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CHAPTER 9 Manufactured substances in industry


Activity No. Answer

1 (a) Contact Process
2 (b) Sulphur dioxide
(c ) 2SO2 + O2 à 2SO3
(d) Vanadium (V) oxide
(e) 450 - 550 oC
(f) 1 atm
(g) SO3 , H2S2O7 ,
(h) H2S2O7 , 2H2SO4

3 Fertilisers ,detergent ,pesticides, synthetic fibre

paint pigment, electrolyte in lead acid accumulator

4 Sulphur dioxide
Lung disease
Acid rain

a) (i) • Sulphur dioxide from the factory

5 • Toxic waste from the factory
(ii) • Sulphur dioxide combine with rain water to produce
acid rain.
• Acid rain causes lakes and rivers to be acidic which causes
fish and other aquatic organisms to die.
(iii) toxic waste caused fishes and aquatic organisms died.

1 Nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas

2 (i) N2 + 3H2 ↔ 2NH3

(ii) Iron powder

450 – 550 oC,
200-500 atm

3 Fertilisers
2NH3 + H2SO4 à (NH4)2SO4
Nitric acid
(c) coagulation

4 Colourless,

Activity No. Answer

5 i) (a) (NH4)3PO4
(b) NH4NO3
(c ) (NH4)2SO4

(ii) (NH4)3PO4
3(14) / 3(14) + 12(1) + 31 + 4(16) x 100 = 28.19%

2(14) / 14 + 4(1) + 14 + 3(16) x 100 = 35.00%

2(14) / 2(14) + 8(1) + 32 + 4(16) x 100 = 21.21%

ii) Ammonium nitrate

Percentage of nitrogen is the highest.

3 Haber Process
N2 + 3H2 à 2NH3
Hidrogen, Nitrogen
450 – 550 oC
200 – 500 atm
Iron powder

Pungent smell
Weak alkali
Very soluble in water

Manufacture of fertilizers
Manufacture of nitric acids

Turn moist red litmus blue.
Form white fumes with HCl gas.

React with acid to produce ammonium salt
React with metal ions to produce metal hydroxide

1 mixture of a pure metal with other metals in fixed quantities.

2 Ductile , malleable
The layers of atom can slide over each other

Disrupt the orderly,

3 Sliding

Activity No. Answer

5 hardness, strength

6 Steel, (ii) carbon

(iii) Pewter, (iv) tin
(v) Copper
(vi) Zinc
(vii) Magnesium, (viii) Aircraft body frame, racing car tyre rim.

5 1 Long chain molecule, monomer

2 Polymerisation

Naturally Occurring polymers

3 Protein
Natural rubber
Synthetic Polimers
Synthetic rubbers

4 Polyethylene - ethene
Polypropylene - propene
Polyvinylchloride – chloroethene
Polystyrene – phenylethene
Perspex – methymethacrylate
Teflon – tetraflouroethene

5 Polyethylene – plastic bags, plastic toys, plastic containers.

Polypropylene – plastic bottles, ropes, plastic chairs
Polyvinylchloride – water pipes, shoes, artificial leathers.
Polystyrene – Packaging materials, heat insulators.
Perspex – safety glass, air plane windows.
Teflon – coating for non stick pan.

6 1 Silica

Activity No. Answer

(a) Fused glass

2 (b) Soda lime glass
(c) Borosilicate glass
(d) Lead crystal glass

3 Ceramic

4 Aluminosilicate

5 Kaolinite
(i) Very hard and strong but brittle
(ii) Inert towards chemicals
(iii) Very high melting point
(iv) Good electrical and heat insulators
(v) Resist compression

7 1 (a) Glass – silica

(b) Ceramic – aluminosilicate and feldspar
(c) Types of glass – Fused glass
Soda lime
Lead crystal glass
(d) Improved glass – photochromic glass

(e) Examples – tiles

(f) Improved ceramics – superconductors

(g) Common properties:

Very hard and strong but brittle
Inert towards chemicals
Very high melting point
Good electrical and heat insulators
Resist compression

(h) Differences:
Glass is transparent but ceramic is opaque
Ceramic can withstand higher temperature than normal glass.

8 1 Combining two or more

2 Optical, photochromic glass,reinforced concrete, superconductors,

plastics reinforced with glass.

Activity No. Answer

3 To overcome the weakness of a material and to make materials

stronger, more long-lastings and light for specific purposes.
4 a) Silver chloride
b) It turns dark when exposed to the sunlight but turns back to its
original colour when the surrounding is dark.

5 Composition Uses

(i) Stone, sand and cement. (ii) Building, bridge

(iii) Alloy or ceramics of metal (iv) Bullet train, medical magnetic

oxide imaging devices

(v) Glass or plastic that are --

surrounded by a glass
cladding. (vii) Water tank, small boat,
(vi) Plastic glass

(viii) Silver chloride in glass (ix) Optical lenses, lens in

crystal camera, windows

9 1 a i) Stanum

i Stanum atom which is bigger in size disrupt the orderly arrangement of

i) the atoms in copper.
This reduces the sliding of the layers of copper atoms.


Pure copper Bronze

b i) Vinylchloride

ii) Water pipe/ electric cables/ mats/ cloth hanger

C i) Hard but brittle/

Chemically inert/
Does not conduct electric/
Heat insulator

Activity No. Answer
ii) Borosilicate glass
2 a Contact Process

b Sulphur trioxide
c Dissolving sulphur trioxide directly into water produces a lot of heat/
The process is very exothermic.

d H2S2O7 + H2O  2H2SO4

e Y : Ammonia
Z : Ammonium sulphate

f SO2 + H2O  H2SO3

3 a R= 2.33 mm ; S=3.17 mm

b (i) R is stronger and harder than S

(ii) S is pure metal while R is a mixture of 2 or more metals or a metal
and a non-metal
c (i) S
(ii) R
d – to make parts of heavy machinery
- to make bridges