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HOW TO BUILD A SOLAR CHARGED

REMOTE CONTROL ELECTRIC LAWN


MOWER (SCRCELM)
By: Robert Smith
Written By: Vesela Penkova
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
GENERAL INFORMATION & TIPS
CHAPTER I: ALUMINUM FRAME
CHAPTER II: ELECTRIC POWERED WHEELCHAIR MOTORS
CHAPTER III: ATTACH THE LAWN MOWER TO THE
FRAME
CHAPTER IV: REINFORCE THE ALUMINUM FRAME
CHAPTER V: INSTALL THE BATTERY RACK
CHAPTER VI: ELECTRONICS ENCLOSURE BOX
CHAPTER VII: A SMALL SCALE ELECTRONIC TEST
CHAPTER VIII: CONNECT THE WHEELCHAIR MOTORS
CHAPTER IX: MODIFY THE BACK LAWN MOTOR WHEELS
CHAPTER X: TURN THE LAWN MOWER ON WIRELESSLY
CHAPTER XI: ATTACH THE SOLAR PANELS TO THE
ALUMINUM FRAME
CHAPTER XII: INSTALL THE COMPONENTS IN THE
ELECTRONIC BOX
CHAPTER XIII: INSTALL COOLING FANS
CHAPTER XIV: INSTALL A WIRELESS CAMERA
CHAPTER XV: HOW TO OPERATE THE SOLAR POWERED
RC LAWN MOWER
APPENDICES
SCRCELM PARTS LIST
INTRODUCTION
Solar powered home appliances and devices are rapidly gaining popularity.
Ranging from simple solar powered garden lights to sophisticated home
installations, solar power devices offer a number of advantages: they utilize
an infinite clean and free energy resource, and there are no dangerous
polluting byproducts produced during use. Any solar powered device can be
recharged as many times as needed simply by exposing the solar cells to the
sun during the day. Some can even be used during the night after charging
them during the day.

This step-by-step eBook will show you how


to build Robert Smith’s solar charged remote control electric lawn mower
(SCRCELM). This eBook is divided into 15 easy to follow chapters that
cover everything you need to know in order to either replicate Robert’s
version of a remote control (RC) lawn mower, or gain more knowledge of
one method of many, on how to create a fully functional environmentally
friendly RC lawn mower. Each chapter of this eBook addresses specific steps
of the project, and explains in detail what components you will need and how
to implement them.

Along with lots of useful advice, handy tips, and recommendations for the
best way to approach and complete each step of the construction process, this
eBook includes:

- Complete list of the tools and parts required for building your own
SCRCELM, as well as suggested shopping locations for each part
- 3D drawn to scale model of the device, along with comprehensive
tutorials on how to use the model sketch up program, and how to take
measurements and/or tweak the sizes of the components
- SCRCELM electrical schematic
- Battery connection schematic
- Parallax basic stamp program code
- Electronic box interface template
- Cooling fans template
- Sabertooth DIP switch wizard

The difficulty level of the project can generally be described as intermediate,


mainly because there is a lot of circuitry work. It would be beneficial if you
have some prior basic knowledge about how electrical circuits work, for
example, how to connect electrical components (transistors, charge
controllers, etc.) by looking at a schematic.

Additionally, you can find the complete video series of the project on
Robert’s website: www.robert-smith.net

So, let’s proceed with creating a solar powered RC electric lawn mower.
GENERAL INFORMATION & TIPS

MEASURMENTS
All measurements in this eBook refer to modifying a Black & Decker
CM1836 Electric Lawn Mower using the components included in the parts
list. If you intend to use a different lawn mower and/or replace any of the
components used in this project, you should adjust the measurements of the
3D model and/or take your own measurements.

CUTTING ALUMINUM COMPONENTS


It is recommended to cut and measure all aluminum components prior to
starting work on the frame. This will ensure smooth workflow and will speed
up your work.

DRILLING HOLES IN ALUMINUM


It is recommended to use Multiuse Lube WD40 when drilling holes in
aluminum to help keep your drill cool and sharp.

RIGHT (R) AND LEFT (L) SIDE COMPONENTS


It is highly recommended to always mark (R) or (L) on the components you
intend to use on the right and left side of the mower in case your drilled holes
are not perfectly symmetrical.

3D MODEL
A 3D model of the SCRCELM is available for free download in Google
Sketch Up (also known as SketchUp Make). Complete tutorials on how to
use Google Sketch Up are available at the following link: tap here

PARALLAX BASIC STAMP CODE


The Parallax Basic Stamp Code is available for download here. You will
need to install Parallax BASIC Stamp windows Editor (for PC) or BASIC
Stamp Macintosh Editor (for MAC) in order to open the file.
SABERTOOTH 2X25 DIP SWITCH WIZARD
Sabertooth 2x25 Switch Wizard is available here. The wizard is helpful for
determining the correct configuration of the DIP switch according to the type
of battery and type of control (analog, radio, or microprocessor) that you plan
to use.
CHAPTER I: ALUMINUM FRAME

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 2x swivel wheels - Basic hacksaw, band saw
(recommended)
- 2x 1’ 8 1/16’’ flat aluminum bars
- Drill Press / Power Drill
- 2x 9 ¾’’ flat aluminum bars
- Torque Wrench / Kit
- 1x 1’8 5/16’’ flat aluminum bars
- Wrench / Kit
- 2x 3’ angle aluminum bars
- Heavy duty spring clamps
- 2x 5 7/8’’ angle aluminum bars
- 1’8 5/16’’ angle aluminum bars
- Hex bolts
- Stop nuts
- Nylon inserts

1. FRONT SWIVEL WHEEL BASE


1.1. Place 2x 1’ 8 1/16’’ flat aluminum bars on a flat surface. Align them
horizontally.
1.2. Place one of the swivel wheels over the right end of the flat aluminum
bars.
1.3. Use a magic marker, mark where 4 holes should be drilled.
1.4. Repeat step 1.3 on the left side.
1.5. Drill holes and attach both swivel wheels to the flat aluminum bars.
NOTE: At this stage, screw the inner hex bolt only!
2. FRONT SPACER

The “front spacer” is a gap between the swivel wheels and the front of the
lawn mower. Two flat aluminum bars build the spacer. The front ends of the
bars are connected to the right and left corners of the front swivel wheel base;
the back ends of the bars are connected to the side elongated arms of the
frame.

2.1. Take 2x 9 ¾’’ flat aluminum bars and mark with (R) and (L). Mark the
front and back end of each bar.
2.2. Determine where to drill hex bolt holes in the front part of the R bar by
placing its front end over the right corner of the front swivel wheel base.
Mark the position of the hex bolts by using the existing outer bolt holes on
the front base as reference.
2.3. Determine the position of the back end hex bolts in the following
manner: mark ½, 1 ½ and 2” from the back end of the R aluminum bar and
¾” from the inner corner. These are the positions of the two holes you need
to drill at the back end of the piece and how far it should overlap with the
elongated side arm of the frame.
2.4. Repeat steps 2.2. and 2.3. with the L spacer bar.
2.5. Drill all the holes.
2.6. Attach the front end of the R bar to the right side of the front swivel
wheel base using the outer hex bolts of the swivel wheel. Do the same on
the left side.

3. ELONGATED SIDE ARMS

Two elongated angle aluminum bars constitute the sides of the frame. The
front end of each elongated bar is attached to the back end of each spacer bar.
The back ends of the side arms are attached to the right and left side
extension bars (step 4).
3.1. Take 2x 3’ angle aluminum bars and mark with R and L. Mark the
front and back end of each bar.
3.2. Place the front end of the R bar over the back end of the R spacer bar.
Align the end with the 2” mark on the spacer.
3.3. Mark where the hex bolt holes should be on the elongated arm piece
using the holes drilled in the spacer as reference.
3.4. Determine the position of the two back end hex bolts in the following
manner: mark ½, 1 ½ and 2” from the back end of the R side arm piece and
¾” from the inner corner. These are the positions of the two holes you need
to drill at the back end of the elongated arm piece and how far it should
overlap with the back extension piece.
3.5. Repeat steps 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 on the left side of the lawn mower.
3.6. Drill the holes on both ends of the elongated bar.
3.7. Attach the R elongated side arm to the back end of the R spacer bar.
Do the same on the left side.

4.
BACK EXTENSION

The back extension elongates the lawn mower frame. It consists of one flat
aluminum bar (placed over the back ends of the side arms of the frame) and
two angle aluminum bars (situated between the side arms in the front and the
back end of the frame).

4.1. Take a 1’8 5/16’’ flat aluminum bar. Place it horizontally over the
back ends of the side arms and mark the right (R) and left (L) side.
4.2. Align the flat aluminum bar with the corners of the side arms and
secure it in place using heavy-duty spring clamps.
4.3. Flip the frame over. Use the existing hex bolt holes on the side arms as
reference to help you mark where the hex bolt holes on the R and L side of
the flat aluminum bar need to be drilled. Drill the holes.
4.4. Take 2x 5 7/8’’ angle aluminum bars and mark with R and L. Mark the
front and back end of each bar.
4.5. Overlap the front end of the R bar with the back part of the R
elongated arm of the frame and align it with the 2” mark.
4.6. Using the hex bolt holes on the R elongated side arm as reference,
mark where you need to drill the holes. Do the same with the L back
extension bar on the left side of the frame.

4.7. Determine the position of the two back end hex bolts in the following
manner: mark ½, 1 ½ and 2” from the back end of the R bar and ¾” from
the inner corner. These are the positions of the two holes you will need to
drill and how far it should overlap with the back end angle bar.

4.8. Drill the holes on the R and L angle bars.


4.9. Place the flat aluminum bar over the side arms, overlap with the back
extension bars and screw together. The flat aluminum bar should be
between the elongated side arms and the back extension bars.
5. BACK END ANGLE BAR

5.1. The back end angle aluminum bar is attached to the end of the
extension bars and serves as a base for attaching the back motor powered
wheels to the frame.
5.2. Place a 1’8 5/16” angle aluminum bar across the right and left back
extension pieces. Use heavy duty spring clamps to secure it in place. Mark
the R and L sides.
5.3. Use the bolt holes drilled in the back extension bars as reference and
mark where you need to drill holes in the back end angle bar.
5.4. Attach the back end bar to the back extension.
CHAPTER II: ELECTRIC POWERED
WHEELCHAIR MOTORS

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 2x Electric wheelchair motors - Basic hacksaw, band saw
- 3x 8 1/4’’ flat aluminum bars (recommended)
- Hex bolts - Drill Press / Power Drill
- Stop nuts - Torque Wrench / Kit
- Nylon inserts - Wrench / Kit
- Heavy duty spring clamps

1. ELECTRIC WHEELCHAIR MOTORS


A pre-built set of electric wheelchair motors and wheels (as the one shown on
the picture below) is used in this project. You will be modifying the existing
aluminum bars (red arrows on the picture).

1.1. Find the midpoint of the backend angle bar and mark it.
1.2. Working towards the right end of the backend angle bar, mark at 2’’,
3 15/16’’ and 5 15/16’’. Replicate towards the left end.
1.3. Repeat on the two aluminum bars that are part of the wheelchair
motor set.

1.4. Take 3x 8 ¼’’ flat aluminum bars and mark the top and the bottom
ends of each one. You will be attaching the top of each piece to the
backend angle piece and the bottom ends – to the two aluminum bars of
the wheelchair motor set.

1.5. Determine where you need to drill holes in the three flat aluminum
bars, the backend angle bar and the two wheelchair motors set bars. In
order to do that you will need to disconnect all components.
1.6. Attach all components together using hex bolts, stop nuts, and nylon
inserts.
CHAPTER III: ATTACH THE LAWN MOWER
TO THE FRAME

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- Drill Press / Power Drill
- 2x4 3/16’’ angle aluminum bars
- Torque Wrench / Kit
- 2x 7 1/16’’ flat aluminum bars - Flat-edge screwdriver
- 2x 2 ½ ‘’ angle aluminum bars
- Hex bolts
- Stop nuts
- Nylon inserts

1. ATTACHING THE FRONT OF THE LAWN MOWER TO


THE FRAME

1.1. Remove the front lawn mower wheel by removing the push ring that
holds it in place with a flat-edge screwdriver.

1.2. Take a 4 3/16’’ angle


aluminum bar. It will serve as an L-bracket to help keep the front of the
lawn mower.
1.3. Align it at 5 3/8’’ from the front of the elongated angle side bar.
1.4. Take a 7 1/16’’ flat aluminum bar. Mark the middle point at the top
and bottom.
1.5. Position it at 15/16’’ from the front of the angle aluminum L-bracket.
1.6. Drill holes in both bars and attach using hex bolts, nylon inserts and
stop nuts.
1.7. Using a flat-edge screwdriver, remove the front wheel.
1.8. Attach the bottom end of the flat aluminum piece to the front wheel
shaft.
1.9. Repeat the same on the left side.
2. ATTACHING THE BACK OF THE LAWN MOWER TO
THE FRAME

2.1. Take 2 ½’’ angle aluminum bar.


2.2. Measure ½’’ from the top and ¼’’, 1 ¼’’ and 2 1/8’’ from the right
side of the bar.
2.3. Drill holes. You will be attaching this angle aluminum bar to the shaft
of the back wheel (middle hole) and two aluminum bars that constitute the
reinforcement of the frame.
CHAPTER IV: REINFORCE THE ALUMINUM
FRAME

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- Drill Press / Power Drill
- 2x1’ 3 1/4’’ flat aluminum bars
- Torque Wrench / Kit
- 2x 2’ 4 ½’’ flat aluminum bars
- 2x 1’ 4 3/8’’ flat aluminum bars.
- 2x 9 3/8’’ flat aluminum bars.
- Hex bolts
- Stop nuts
- Nylon inserts

1. FRONT FRAME REINFORCEMENT

1.1. Mark the right (R) and left (L) 2x 1’ 3 ¼’’ flat aluminum bars.
1.2. Place the R bar over the R front extension.
1.3. Mark where two hex bolt holes have to be drilled, using the bolt
connection between the front extension and the angled elongated arm of
the frame as reference.

1.4. Drill the holes and attach to the frame


1.5. Repeat the same on the left side.

2. BACK FRAME REINFORCEMENT

1.1. Mark the R and L of 2x 2’ 4 ½’’ flat aluminum bars. Mark the top and
bottom end of each bar.
1.2. Cut the top corners of both bars as shown on the image below.

1.3. Mark the R and L of 2x 1’ 4 3/8’’ flat aluminum bars.


1.4. Mark the R and L of 2x 9 3/8’’ flat aluminum bars.
1.5. Put aside the L parts, as you will be working on the right side of the
frame first.
1.6. Arrange the components as shown on the image below. Establish
where to drill the necessary holes for attaching the bolts holes components
together. Drill the holes.

1.7. Connect all components using hex bolts, stop nuts and nylon inserts.
1.8. Repeat the same on the left side.
CHAPTER V: INSTALL THE BATTERY RACK

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 4x 1 3/8’’ angle aluminum bars - Basic hacksaw, band saw
- 2x 1 7 3/8’’ angle aluminum bars (recommended)
- 2x 6 3/8’’ flat aluminum bars - Torque Wrench / Kit
- 2x 4 7/8’’ flat aluminum bars - Drill Press / Power Drill
- 2x 4 3/16’’ flat aluminum bars - Digital Multimeter
- 2x NOCO Group U1 Battery Box
- 2x UB12350 Group U1 Battery
- 2x 20-Ft. UL-Recognized Red
Hookup Wire (12AWG)
- Hex bolts
- Stop nuts
- Nylon inserts

1. BUILD THE BATTERY RACK

1.1. Look at the image below and prepare all components needed for
constructing the battery rack and attaching it to the rest of the frame:
- 4x 1 3/8’’ angle aluminum bars (L-brackets) - LL1, LL2, LR1 and LR2
- 2x 1 7 3/8’’ angle aluminum bars (A and B on the image below)
- 2x 6 3/8’’ flat aluminum bars – C and D
- 2x 4 7/8’’ flat aluminum bars – LE1 and RE1
- 2x 4 3/16’’ flat aluminum bars – LE2 and RE2
1.2. Position the components as shown on the image. Determine where
holes should be drilled.
1.3. Drill holes for the hex bolts and connect the components.

2. INSTALL THE BATTERIES

2.1 Detach the flat aluminum backend extension bar (Chapter I, 4.1).
2.2. Place the battery enclosures in the frame to get an idea what
modifications need to be made to the enclosures. Trim the handles of the
battery enclosures. Once the handles are cut, the enclosures should fit
perfectly in the frame.
2.3. Place the lids on top of the battery enclosures in order to determine
what modifications need to be made to the lids. Trim the edges of the lids.
2.4. Place the two 12V batteries inside the rack to ensure that everything
fits correctly. Remove the batteries.
2.5. Attach 20-Ft. UL-Recognized Red Hookup Wire (12AWG) to the
battery terminals. The red wire should be attached to the battery terminal
marked with red color, and the black wire – too the terminal marked with
black color. Place electric tape on the end of the connections to prevent
short circuiting.

NOTE: At this stage, you are attaching the wire to the batteries
temporarily.

2.6. Place the batteries back in to the battery rack


and close the lids.
2.7. Use a volt meter to make sure you are receiving roughly 12V from the
ends of the battery connections.
2.8. Reassemble the frame.
CHAPTER VI: ELECTRONICS ENCLOSURE
BOX

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 1x 1’ 8 5/16’’ angled aluminum - Basic hacksaw, band saw
bar (recommended)
- 1x Dri-Box Waterproof Outdoor - Torque Wrench / Kit
Enclosure - Drill Press / Power Drill
- Hex bolts
- Stop nuts
- Nylon inserts
- Nylon screws and nuts

1. MODIFY THE FRAME

1.1 Measure 9 9/16’’ from the back end of the frame and mark.
1.2. Place 1x 1’ 8 5/16’’ angled aluminum bar horizontally over the frame.
Align the bar with the 9 9/16’’ mark.
1.3. Drill holes in the angled elongated side arms of the frame and in the
horizontal bar. Attach the bar to the frame using hex bolts, stop nuts and
nylon inserts.
1.4. Measure 7 ¾’’ from the R end of the bar and drill a hole. Measure 7
¾’’ from the L end of the bar and drill a hole.

2. ATTACH THE ELECTRONIC BOX TO THE FRAME

2.1. Place the Dri-Box Waterproof Outdoor Enclosure on top of the frame.
2.2. Attach it to the back angle aluminum frame using nylon screws.
CHAPTER VII: A SMALL SCALE
ELECTRONIC TEST

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- Spektrum DX5e Transmitter - Pozidriv screwdriver
- 2x Super Speed 9-18VDC Hobby - Flat-head screwdriver
Motors - Heavy duty spring clamps
- Sabertooth 2x25 Motor Controller
- 2x Servo Male Connectors
- Cable for the battery connections
- Spektrum DX5e Receiver

1. SABERTOOTH 2X25 MOTOR CONTROLLER - DIP


SWITCH BLOCK CONFIGURATION

Sabertooth 2x25 Motor


Controller has a total of 6 DIP switches. Here is how they should be
configured:
Switch 1 – DOWN position;
Switch 2 – UP position;
Switch 3 – UP position;
Switch 4 – UP position;
Switch 5 – DOWN position;
Switch 6 – DOWN position;
NOTE: Switch 3 of the DIP switch block selects lithium cutoff. The
switch should be set to DOWN position when using lithium or lead acid
batteries. If the Sabertooth is being run from NiCd, NiMH or alkaline
batteries, or from a power supply, switch 3 should be in the UP position.
Sabertooth 2x25 Dip Switch Wizard is available here.

2. SPEKTRUM DX5E RECEIVER SETUP


2.1. Plug a servo pigtail connector in the ELEVATOR (ELEV) port of the
receiver.
2.2. Plug the other pigtail connector in the AILERON (AILE) port of the
receiver.
2.3. Connect the positive lead (red) of the first servo pigtail connector with
the positive lead (red) of the other servo pigtail connector.
2.4. Repeat step 2.3. with the two negative (black) leads.

3. SABERTOOTH 2X25 MOTOR CONTROLLER SIGNAL


AND POWER TERMINALS SETUP

NOTE: All connections to the Sabertooth are done with screw terminals.
To hook up wires into these terminals, you will need approximately ¼”
stripped wire. With a screwdriver, turn the top screw counter-clockwise
until it stops gently. Insert the stripped portion of the wire into the opening
in the screw terminal. Turn the top screw clockwise until you encounter
resistance, and then tighten the screw firmly. Pull on the wire gently to
ensure that it is secured.
3.1. Take a look at the signal and power terminals of your Sabertooth
Motor Controller. There are two signal input terminals (S1 and S2) power
terminals (0V and 5V).
3.2. Insert the negative connection into the 0V terminal, the positive
connection into the 5V terminal, the ELEV connection (the white wire of
the male connector plugged in the ELEV port of the receiver) into the S1
terminal and AILE connection (the white wire of the male connector
plugged in the AILE port of the receiver) into the S2 terminal.

4. SABERTOOTH 2X25 MOTOR CONTROLLER -


BATTERY AND MOTOR TERMINALS SETUP

Take a look at the battery and motor terminals of your Sabertooth Motor
Controller. There are two battery terminals (B- and B+) and two sets of
two motor terminals (M1A, M1B and M2A, M2B). The battery is
connected to terminals B- and B+ (B- connects to the negative side of the
battery (black), B+ connects to the positive side of the battery (red)). Motor
1 is connected to terminals M1A and M1B and motor 2 – to terminals
M2A and M2B.
4.1. Connect one of the Super Speed 9-18VDC Hobby Motors to the
Sabertooth motor terminals. Insert the red lead into the M1A terminal and
the black lead – into the M1B terminal.
4.2. Connect the second motor to the Sabertooth motor terminals. Insert the
red lead into the M2A terminal and the black lead – into the M2B terminal.
4.3. Place heavy duty clamps on the motors to keep them stable while
testing them.
4.4. Connect the battery to the Sabertooth motor controller by inserting the
negative connection into the B- terminal and the positive connection into
the B+ terminal.
4.5. As soon as the B+ terminal is connected, the blue LED on the motor
controller should go solid indicating the battery is connected.

5. PERFORM THE TEST

5.1. Connect the Spektrum DX5e Transmitter with the Spektrum DX5e
Receiver
5.2. Turn ON the transmitter – the red LED on the receiver should go solid
indicating the system is connected.
5.3. Press the right stick of the transmitter up (forward) and down
(backwards), left and right to test the motion and speed of the motors.
When the stick is in zero position both motors should stop.

NOTE: If you would like to have only one of the motors moving, press the
stick towards up-left, down-left, up-right or down-right positions.
CHAPTER VIII: CONNECT THE
WHEELCHAIR MOTORS
1. Mark the wires of the right and the left wheelchair motors
2. Disconnect the battery and the two Super Speed 9-18VDC Hobby
Motors from the Sabertooth 2x25 Motor Controller.
3. Connect the right motor by inserting the positive (red) lead into the M2A
terminal and the negative lead (black) – into the M2A terminal.
4. Connect the left motor by inserting the positive (red) lead into the M1B
terminal and the negative lead (black) – into the M1A terminal.
5. Connect the batteries by inserting the positive (red) leads into the B+
terminal and the negative (black) leads into the B- terminal.
6. As soon as the power terminals are connected, the blue LED on the
motor controller should go solid indicating the battery is correctly
connected.
7. Elevate the back side of the lawn mower so that the back wheels do not
touch the ground and can turn freely.
8. Turn ON the transmitter – the red LED on the receiver should go solid
indicating the system is connected.
9. Test the rotation of the wheels by pushing the right stick of the
transmitter into different positions: Up (forward) - both wheels should turn
forward, Down (backwards) – both wheels should turn backwards, Left -
the right wheel should turn forward, the left wheel – backwards – this will
make the lawn mower turn left. Right – the right wheel should turn
backwards, the left wheel – forward – this will make the lawn mower turn
right.
CHAPTER IX: MODIFY THE BACK LAWN
MOTOR WHEELS

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 2x 13x5.00-6 Carlisle Tire Split - Torque wrench
Rim - Vise grips
- The Hillman group 5/16’’x2 ‘’ Hex - 13/32’’ Drill bit
Bolt - Flat-head screwdriver
- Flat washers 5/16 – box set

1. PREPARE THE WHEEL HUBS


1.1. Elevate the back side of the lawn mower so that the back wheels do
not touch the ground and can turn freely.
1.2. Unscrew the cabinet on the shaft and take the right wheel off. Set the
washer placed between the cabinet and the wheel hub aside.
1.3. If you are using the same wheelchair motor wheel set, you should find
a double head round key placed in a dent on the wheel shaft. Set it aside.
1.4. Unscrew the hex bots using torque wrench and vise grips.
1.5. Remove the hub of the wheel using a flat edge screwdriver.
1.6. Position the hub over the new wheel and check if the hex bolt holes
are aligned correctly.
1.7. The holes on the new wheel need to have a slightly larger diameter.
Use a drill bit to widen up the holes

2. EXTEND THE WHEEL HUB


2.1. You will need 4 series of flat washers to extend the wheel hub.
2.2. Each series of washers needs to be 1” long. It is recommended to use a
2’’ hex bolt to temporally hold the washers so that you can adjust the
length correctly.

3. ATTACH THE HUB TO THE NEW WHEEL


3.1. Insert 4 hex bolts into the bolt holes of the wheel hub.
3.2. Flip the hub and thread 1” of washers on each bolt.
3.3. Push the remaining length of the hex bolts through the holes on the
shaft of the new wheel, place a washer on each hex bolt and tightly screw
the stop nuts.

4. ATTACH THE MODIFIED WHEEL TO THE SHAFT


4.1. Place the double head round key on its original position on the wheel
shaft.
4.2. Attach the wheel to the shaft.
4.3. Place several washers on the shaft to compensate for the extra gap
created by the extension and screw the cabinet.

NOTE: After completing these steps there should be enough clearance


between the motor enclosure and the wheel.

5. Repeat the same on the left wheel.


6. Check if the wheels can move easily
7. Pump some air into the tires.
8. Take the mower outside and perform a basic operation test.
CHAPTER X: TURN THE LAWN MOWER ON
WIRELESSLY

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 25A Solid State relay (SSR) DC in - Pozidriv screwdriver
DC out
- 36v Heavy Duty Solenoid Relay
- Arctic Silver 5 Compound
- Heat sink for Solid State Relay
- 1N4007 1A 1000v Rectifier Diode

1. MODIFICATIONS TO THE LAWN MOWER


1.1. Open up the lawn mower enclosure. You should see 3x 12V batteries
hooked up in series for a total of 36V. Disconnect them from one another.
1.2. Detach the switch housing from the upper handle of the lawn mower.
1.3. Remove the remaining pieces of the lower handle of the mower.
1.4. Open the switch housing: you should see three wires: white, red
(leading to the positive battery terminal) and green (leading to the negative
battery terminal).
1.5. Locate the basic ON/OFF switch. Disconnect the wire connections to
the switch.
1.6. Locate the connector. Cut it off.

2. INSTALL THE 25A SOLID STATE RELAY (SSR) DC IN


DC OUT
Take a look at the diagram below to become
familiar with the basic way an electronic relay works. Advanced users can
skip this step.

1. Glue the Silver Compound on the Solid State Relay.


2. Screw the relay down on top of the heat sink.
3. Connect the 1N4007 1A 1000v Rectifier Diode to the relay circuit (refer
to the diagram below).
4. Connect the black wire to the positive terminal of the relay.
5. Connect the green wire to the negative terminal of the relay.
6. Connect the Receiver to the Parallax Board of Education.
7. Connect the Parallax Board of Education to the relay.
8. Reconnect the batteries
9. Turn ON the GEAR switch on the transmitter.
The transmitter should send a signal to the Receiver, the Receiver – to the
microprocessor in the Parallax board and the microprocessor – to the
Relay, which should turn ON the lawn mower.

NOTE: If you choose to add a 36v Heavy Duty Solenoid Relay, please
refer to the diagram below for information on how to connect it.
CHAPTER XI: ATTACH THE SOLAR PANELS
TO THE ALUMINUM FRAME

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 20 Watt 12v Solar Panels - Torque wrench
- Z Style Float Roof Brackets - Flat-head screwdriver
- 2x 3 11/16’’ flat aluminum bars
- 2x 2’’ angle aluminum bars
- 2x flat aluminum bars, cut at an
angle
- 1x 1’ 2 15/16’’ flat aluminum bar
- 2x flat aluminum bars, cut at an
angle
- 2x 2 1/16’’ angle aluminum bars
- 1x 1’ 8 5/16’’ flat aluminum bar
- 2x 4 5/16’’ flat aluminum bars
- Small L-brackets
- Z Style Float Roof Brackets
- HM 8-32 Pan Head Slotted Screws
& Nuts

1. ATTACH THE FRONT SOLAR PANEL TO THE FRAME

1.1. Place one of the 2x 3 11/16’’ flat aluminum bars over connection
between the right front extension bar and the right elongated side arm of
the frame.
1.2. Use the existing hex bolt holes as reference and mark where the holes
on the flat bar need to be drilled. Drill 2 holes and attach to the frame.
1.4. Repeat on the left side of the frame.
1.5. Attach 2x 2’’ angle aluminum bars (L-
brackets) at the end of each of the flat bars.
1.6. Attach 2x flat aluminum bars to the back of each L-bracket. Refer to
the image below for dimensions of the bars.
1.7. Use the right bolt to attach a small L-bracket to the large L-bracket.

1.8. Measure 3 5/8’’ from


both ends a 1’ 2 15/16’’ flat aluminum bar. Align a spare Z Style Float Roof
Bracket with each mark to determine where you need to drill holes. Drill
holes. Attach the flat aluminum bar to the small L-brackets. This is the front
bridge piece.
1.9. Screw Z Style Float Roof Brackets on to the solar panels. Place the
front solar panel over the bridge piece and attach using the holes you
drilled in the previous step.

2. ATTACH THE BACK SOLAR PANEL TO THE FRAME

2.1. Measure 10 5/8’’ from the end of the frame and mark.
2.2. Prepare 2x flat aluminum bars, cut at an angle as shown on the image
below.
2.3. Align a flat aluminum bar with the 10 5/8’’ mark and attach to the
frame.

2.4. Attach a 2 1/16’’ angle aluminum bar (L-bracket) to the end of each
flat bar.

2.5. Measure 5 3/8’’ from each end of the flat bar. Align a spare Z Style
Float Roof Bracket with each mark to determine where you need to drill
holes. Drill holes. Attach the flat aluminum bar to the L-brackets. This is
the back bridge piece.

2.6. Place the back solar panel over the bridge piece and attach using the
holes you drilled in the previous step.

3. ATTACH THE TWO SOLAR PANELS TOGETHER

The two solar panels are attached to each other with the help of 2x 4
5/16’’ flat aluminum bars (one on each side) and HM 8-32 Pan Head
Slotted Screws and Nuts.

3.1. Drill holes in the solar panels. Be careful not to drill holes over the
bolts that keep each solar panel together.

3.2. Attach a 4 5/16’’ flat aluminum bar on using HM 8-32 Pan Head
Slotted Screws and Nuts.
3.3. Repeat on the other side.

NOTE: You may attach each flat aluminum bar to the solar panels with
the help of 2 bolts, however 4 are recommended for extra stability.

NOTE: All components should align properly is you follow the 3D model.
Due to lack of professional machinery to help you drill holes accurately,
slight misalignments may occur. You can compensate any misalignments in
the construction process with the help of washers.
CHAPTER XII: INSTALL THE COMPONENTS
IN THE ELECTRONIC BOX

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 2x 36v Battery Voltmeter - Box cutter
- 2x SPST Rocket Switch - Adhesive tape
- 24V Inverter - Electronic Box Interface Template
- Charge Controller & Parallax Box - Soldering iron
- Pan Head Slotted Screws & Nuts - Electric tape
- 2x 100A Mini Bus Bar
- 36V Continuous Duty Solenoid
Relay
- 25A DPDT Toggle Switch
- Power Jack Sealed IP68
- Power Plug Sealed IP68
- 50A Toggle Switch (ON-OFF)
- Connectors
- Copper wire

1. PREPARE THE ELECTRONC BOX


1.1. Detach the solar panels.
1.2. Remove all electronics from the electronics box.
1.3. Print the Electronic Box Interface Template (Appendix I)
1.4. Center the template on the outer side of the back panel of the
electronic box. Tape it in place using adhesive tape.
1.5. Use a box cutter to cut all shapes in the box. Remove the template.
1.6. Drill two holes on the left side of the electronic box. Screw wires to
create power terminals for connecting the fans (Chapter XIII).

2. PREPARE THE SPST ROCKET SWITCHES


1.1. Cut two copper wire pieces of appropriate length.
1.2. Expose the leads on each piece.
1.3. Attach connectors to one of the leads of each wire.
1.4. Connect the wires to each of the SPST Rocket Switches.

3. PLACE ALL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS INTO THE


BOX
There is no exact way of positioning the components in the electronic box.
The image below is provided for reference only – you may choose to position
the components in a different manner.

1.1. Insert 2x 36v Battery Voltmeters, 2x SPST Rocket Switches, 1x 25A


DPDT Toggle Switch and 1x 50A Toggle Switch in the opening you cut in
the front of the electronic box.
1.2. Place the 24V Inverter inside the electronic box. Use pan head slotted
screws and nuts to screw in place.
1.3. Place the Charge Controller & Parallax Box inside the electronic box.
Use pan head slotted screws and nuts to screw in place.
1.4. Place the Sabertooth Motor Controller inside the electronic box. Use
pan head slotted screws and nuts to screw in place.
1.5. Place 2x 100A Mini Bus Bars inside the electronic box. Use pan head
slotted screws and nuts to screw in place.

NOTE: You may chose to install the bus bars anywhere inside the
electronic box; however, keep in mind that wires from either bus bar
should not touch the other bus bar.
4. CONNECT THE COMPONENTS
Please refer to Appendix II for detailed diagram of how different electronic
components are connected.

4.1. Connect the 24V Battery to the bus bars. The positive lead should be
connected to one of the bus bars, and the negative – to the other.

4.2. Connect the volt meter, inverter and motor controller to the bus bars.
4.3. Turn ON the volt meter to ensure that everything is working properly.
4.4. Configure the solar charge controller for the type of batteries you are
using.
4.5. Connect the two solar panels in series. Next, connect the solar panels
leads to the solar panel ports on the controller.
4.6. Connect the charge controller to the bus bars.
4.7. Install the Power Jack Sealed IP68. It is recommended to solder the
leads of the wires to the power jack for extra security.

4.8. Install the Power Plug Sealed IP68 It is recommended to solder the
leads of the wires to the power jack for extra security.
NOTE: Use sufficient amount of electric tape over the soldered
connections. This will prevent wires from disconnecting as well as make
the connection easier to handle.

4.9. Reattach the solar panel frame


CHAPTER XIII: INSTALL COOLING FANS

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- 120mm Case Fan - Box cutter
- SilverStone 120mm Fan Filter with - Adhesive tape
Grill - Cooling Fans Position Template
- 12V 2A Variable Power Supply - Electrical crimping tool
- Connectors
- Copper wire

1. INSTAL 2X 120MM CASE FAN

1.1. Print the Fan Hole Template (Appendix III)


1.2. Position it on the lid and secure in place with adhesive tape.
1.3. Drill holes that will be used for screwing the fan cases to the lid. Cut
openings in the lid for the cooling fans. Remove the template.
1.4. Place the fans over the holes and attach to the lid using screws and
stop nuts.

1.5. Attach copper wire to the ends of the fans connectors and connect in
parallel (twist together the 2 red wires, twist together the 2 black wires)
1.6. Using an electrical crimping tool, attach connectors to the ends of the
fans leads
1.7. Connect the fans to the 12V 2A Variable Power Supply to ensure that
they are working correctly
1.8. Connect the fans to the fan connectors that you installed of the left side
of the electronic box
1.9. Install a SilverStone 120mm Fan Filter with Grill on the top of each
cooling fan. These filters come with their own screws – just screw over the

fan case.

2. TEST THE SOLAR PANELS


2.1. Take the RC lawn mower outside and leave it in the sun.
2.2. Check if the solar panels are working and if the batteries are charging.
CHAPTER XIV: INSTALL A WIRELESS
CAMERA

PARTS LIST: TOOLS:


- VELCRO Industrial Strength 4’’Lx - Superglue
2’’W - Flat-head screwdriver
- Wireless video camera
- 25W Step Down Adjustable
Regulator
- Small L-brackets
- 1x 2’’x2’’Acrylic piece
- Connectors
- Copper wire

1. ATTACH THE WIRELESS CAMERA TO THE SOLAR


POWER

1.1. Drill holes at the back of the top solar panel.

1.2. Attach 2x small L-brackets to the solar panel.


1.3. Attach the square
acrylic piece to the L-brackets.
1.4. Adhere VELCRO to the top of the acrylic bar and to the base of the
wireless camera

2. CONNECT THE WIRELESS CAMERA TO THE LAWN MOWER


POWER SUPPLY

2.1. Cut the cord of the power supply of the wireless camera. You will only
need the connector unit, which plugs into the wireless camera.
2.2. Expose the leads of the wire and determine which one is the positive
and which one – the negative lead.
2.3. Connect the wireless camera to the 25W step Down Adjustable
Regulator.
CHAPTER XV: HOW TO OPERATE THE
SOLAR POWERED RC LAWN MOWER
Take a look at the switches installed at the back of the electronic box.

1. Left switch (S1): POWER ON (UP) / CHARGE (DOWN)


When S1 is in UP position, it allows power to float from the 24V battery to
all electronic components (motor controller, receiver, solar charge controller,
parallax board, wireless video camera and cooling fans).
When S1 is in DOWN position, it disconnects power from the electronic
components and allows the 24V battery to be charged.

NOTE: The 24v battery is charged via a 24v battery charger, which needs to
be plugged into the jack you have installed. When the battery is fully
charged, a green LED will light up.

2. Middle switch (S3): INVERTER ON (UP) / OFF (DOWN)


When S3 is in UP position the lawn mower 36v battery can be charged.

3. Right switch (S2): LANW MOWER ON (UP) / OFF (DOWN)


When S2 is in DOWN position it allows the lawn mower to start.
When S2 is in DOWN position, the 36v battery can be charged.

NOTE: To start the lawn mower S1 and S2 switches should be UP and you
should turn on the GEAR switch on the transmitter.
APPENDICES
Appendix I: Electronic Box Template
Appendix II: Solar Charged RC Electric Lawn Mower Schematic
Appendix III: Cooling Fans Template
Appendix IV: Connecting 2x 12v Batteries in Series to Produce 24v
SCRCELM PARTS LIST

PART PART # LOCATION


Frame and Body
Steelworks Aluminum Flat 1/8x 2x 8′ 55960 Lowes.com
(Quantity may vary)
Steelworks Aluminum Flat 1/8x 1-1/2x 8′ 55959 Lowes.com
(Quantity may vary)
Steelworks Aluminum Flat 1/8x 1x 8′ 55958 Lowes.com
(Quantity may vary)
Steelworks Aluminum Angle 1/8x 1-1/2x 8′ 55973 Lowes.com
(Quantity may vary)
Steelworks Aluminum Angle 1/8x 1x 8′ 55971 Lowes.com
(Quantity may vary)
HM 5/16 – 18x 1 Hex Bolt (100 pack) 63317 Lowes.com
Stop Nuts Nylon Insert 5/16 – 18 (100 pack) 180150 Lowes.com
HM 5/16 – 18x 1 1/2 Hex Bolt 63318 Lowes.com
HM 5/16 – 1/2 Hex Bolt 135696 Lowes.com
Nylon MS BH/Slot 1/4-20x 1 139081 Lowes.com
Nylon Hex Nuts 1/4-20 138986 Lowes.com
5/16 Drill Bit 219775 Lowes.com
Multiuse Lube WD40 188735 Lowes.com

Electric Wheelchair Related Components


Electric Wheelchair Motors N/A eBay
Sabertooth 2X25 Dual Motor Driver Sabertooth Dimension
2×25 Engineering
DX5e DSMX 5-Channel Spektrum Amazon
Transmitter/Receiver
Male Servo Connector B0006O5LOA Amazon
9-18VDC Hobby Motor 273-256 RadioShack
2x NOCO Group U1 Battery Box BOX-U1 BatteryMart
2x 13×5.00-6 Carlisle Tire Split Rim 260120 BMI Karts &
Supplies
The Hillman Group 5/16″x 2″ Zinc Plated 138064 Lowes.com
Fine-Thread Hex Bolt
Hitachi 13/32″ Drill Bit N/A Lowes.com
Flat Washers 5/16 – Box Set N/A Lowes.com
2x UB12350 Group U1 Battery Universal Amazon
Power Group
24v Battery Charger 022-0158-1 Amazon
20-Ft. UL-Recognized Red Hookup Wire 278-565 RadioShack
(12AWG)
20-Ft. UL-Recognized Black Hookup Wire 278-566 RadioShack
(12AWG)
Waxman 8-Inch Polyurethane Caster with 4136455 Amazon.com
Swivel

Lawn Mower Connected Components


Black & Decker CM1836 Electric Lawn Black & Amazon
Decker
1x 1N4007 1A 1000V Rectifier Diode 220754568126 eBay
36 Volt Continuous Duty Solenoid Relay SSMU-1021 Amazon
25A Solid State Relay SSR DC In DC Out ESSR-25DDC LightObject
Heatsink for Solid State Relay 175441 OSCSYS
Heatsink Compound 17568 OSCSYS
In-line ACT Water-resistant Fuse Holder – 10 Inline Amazon
AWG
ATC / ATO BLADE FUSE 25 AMP N/A eBay
Heat Shrink Tubing 773809 Lowes.com

Microprocessor Related Components


Parallax Board of Education 28803 Parallax
1x 9v Battery Clip 2700325 RadioShack
1x IRF3205 MOSFET 618089 Jameco
1x PicoSwitch PicoSwitch Dimension
Engineering

Solar Related Components


1x Morningstar PS15 ProStar 15 Charge PS-15 Infinigi
Controller (PS-15)
2x 12v 20 Watt Solar Panels STP020P UL-Solar
8x Z Style Flat Roof Mounting System Z-BRACKET UL-Solar
(Brackets)
24v Power Inverter 170644050866 eBay
Pan Head Slotted Screws 4-40x 3/4 881944 Lowes.com
Hex Machine Nuts Stainless 4-40 882014 Lowes.com

Other Electric Components


Voltage Regulator DE-SWADJ3 Dimension
Engineering
Voltage Regulator Breakout Board Vreg Breakout Dimension
Engineering
Dri-box Waterproof Outdoor Connection 58-14220 MCM
Enclosure
Cooler Master Computer Case 120mm B0026ZPFCK Amazon
Cooling Fan
SilverStone 120mm Fan Filter with Grill FF121B Amazon
FF121B
Nylon Wing Nuts 1/4″-20 138998 Lowes.com
Nylon Mach Screw 1/4″x 1-1/2″ 139008 Lowes.com
Nylon Mach Screw 1/4″x 1/2″ 139081 Lowes.com
Nylon Hex Nut 1/4″-20 138986 Lowes.com
2x 25A DPDT Toggle Switch 360-1909-ND Digi-Key
1x 50A Toggle Switch (On-Off) 85904 Autozone
2x 36v Battery Voltmeter 150609894288 eBay
2x SPST Rocker Switch 275-693 RadioShack
2x 100A Busbar 2314 Amazon
Pwr Plug Sealed IP68 502- Mouser
S761KS12
Pwr Jack Sealed IP68 502-L722AS Mouser
Digital Multimeter 22-813 RadioShack

Recommended Tools and Machines


Torque Wrench / Kit Any Home
Improvement
Store
Wrench / Kit Any Home
Improvement
Store
Band Saw Any Home
Improvement
Store
Belt Sander Any Home
Improvement
Store
Drill Press / Power Drill Any Home
Improvement
Store
Heavy Duty Spring Clamps Any Home
Improvement
Store