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Nama : Syifa Kusuma Wardani

NIM : 16305141077

Kelas : Matematika F 2016

1. Contoh tulisan yang tidak baik dan yang baik tentang penyelesaian masalah matematika.
a. Penulisan yang tidak baik tentang penyelesaian masalah matematika :

Determine the following differential equation is exact or nonexact.


𝑑𝑦
2𝑥𝑦 − 9𝑥 2 + (2𝑦 + 𝑥 2 + 1) =0
𝑑𝑥
Answer :
The differential equation is expressed in derivative form. Transformed into
differential form, we get
(2𝑥𝑦 − 9𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑡 (2𝑦 + 𝑥 2 + 1)𝑑𝑦 = 0

Suppose M(x,y) = 2𝑦 – 9𝑥 2 and N(x,y) = 2y + 𝑦 2 + 1, then the differential


equation above is exact if and only if then the differential equation above is an
exact.
𝜕𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
=
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕(2𝑥𝑦 − 9𝑥 2 )
= = 2𝑥
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
While

𝜕𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕𝑥(2𝑦 + 𝑥 2 + 1)
= = 2𝑥
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑀(𝑥,𝑦) 𝜕𝑁(𝑥,𝑦)
Because 𝜕𝑦 = 𝜕𝑥 , then the differential equation above is an exact.

 Prinsip-prinsip dan kaidah mana saja yang dilanggar :


- Penulis tidak menyatakan variabelnya dan kaliman mengecoh
- Tidak perlu ditunjukkan di buktinya (yaitu beberapa pernyataannya tentang makna
independen linear
- Seluruh bukti bisa ditulis dalam ruang yang lebih pendek.
 Pembenaran penulisan yang tidak baik tentang pembuktian dengan induksi
matematika

Determine the following differential equation is exact or nonexact.


𝑑𝑦
2𝑥𝑦 − 9𝑥 2 + (2𝑦 + 𝑥 2 + 1) = 0.
𝑑𝑥
Answer :
The differential equation is expressed in derivative form. Transformed into
differential form, we get
(2𝑥𝑦 − 9𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑡 (2𝑦 + 𝑥 2 + 1)𝑑𝑦 = 0.

Suppose M(x,y) = 2𝑦 – 9𝑥 2 and N(x,y) = 2y + 𝑦 2 + 1, then the differential


equation above is exact if and only if then the differential equation above is an
exact.
𝜕𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
= .
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕(2𝑥𝑦 − 9𝑥 2 )
= = 2𝑥.
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
While

𝜕𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕𝑥(2𝑦 + 𝑥 2 + 1)
= = 2𝑥.
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑀(𝑥,𝑦) 𝜕𝑁(𝑥,𝑦)
Because 𝜕𝑦 = 𝜕𝑥 . Then the differential equation above is an exact.

 Prinsip-prinsip dan kaidah penulisan yang baik:


- Tulis kata penuh, tanpa singkatan
- Setiap kalimat diawali huruf kapital dan diakhiri tanda titik
- Perkenalkan istilah sebelum penggunakannya
- Mengunakan notasi yang ramah pembaca
- Mulai kalimat dengan kata-kata, bukan simbol.

b. Penulisan yang baik tentang penyelesaian dalam matematika :

If the population rate can be modeled into


𝑑𝑦
= (3 − 𝑦)𝑦.
𝑑𝑡

Answer :
1. The equilibrium solutions are 𝑧 such that
(3 − 𝑦)𝑦 ↔ 𝑦 = 3 𝑜𝑟 𝑦 = 0.
2. Here, we can analyze that for 0 < y < 3 the derivative is positive valued while
for y < 0 or y > 3 the derivative is negative valued. Therefore, the population will
increase for 0 < y < 3, while for y < 0 or y > 3 the population will decrease.
3. Determine the concavity.
𝑑2𝑦 𝑑𝑦
2
= 𝑓 ′ (𝑦)
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
= 𝑓 ′ (𝑦)𝑓(𝑦).

𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒 𝑓(𝑦) = (3 – 𝑦)𝑦, 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑓 ′ 𝑦 = −2𝑦 + 3.


𝑑2 𝑦
𝐼𝑡’𝑠 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑑𝑡 2 = (3 − 2𝑦)(3 − 𝑦)𝑦.

 Prinsip-prinsip dan kaidah penulisan yang baik:


- Tulis kata penuh, tanpa singkatan
- Setiap kalimat diawali huruf kapital dan diakhiri tanda titik
- Perkenalkan istilah sebelum penggunakannya
- Mengunakan notasi yang ramah pembaca
- Mulai kalimat dengan kata-kata, bukan simbol

2. Contoh tulisan yang tidak baik dan yang baik tentang pembuktian dalam matematika.
a. Penulisan yang tidak baik tentang pembuktian dalam matematika :

Let V and W be vector spaces, and suppose T : V → W is a one-to-one linear


transformation. Prove: if {u, v, w} is a linearly independent subset of V, then the
set {T(u), T(v), T(w)} is a linearly independent subset of W.

Proof,

If a function is one-to-one, then we know that for nonzero vectors a and b, if a ≠ b


then T(a) ≠ T(b), by definition. Since {u, v, w} is a linearly independent subset of
V, no vectors in this subset can be expressed as a linear combination of another
vector in the subset, and thus each vector is distinct. Then, we know that since u ≠
v ≠ w ≠ u, T(u), T(v), T(w) are distinct vectors. But is the set {T(u), T(v), T(w)}
linearly independent? Suppose that it is linearly dependent…[continues on
correctly].

 Prinsip-prinsip dan kaidah mana saja yang dilanggar :


- Penulis tidak menyatakan variabelnya dan kaliman mengecoh
- Tidak perlu ditunjukkan di buktinya (yaitu beberapa pernyataannya tentang makna
independen linear
- Seluruh bukti bisa ditulis dalam ruang yang lebih pendek.
 Pembenaran penulisan yang tidak baik tentang pembuktian dengan induksi
matematika

Proof :Suppose {T(u), T(v), T(w)} is linearly dependent. Then there exist scalars a
and b such that T(u) = aT(v) + bT(w) by definition. By the properties of linear
transformations, T(u) = aT(v) + bT(w) = T(av) + T(bw) = T(av + bw). Since T is one-
to-one, u = av + bw by definition. This implies that {u,v,w} is linearly dependent by
definition.

b. Penulisan yang baik tentang pembuktian dalam matematika :

Write a proof that for every integer x, x is even if and only if x + 1 is odd. Let x be
any integer. We must show x is even if and only if x+1 is odd.

(⇒) Suppose x is even. Choose an integer y such that x = 2y. Then y is also an integer
such that x + 1 = 2y + 1, so x + 1 is odd.

(⇐) Suppose x+1 is odd. Choose an integer y such that x+1 = 2y + 1. Then y is also
an integer such that x = 2y, so x is even.

Now we can conclude that for any integer x, the statements ‘x is even and ‘x + 1 is
odd’ are interchangeable; this means that we can take any true statement and replace
some occurrences of the phrase ‘x is even’ with the phrase ‘x + 1 is odd’ to get
another true statement.

 Prinsip-prinsip dan kaidah penulisan yang baik:


- Tulis kata penuh, tanpa singkatan
- Setiap kalimat diawali huruf kapital dan diakhiri tanda titik
- Perkenalkan istilah sebelum penggunakannya
- Mengunakan notasi yang ramah pembaca
- Mulai kalimat dengan kata-kata, bukan simbol.

3. Contoh tulisan yang tidak baik dan yang baik tentang pembuktian dengan induksi
matematika.
a. Penulisan yang tidak baik tentang pembuktian dengan induksi matematika :

n(n + 1)
For each integer n ≥ 1 we have 1 + ··· + n =
2

Proof.

n(n+1)
Step 1. It’s true For n = 1 we have 1 + ··· + n = 2
n(n+1)
Step 2. We have to show IF 1 + ··· + n = 2 . is true for some particular n, then the
analogous statement is also true for the number n + 1. So, ASSUME that 1 + ··· + n
n(n+1)
= 2 is true for some n, and USE this information to show that the formula is also
valid for n + 1. We calculate:

1 + ··· + n + (n + 1) = n(n + 1)/2 + (n + 1) = (n2 + n + 2n + 2)/2 = ((n + 1)(n + 2))/2

We used the formula for n, and what we end up with is the correct formula for n+1. Note
that wemdidn’t prove the formula for n + 1 directly! All we did is show that IF it’s true
for some n THEN it’s true for n + 1. And that’s enough to make the recursion work.

 Prinsip-prinsip dan kaidah mana saja yang dilanggar :


- Setiap kalimat diakhiri dengan tanda “.” (titik)
- Tampilan ekspresi matematika yang panjang. Menulis ungkapan matematis dengan
singkat dalam satu baris
- Semua kata dalam suatu kelimat tidak menggunakan huruf capital.

 Pembenaran penulisan yang tidak baik tentang pembuktian dengan induksi matematika

n(n+1)
For each integer n ≥ 1 we have 1 + ··· + n = .
2

Proof.

n(n+1)
Step 1. It’s true For n = 1 we have 1 + ··· + n = .
2

n(n+1)
Step 2. We have to show IF 1 + ··· + n = . is true for some particular n, then the
2
n(n+1)
analogous statement is also true for the number n + 1. So, assume that 1 + ··· + n = 2
is true for some n, and USE this information to show that the formula is also valid for n +
1. We calculate:

n(n+1)
1 + ··· + n + (n + 1) = + (n + 1)
2

n2 +n+2n+2
= 2

(n + 1)(n + 2)
= .
2

We used the formula for n, and what we end up with is the correct formula for n+1. Note
that we didn’t prove the formula for n + 1 directly! all we did is show that if it’s true for
some n then it’s true for n + 1. And that’s enough to make the recursion work.
b. Penulisan yang baik tentang pembuktian dalam induksi matematika :
1
1 − 2n
Theorem. A formula for the sequence an defined above, is an = 22 for all n greater
than or equal to 0.

Proof. (By Mathematical Induction.)


1
1 − 2n
2
Initial Step. When n = 0, the formula gives us = 2

1
1− 0
2
2
= 2

1
=4

= a0.

So the closed form formula ives us the correct answer when n = 0.

Inductive Step.

Our inductive assumption is: Assume there is a k, greater than or equal to zero, such that
1
1 − 2n
2
ak = . We must prove the formula is true for n = k+1.
2

First we appeal to the recurrsive definition of ak+1 = 2 ak(1-ak). Next, we invoke the
inductive assumption, for this k, to get
1 1
1− k 1− k
2 2 22
ak+1 =2 . (1 − )
2 2

1 1
(1 − k )(1 + k )
2 2 2 2
= 2

1
1 − k+1
22
= .
2

This completes the inductive step.

 Prinsip-prinsip dan kaidah penulisan yang baik:


- Tulis kata penuh, tanpa singkatan
- Setiap kalimat diawali huruf kapital dan diakhiri tanda titik
- Perkenalkan istilah sebelum penggunakannya
- Mulai kalimat dengan kata-kata, bukan simbol.