ……………………….(3)

## Substituting equations (1) and (2) in (3), we get,

K 1 A1 (1   2 ) K 2 A2 (1   2 )
Q= +
x1 x2

##  Amount of heat flowing per second

K A K A 
Q = 1   2  1 1  2 2 
 x1 x2 

In general, the net amount of heat flowing per second parallel to the composite slabs is
given by

KA
 Q  (1   2 ) 
x

In this method heat flows from the inner side towards the other side along the
radius of the cylindrical shell. This method is useful in determining the thermal
conductivity of bad conductors taken in the powder form.

## CYLINDRICAL SHELL METHOD (or) RUBBER TUBE METHOD

r2. The tube carries steam or some hot liquid. After the steady state is
reached, the temperature on the innersurface is θ1 and on the outer surface is
θ2 in such a way θ1>θ2. Heat is conducted radially across the wall of the
tube. Consider an element of thickness dr and length l at a distance r from
the axis.

Working:
Steam is allowed to pass through the axis of the cylindrical shell.
The heat flows from the inner surface to the other surface radially.After the
steady state is reached, the temperature at the inner surface is noted as 1 and
on the outer surface is noted as 2.
Calculation:
The cylinder may be considered to consists of a large number of co-
axial cylinders of increasing radii. Consider such an elemental cylindrical
shell of thr thickness dr at a distance ‘r’ from the axis. Let the temperatures
of inner and outer surfaces of the elemental shell be  and +d. Then,
d
The Amount ofheat conducted per second Q   KA
dr
Here Area of cross section A = 2πrl
d
 Q  2rlK
dr
Rearranging the above equation we have
dr  2lK
 d
r Q …………(1)

 The Thermal conductivity of the whole cylinder can be got by, integrating
equation (1) within the limits r1 to r2 and 1 to 2,
r 
2 dr  2 lK 2
   d
r r Q 
1 1

 r  2 lK
log   
e
2
   1 2

r 
1
Q
Rearranging we get,
r 
Q. log   2

e r  1
K =
2 l    
1 2
Q 2.3026  log 
r 
r 
2

K=
 10

W m-1K-1
1

2 l     1 2

By knowing the values in RHS, the thermal conductivity of the given material
can be found.

## DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF RUBBER

It is based on the principle of radial flow of heat through a cylindrical shell.

Description: It consists of a calorimeter, stirrer with a thermometer. The setup is kept inside
the woodenbox. The space between the calorimeter and the box is filled with insulating
materials such as cotton, wool, etc. to avoid radiation loss, as shown in fig.

Working:
 The empty calorimeter is weighed, let it be (w1).
 It is filled with two third of water and is again weighed, let it be (w2)
 A known length of rubber tube is immersed inside the water
contained in the calorimeter.
 Steam is passed through one end of the rubber tube and let out
through the other end of the tube.
 The heat flows from the inner layer of the rubber tube to the outer
 The radiated heat is gained by the water in the calorimeter.
 The time taken for the steam flow to raise the temperature of the
water about 10C is noted, let it be ‘t’ seconds.
Observation and calculation:
Let w1 Weight of calorimeter
w2 Weight of calorimeter and water
w2 – w1 Weight of the water alone
1 Initial temperature of the water
2 Final temperature of the water
2 -1 Rise in temperature of the water
S Temperature of the steam
l Length of the rubber tube (immersed)
r1 Inner radius of the rubber tube
r2 Outer radius of the rubber tube
s1 Specific heat capacity of the calorimeter
s2 Specific heat capacity of the water
3 Average temperature of the rubber tube.

1  2
3 =
2

We know from the theory of cylindrical shell method the amount of heat conducted
by the rubber tube per second is given by
K 2 l  S  3 
Q= ……………….(1)
 r2 
log e  
 r1 
The amount of heat gained by
w s   
1 1 2 1
 ……………(2)
calorimeter per second =
t
The amount of heat gained by
water per second =
w2  w1 s2  2 1  ……(3)
t
 The amount of heat gained by the water and calorimeter per second is obtained
by
(2) +(3)

## ( w2  w1 ) s2 ( 2 1 )  w1s1 ( 2 1 )

Q=
t
(  )w s  w2  w1 s2 
Q= 2 1 1 1 ..............(4)
t

## The amount of heat conducted by The amount of heat gained by the

rubber tube per second = the water and the calorimeter
per escond

## K 2 l  S  3  ( 2 1 )w1s1  w2  w1 s2 

=
r  t
log e  2 
 r1 
1  2
Substituting 3 =
2

## ( 2 1 )log e  r2 w1s1  w2  w1 s2 

 K =  r1  Wm-1K-1
 (  ) 
2 lt  s  1 2 
 2 
By substituting the values in RHS, the thermal conductivity of the rubber can be
determined.
Methods to determine thermal conductivity

## 1. Searle’s method – for good conductors like metallic rods

2. Forbe’s method - for determining the absolute conductivity of metals
3. Lee’s disc method – for bad conductors

## LEE’S DISC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THERMAL

The thermal conductivity of bad conductor like ebonite or card board is determined
by this method.
Description:
The given bad conductor (B) is shaped with the diameter as that of the circular
slab (or) disc ‘D’. The bad conductor is placed inbetween the steam chamber (S) and the
disc (D), provided the bad conductor, steam chamber and the slab should be of same
diameter. Holes are provided in the steam chamber (S) and the disc (D) in which
thermometer are inserted to measure the temperatures. The total arrangement is hanged
over the stand as shown in fig.

Working:
Steam is passed through the steam chamber till the steady state is reached .
Let the temperature of the steam chamber (hot end) and the disc (cold end) be 1
and 2 respectively.
Observation and Calculation:
Let ‘x’ be the thickness of the bad conductor (B), ‘m’ is the mass of the slab, ‘s’
be the specific heat capacity of the slab. ‘r’ is the radius of the slab and ‘h’ be the height
of the slab, then

## Amount of heat conducted by the

KA(1  2 )
Bad conductor per second = …….(1)
x
Area of the cross section is = πr2 ……………… (2)

Kr 2 (1  2 )
Amount of heat conducted per second = ……(3)
x
The amount of heat lost by
slab per second = m x s x Rate of cooling
= msRc…………..(4)

The amount of heat conducted by the = Amount of heat lost by the slab
Bad conductyor (B) per second (D) Per second

Kr 2 (1  2 )
= msRc
x

msxRc
K = …….(5)
r 2 (1  2 )

## To find the rate of cooling Rc

Rc in equation (3) represents the rate of cooling of the disc along with the steam
chamber. To find the rate of cooling for the disc alone, the bad conductor is removed and the
steam chamber is directly placed over the disc and heated.
When the temperature of the slab attains 5C higher than 2, the steam chamber is
removed. The slab is allowed to cool, simulataneously a stop watch is switched ON.
A graph is plotted taking time along ‘x’ axis and temperature along ‘y’ axis, the
 d 
rate of cooling for the disc alone (i.e)   is found from the graph as shown in fig.
 dt 

## The rate of cooling is directly proportional to the surface area exposed.

Case(i)
Steam chamber and bad conductor are placed over slab, in which radiation takes
place from the bottom surface of area (πr2) of the slab and the sides of the of area (2πrh).
 Rc = 2 πr2 + 2πrh
Rc = πr(r+2h)………(6)
Case(ii)
The heat is radiated by the slab alone, (i.e) from the bottom of area(πr2), top
surface of the slab of area (πr2) and also through the sides of the slab of area 2πrh.

 d 
  = πr2 + πr2 + 2πrh
 dt  2

 d 
  = 2 πr2 + 2πrh
 dt  2

 d 
  = 2πr(r+h)……..(7)
 dt  2
From (6) and (7)
Rc r r  2h) 

 d  2r r  h) 
 
 dt  2

(r  2h)  d 
Rc =   ………(8)
2(r  h)  dt  2

## Substituting (8) in (5) we have

 d 
msx  ( r  2h)
 dt  2
K= 2 Wm-1K-1
r (1  2 )2(r  h)
Hence, thermal conductivity of the given bad conductor can be determined from
the above relation.