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Advance Soil mechanics

Present by Mr. Sieng PEOU


Master science of geotechnical
engineering

Tel-011 874 974


Tel-
email: sieng_2000@yahoo.fr

Soils particle size

Soils

Coarse grained soils Fine grained soils

Gravel Sand Silt Clay

19.5mm>d>4.76mm 4.76mm>d>0.075mm 0.075mm>d>0.002mm d<0.002mm


.

1
Sieve analysis method

For coarse
grained soils

Retained cumulative

%R= weight .retained .cumulative


× 100 %
total .weight

Passing cumulative
%P = 100-%R

2
Logarithm scale
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100

a
Log d

If 0.001<d<0.01 If 0.01<d<0.1 If 0.1<d<1 If 1<d<10


X=a.Log(1000d) X=a.Log(100d) X=a.Log(10d) X=a.Log(d)

If 10<d<100
X=a.Log(0.1d)

Hydrometer
analysis

For fine
grained soils

3
Hydrometer analysis
P%-passing cumulative
a- soil factor
R + ∆R R-hydrometer reading
P% = a * 100 %
WS ∆R-corrected factor
Ws-weight of dry soil
L
D=K D-soil diameter
T
K-hydrometer factor
L-depth of hydrometer in
Solution
Τ− time in minute

Soil particle size curve Uniformity coefficient UC=D60/D10

d10 d60

4
Weight and volume
relationship

Va Wa=0

Vw Ww
V W

Vs Ws

W=Ws+Ww
V=Va+Vw+Vs
Vv =Va+Vw
V= Vv+Vs

5
Soils sampling
 Disturbed sample for determine properties
physics of soils
 Undisturbed sample for determine
properties mechanics of soils, we call
undisturbed when AR(%)<10%
D02 − Di2
AR (%) = × 100
 AR :Area ratio Di2
 Do: Outside diameter of the sampling tube
 Di:Inside diameter of the sampling tube

Soils unit weight


Natural water content: ω=
Ww
×100%
Ws

Bulk unit weight:γ= W =  Gs + S × e  × γ w


weight:γ=
V  1+ e 
Ws γ
Dry unit weight: γd= =
V ω
1+
100

Unit weight of particle solid: γs= Ws


Vs

6
Another parameter
Void ratio: Vv ρs−ρ
e = = ρd
d

Vs
Degree of saturation: S = Vw ×100% = ρ s × ω
Vv e × ρw

Saturated unit weight: γ =  G s + e  × γ


 1+ e 
sat W

Effective unit weight: γ ' = γ − γ =  Gs − 1  × γ


 1+ e 
sat w w

Another parameters
Specific gravity:
W s
G =
Vs × γ
s
w

Relative density:
emax − e
DR = ×100%
emax − emin
Saturated water content:
 1 1 
ω sat =  −  × ρ w × 100 %
ρ
 d ρ s 

7
Typical values of unit weight of soils

Soil type γsat(KN/M3) γd(KN/M3)

Gravel 20 to 22 15 to 17

Sand 18 to 20 13 to 16

Silt 18 to 20 14 to 18

Clay 16 to 22 14 to 21

Description based on
Relative density
DR(%) Description
0 to 15 Very loose
15 to 35 Loose
35 to 65 Medium dense
65 to 85 Dense
85 to 100 Very dense

8
Soil consistence

Atterberg
limit

Shrinkage Plastic Liquid


limit limit limit
Ws Wp WL

State of cohesion soils


Plastic index
IP=ωL-ωP

Liquidity index
IL= ω − ω P
IP

9
State of cohesion soils

 If 0<ω<ωs : State solid


0<ω

 If ωs<ω<ωp: State semi-


semi-solid

 If ωp<ω<ωL: State Plastic

 If ω>ωL : State Liquid

10
CH

MH
CL
CL-ML

ML

11
Soil classification
USCS:Unified soil classification system
(ASTM Test Designation D- D-2487)
ASTM: American Society for Testing
and Materials
Proposed by Casagrande in 1942,this
system was revised in 1952 by U.S
Bureau of Reclamation.

Coarse grained soils

%R(0.075mm)>50%
Coarse grained soils

%R(4.76mm)>0.5%R(0.075mm) %R(4.76mm)<0.5%R(0.075mm)
Gravel Sand

12
Gravel

Clean Gravel
%P(0.075mm)<5%

UC<4 UC>4
Poorly graded Gravel Well graded Gravel
GP GW

Gravel
Mixed Gravel
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%

UC<4 UC>4
On plastic Chart Casagrand On plastic Chart Casagrande

Located CL or CH Located ML or MH Located CL-ML Located CL or CH Located ML or MH Located CL-ML


Poorly graded Poorly graded Poorly graded clayey Well graded Well graded Well graded clayey
clayey Gravel silty Gravel silty Gravel clayey Gravel silty Gravel silty Gravel
GC-GP GM-GP GC-GM-GP GC-GW GM-GW GC-GM-GW

13
Gravel
Mixed Gravel
%P(0.075mm)>12%

Located CL or CH Located ML or MH Located CL-ML


clayey Gravel silty Gravel clayey silty Gravel
GC GM GC-GM

Sand

Clean Sand
%P(0.075mm)<5%

UC<6 UC>6
Poorly graded Sand Well graded Sand
SP SW

14
Sand
Mixed Sand
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%

UC<6 UC>6
On plastic Chart Casagrand On plastic Chart Casagrande

Located CL or CH Located ML or MH Located CL-ML Located CL or CH Located ML or MH Located CL-ML


Poorly graded Poorly graded Poorly graded clayey Well graded Well graded Well graded clayey
clayey Sand silty Sand silty Sand clayey Sand silty Sand silty Sand
SC-SP SM-SP SC-SM-SP SC-SW SM-SW SC-SM-SW

Sand
Mixed Sand
%P(0.075mm)>12%

Located CL or CH Located ML or MH Located CL-ML


clayey Sand silty Sand clayey silty Sand
SC SM SC-SM

15
Fine grained soils

%R(0.075mm)<50%
Fine grained soils
on plastic Chart Casagrande

For Clay For Silt For Silty clay

CL CH ML MH CL-ML

Lean Clay(CL)
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Lean clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look

15%<%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%

%S>%G %S<%G %S>%G %S<%G


Lean Clay Lean Clay
With sand With gravel

%G<15% %G>15% %S<15% %S>15%


Sandy Sandy Gravelly Gravelly
lean Clay lean Clay lean Clay lean Clay
with gravel With sand

16
Fat Clay(CH)
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Fat clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look

15%<%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%

%S>%G %S<%G %S>%G %S<%G


Fat Clay Fat Clay
With sand With gravel

%G<15% %G>15% %S<15% %S>15%


Sandy Sandy Gravelly Gravelly
Fat Clay Fat Clay Fat Clay Fat Clay
with gravel With sand

Silt (ML)
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look

15%<%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%

%S>%G %S<%G %S>%G %S<%G


Silt Silt
With sand With gravel

%G<15% %G>15% %S<15% %S>15%


Sandy Sandy Gravelly Gravelly
Silt Silt Silt Silt
with gravel With sand

17
Elastic Silt (MH)
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Elastic Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look

15%<%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%

%S>%G %S<%G %S>%G %S<%G


Elastic Silt Elastic Silt
With sand With gravel

%G<15% %G>15% %S<15% %S>15%


Sandy Sandy Gravelly Gravelly
Elastic Silt Elastic Silt Elastic Silt Elastic Silt
with gravel With sand

Silty clay (CL-


(CL-ML)
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silty clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look

15%<%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%

%S>%G %S<%G %S>%G %S<%G


Silty clay Silty clay
With sand With gravel

%G<15% %G>15% %S<15% %S>15%


Sandy Sandy Gravelly Gravelly
Silty clay Silty clay Silty clay Silty clay
with gravel With sand

18
Soil classification
 AASHTO:Association American for
State Highway and Transportation
official, was developed 1929 and
proposed by the committee on
Materials for sub grades and
Granularity Type Boards of the
Highway Research Road in
1945(ASTM Test designation D-D-
3282;AASHTO method M145)

Granular Materials
%P(0.075mm)<35%
Group A -1
A-3 A-2
classification
A1
A1--a A1
A1--b A2
A2--4 A2
A2--5 A2
A2--6 A2
A2--7

%P(2mm) <50%

%P(0.425mm) <30% <50% >51%

%P(0.075mm) <15% <25% <10% <35% <35% <35% <35%

WL <40 >40 <40 >40


IP <6% NP <10 <10 >10 >10
Usual type of Stone Fine Silty or clayey gravel and sand
materials fragment, sand
gravel, sand

General sub Excellence to good


grade rating

19
Silty - clay material %P(0.075mm)>35%

Group A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7


classification A-7-5
A-7-6
%P(2mm)
%P(0.425mm)
%P(0.075mm) >35% >35% >35% >35%

WL <40 >40 <40 >40

IP <10 <10 >10 >10

Usual type of Silty soils Clayey soils


materials
General Fair to poor
subgrade rating
For A-7-5: IP<WL-30 For A-7-6: IP>WL-30

Group index GI

GI=(%P(0.075)-35)[0.2+0.005(WL-40)]+0.01(%P(0.075)-15)(IP-10)

20
Soil compaction
 Standard Proctor test

 Modified Proctor test

Specification for standard Proctor test(based on ASTM test


designation 698-
698-91)

Item Method A Method B Method C


Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm
Volume of mold 943.3cm3 943.3cm3 2124cm3
Weight of hammer 24.4 N 24.4 N 24.4 N
Height of hammer drop 304.8mm 304.8mm 304.8mm
Number of hammer 25 25 56
blows per layer
Number of layer of 3 3 3
compaction
Energy of compaction 591.3KNm/m3 591.3KNm/m3 591.3KNm/m3
Soil to be used %R(4.75)<20% %R(4.75)>20% %R(9.5)>20%
Used soil %R(9.5)<20% %R(19)<30%
%P(4.75) Used soil Used soil
%P(9.5) %P(19)

21
Specification for modified Proctor test(based on ASTM test
designation 1557-
1557-91)

Item Method A Method B Method C

Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm


Volume of mold 943.3cm3 943.3cm3 2124cm3
Weight of hammer 44.5 N 44.5 N 44.5 N
Height of hammer drop 457.2mm 457.2mm 457.2mm
Number of hammer 25 25 56
blows per layer
Number of layer of 5 5 5
compaction
Energy of compaction 2696KNm/m3 2696KNm/m3 2696KNm/m3
Soil to be used %R(4.75)<20% %R(4.75)>20% %R(9.5)>20%
Used soil %R(9.5)<20% %R(19)<30%
%P(4.75) Used soil Used soil
%P(9.5) %P(19)

Compaction equipment

22
Compaction curve
MOISTURE DENSITY RELATIONSHIP CURVE

2.200

ρdmax
3

2.100
Dry Density g/m

2.000

1.900
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00
Wopt
Moisture content %

California Bearing Ratio(CBR)


 For study the strength of soils after
compacting in optimum state.
1-Recompaction the soil in optimum state
2-Determine CBR in dry condition
3-Saturated the soil under water 4 days
4-Determine CBR in soaked condition
CBR= Test .unit .load
× 100 %
standard .unit .load

23
BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR)

Project: Pochentong Airport Job No.


Location of Project: Pochentong Airport Boring No 2 Sample No.2
Description of Soil:
Tested by: Mr. Men Tharith Date of Testing. 16/05/2002

CBR Test Load Data (soaked)


Mold
Surrcharge Curve CBR Test
Piston load Load.
2
Penetration. dial reading kgf/cm 20
mm ( unit )
0.000 18
0 0
1.00 0.045 2.3077 16
2.00 0.075 3.8462
14
3.00 0.11 5.641

Load (kgf/cm 2)
4.00 0.145 7.4359 12

5.00 0.175 8.9744 10


6.00 0.21 10.769
7.00 0.25 12.821
8
P2.54
8.00 0.28 14.359 6
9.00 0.31 15.897 4
10.00 0.34 17.436
2
CBR(2.54)= 7.1429
0
Acceppted CBR= 7.14 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0

Renetration (mm)
Final water Top 7.9
conten, w% Midle 7.8
(soaked) Bottom 7.99
sample Averagee 7.8967
3 3
Wet unit wt. = 2.2952 g/cm Dry unit wt. = 2.13444 g/cm
3
Wet unit wt.(soaked) = 2.303 g/cm

Penetration(mm) Standard unit


load(Mpa)
2.5 6.9

5 10.3

7.5 13

10 16

12.7 18

24
CBR equipment

CBR equipment

25
CBR special for field control
 Compaction the soils in optimum state with
different energy
1-Compaction 10 blows per layer and saturated
the soil under water during 4 days
2-Compaction 25 blows per layer and saturated
the soil under water during 4 days
3-Compaction 55 blows per layer and saturated
the soil under water during 4 days
4-Determine CBR in soaked condition for each
5-Plotted values CBR with dry density on chart

CBR chart

26
CBR General Uses Classification system
rating
USCS AASHTO

0- 3 Very poor Subgrade OH,CH,MH,CL A5,A6,A7

3- 7 Poor to Subgrade OH,CH,MH,OL A4,A5,A6,A7


fair
7-20 Fair Subbase OL,CL,ML,SC, A2,A4,A6,A7
SM,SP
20
20--50 Good Base GM,GC,SW, A1b,A2-5,
A1b,A2-
subbase SM,SP,GP A3,A2--6
A3,A2
>50 Excellent Base GW,GM A1
A1--a,A2-
a,A2-4
A3

Control soils compaction


ρ d . field × 100 %
 %Compaction=
ρ d max
 Determine field density by
using:
1-Undisturbed sampling
2-Sand cone method
3-Balloon density equipment
4-Nuclear method

27
Sand cone method

Control CBR
 Field CBR
 By using Dynamic cone penetration test DCP

1-Kleyn and Van Heerden(600cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.632-


Lg.(CBR)=2.632-1.28Lg.(mm/blow)

2-Smith and Pratt (300cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.555-


Lg.(CBR)=2.555-1.145Lg.(mm/blow)

3-VanVuuren (300 cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.503-


Lg.(CBR)=2.503-1.15Lg.(mm/blow)

4-TRRL Road Note 8(600cone) Lg.(CBR)=2.48-1.057Lg(mm/blow)


: Lg.(CBR)=2.48-

 By using CBR Chart

28
CBR control

Shear strength of soils


 Total Stress Analysis (TSA)
-for clayey soils with permeability very low, so
for short term loading soils and water work
together.
 Effective Stress Analysis(ESA)
-for sandy soils with high permeability,so for
short term loading soils work yourself only
 For analyze soils stability problems(bearing
capacity,slope stability,lateral pressure on
earth--retaining structure)
earth

29
Mohr--Coulomb Criteria
Mohr
 The shear stress on the failure plan as
a linear function of the normal stress
(Coulomb,1776)
τ = c + σ tgϕ
tgϕ
 A material fails because of a critical
combination of normal stress and
shear stress, and not from either
maximum normal or shear stress
alone (Mohr,1900)

30
Effective stress in soils
mass
 Total stress σ0= γsat.Z
 Effective stress σ’0= γ’
γ’.Z
 Pore water pressure U= γw.Z
 γ’= γsat
sat-- γw
 γw unit weight of water

Failure plan
σx

τf σy
θ
τ

θ= 45+φ/2

31
Mohr--Coulomb failure criteria
Mohr
τ
Line Coulomb’s: τ = σ.tgφ+C

C
σ

Unconfined compression test


 Type TSA test
 Undisturbed sample with
h0=2do
 Speed ε=2%/min

ε=2%/min=
=2%/min=∆∆h/h0*100%/min

 For determine undrained


cohesion Cu, in this case
φu=0

32
qu

Mohr circle
τ

Cu
0 qu σ

33
Direct shear test
 Type undrained
test or drained
test
 Undisturbed
sample
 For determine
cohesion of soils
C and internal
friction angle of
soils φ
 Build by
Casagrande

Shear box
Loading plate Normal force
Porous
stone

τ Shear force

τ Shear box

Soil sample

Porous
stone

34
Determine C & φ
τ

n ∑(τ iσ i ) − ∑τ i ∑ σ i
tgφ =
n ∑ σ i − (∑ σ i )
2 2

∑τ i − tgφ ∑ σ i
C= φ
n
C

0
σ

Triaxial test

 UU test: Unconsolidated undrained


test

 CU test: Consolidated undrained test

 CD test: Consolidated drained test

35
Triaxial equipment

36
UU test
τ

Cu
0 σ0 qu σ

General relationship of consistency and


unconfined compression strength of clay

Consistency qu(KN/m2)
Very soft 0-25
Soft 25
25--50
Medium stiff 50
50--100
Stiff 100
100--200
Very stiff 200
200--400
hard >400

37
Empirical equation related to Cu and σ’0

Reference Relationship Remarks

Skempton Cu=[0.11+0.0037.IP]. σ’0


].σ For normally
(1957) Cu from vane shear test consolidated clay

Chandler(1988) Cu=[0.11+0.0037.IP]. σ’c


].σ Can be use for
Cu from vane shear test over consolidated
σ’c preconsolidation clay not valid for
pressure sensitive clay

Jamiolkowski et Cu=[0.23 ± 0.04].σ


0.04].σ’c For lightly over
al (1985) consolidated clay

CU & CD test
τ

C
0 σ3 σ1
σ

38
Typical values of drained Angle of
friction for Sand and Silt
Soil type Φ (degree)
Sand : Rounded grains
Loose 27
27--30
Medium dense 30
30--35
Dense 35
35--38
Sand : Angular grains
Loose 30
30--35
Medium dense 35
35--40
Dense 40
40--45
Gravel with some sand 34
34--48
Silts 26
26--35

Typical values of drained Angle of


friction and Cohesion for Gravel
USCS Φ(
Φ(degree)
degree) C(KN/m2)
GW 40 ± 5 0
GP 38 ± 6 0
GM 36 ± 4 0
GC 34 ± 4 0
GM
GM--ML 35 ± 5 0
GM
GM--GC 33 ± 3 2 ± 2
GC-
GC-CL 29 ± 4 3 ± 3
GC-
GC-CH 28 ± 4 4 ± 4

39
Typical values of drained Angle of
friction and Cohesion for Sand
USCS Φ(
Φ(degree)
degree) C(KN/m2)
SW 38 ± 5 0
SP 36 ± 6 0
SM 34 ± 3 0
SC 32 ± 4 0
SM
SM--ML 34 ± 3 0
SM
SM--SC 31 ± 3 5 ± 5
SC
SC--CL 28 ± 4 5 ± 5
SC
SC--CH 27 ± 3 10 ± 10

Typical values of drained Angle of


friction and Cohesion for Fine grained
soils
USCS Φ(
Φ(degree)
degree) C(KN/m2)

ML 33 ± 4 0

CL
CL--ML 30 ± 4 15 ± 10

CL 27 ± 4 20 ± 10

CH 22 ± 4 25 ± 10

OL 25 ± 4 10 ± 5
OH 22 ± 4 10 ± 5

MH 24 ± 6 5 ± 5

40
Stress in soils mass
2a=L

2b=B
O

M1

Determine stress in soils mass


1-Stress at the center of footing
σvM=4.I2.q = 4.K.q

L Z
q=
B
Q
m = n = ξ =
BL 2Z 2Z a

1  2mn m 2 + n 2 + 1  m 2 + n 2 + 2   2 mn m 2 + n 2 + 1  
 
I2 =  2   + arctg
4π  m + n 2 + m 2 n 2 + 1  m 2 + n 2 + 1   m 2 + n 2 − m 2 n 2 + 1 
 

41
Determine stress in soils mass
2-Stress at the corner of footing
σvM1=I2.q = K.q

q= Q
BL
m =
B
Z
n =
L
Z
ξ =
Z
2a

1  2mn m 2 + n 2 + 1  m 2 + n 2 + 2   2 mn m 2 + n 2 + 1  
I2 =  2   + arctg  
4π + 2
+ 2 2
+  m2 + n2 +1   2
+ 2
− 2 2
+ 
 m n m n 1    m n m n 1 

Determine stress in soil mass


by using table b/a

K 0 0.1 0.2 1/3 0.4 0.5 2/3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 5 10 ∝


0.000 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0
0.2 0.000 0.137 0.204 0.234 0.240 0.244 0.247 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249
0.4 0.000 0.076 0.136 0.187 0.202 0.218 0.231 0.240 0.243 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244
0.5 0.000 0.061 0.113 0.164 0.181 0.200 0.218 0.232 0.238 0.239 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240
0.6 0.000 0.051 0.096 0.143 0.161 0.182 0.204 0.223 0.231 0.233 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234
0.8 0.000 0.037 0.071 0.111 0.127 0.148 0.173 0.200 0.214 0.218 0.219 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220
1 0.000 0.028 0.055 0.087 0.101 0.120 0.145 0.175 0.194 0.200 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.205
1.2 0.000 0.022 0.043 0.069 0.081 0.098 0.121 0.152 0.173 0.182 0.185 0.187 0.189 0.189 0.189

ξ 1.4 0.000 0.018 0.035 0.056 0.066 0.080 0.101 0.131 0.154 0.164 0.169 0.171 0.174 0.174 0.174
1.5 0.000 0.016 0.031 0.051 0.060 0.073 0.092 0.121 0.145 0.156 0.161 0.164 0.166 0.167 0.167
1.6 0.000 0.014 0.028 0.046 0.055 0.067 0.085 0.112 0.136 0.148 0.154 0.157 0.160 0.160 0.160
1.8 0.000 0.012 0.024 0.039 0.046 0.056 0.072 0.097 0.121 0.133 0.140 0.143 0.147 0.148 0.148
2 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.033 0.039 0.048 0.061 0.084 0.107 0.120 0.127 0.131 0.136 0.137 0.137
2.5 0.000 0.007 0.013 0.022 0.027 0.033 0.043 0.060 0.080 0.093 0.101 0.106 0.113 0.115 0.115
3 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.016 0.019 0.024 0.031 0.045 0.061 0.073 0.081 0.087 0.096 0.099 0.099
4 0.000 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.014 0.019 0.027 0.038 0.048 0.055 0.060 0.071 0.076 0.076
5 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.012 0.018 0.026 0.033 0.039 0.043 0.055 0.061 0.062
10 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.020 0.028 0.032
15 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.010 0.016 0.021
20 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.010 0.016
50 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.006

42
Consolidation

Settlement of soils

Before loading After loading

S
S
∆hi

ho
Ho

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Consolidation curve
σ’p
σ1 σ2 σ3 σ4
Logσ
e1
e2

e3

e4

Determination parameter of
consolidation
h0 − H 0
Natural void ratio e=
H0
h0 − H 0 − ∆hi
Void ratio after consolidation ei =
H0
e1 −e2
Swell index Cs =
log σ 2 − log σ 1

e 3 −e4
Compression index Cc =
log σ 4 − log σ 3

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Determination parameter of
consolidation
1 + e0
Modulus of elasticity Es = β .mk ∆σ
− ∆e
e and σ located between 100 Kpa to 200KPa

Compression index

Swell index

Types of soil emKuNsMBaF mk GaRs½yeTAnwgemKuNes<at eo

0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.05

Sandy silt 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.00 - -

Silt 5.00 5.00 4.50 4.00 3.00 2.50 2.00


-
-
Clay 6.00 6.00 5.50 5.00 4.50

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Soil type RbePTdI µ β

Sand xSac;/ l,ayxSac;


0.30 0.74

Silt l,aydI\dæ
0.35 0.62

Clay dI\dæ
0.42 0.40

Elastic parameter of various soils


Type of soils Modulus of Poisson’s ratio µs
elasticity Es(Mpa)
Loose sand 10
10--25 0.20-
0.20-0.40
Medium dense 15
15--30 0.25-
0.25-0.40
sand
Dense sand 35
35--55 0.30-
0.30-0.45
Silty sand 10
10--20 0.20-
0.20-0.40
Sand and gravel 70
70--170 0.15-
0.15-0.35
Soft clay 4-20
Medium stiff clay 20
20--40 0.20--0.50
0.20

Stiff clay 40
40--100

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Coefficient of consolidation
1min t 50 t 100
Log t
δ0
t1/4

t1

δ50

δ100

∆h

Determination coefficient of consolidation


Coefficient of consolidation from Casagrande
method Cv[m2/s] H 2 h −δ
C v = 0 . 197 H = 0 50
t 50 2
h0- initial thickness of sample
Permeability coefficient K = Cv .av .γ w
1+ e
Coefficient of compressibility a v = − ∆ e
∆σ
av
Coefficient of volume change m v =
1 + e0

47
Typical values of coefficient
of consolidation Cv[cm2/s]
Liquid limit Lower limit of Undisturbed Upper limit
recompression virgin remolded
compression
30 3.5*10-2 5*10-3 1.2*10-3

60 3.5*10-3 1*10-3 3*10-4

100 4*10-4 2*10-4 1*10-4

Source U.S Navy 1962

In situ test

 Static cone penetration test


 Dynamic cone penetration test DCP

 Standard penetration test

 Shear vane test

 Pocked penetration test

48
Static cone penetration test
qc − σ 0
Cu =
NK

  qc 
φ = Arctg 0.1 + 0.38 log 
 σ '
 0 

E=2.qc

qc:cone resistance

Nk=20

Dynamic cone penetration test


M M .H
qd = .
e.( M + M ' ) A

qd :cone resistance
M:weight of hammer
M’:weight of rods
A:cone area
H:height hammer falling
e:penetration for one blow

49
Standard penetration test

Index SPT
N value is amount of blows for penetration split spoon sampler
in soils 30 cm
N=N1+N2 For fine sand or silt saturated with N >15
Ncor= CN.Nfield Ncor=15+0.5 (Nfield-15)

2000
CN = 0.77log Peck1974
γ .D
1
C N = 9.78 Liao & Whihman 1986
σ '0
2
CN = Skempton1986
1 + 0.01σ ' 0
 σ' 
C N = 1 − 1.25 log 0  Seed 1975
 95.6 

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Relationship of SPT and properties
mechanics of soils
φ = 20 N + 20 Hatanaka & Uchida 1996
φ = 27 .1 + 0.3 N − 0 .00054 N 2 Wolff 1989
φ = 18 N + 15 For road and Bridges design sMrab;fñ;l;nigs<an
φ = 0.36 N + 27 For building design sMrab; GaKar

φ = 0 .45 N + 20 in general sMrab;krNITUeTA

E (KPa) = 766N For sand saturated sMrab;xSac;C aMTwk

E (KPa) = 500(N+15) For dense sand sMrab; xSac;h ab;

E (KPa) = 2600N For dense sand sMrab; xSac;h ab;

E (KPa) = 600(N+6) For Gravelly sand (N<15) sMrab; RKYs layxSac;

E (KPa) = 600(N+6) +2000 For Gravelly sand (N>15) sMrab; RKYs layxSac;

E (KPa) = 320(N+15) For Clayey Sand sMrab; xSac; laydI\ dæ

E (KPa) = 300(N+6) For Silt,sandy silt,clayey silt sMrab; dIl ,aym:dæ

Relationship of SPT and properties


mechanics of soils

 Undrained cohesion Cu=K.N Stroud(1974)

3.5KPa <K <6KPa in general we take K=4.4KPa

 Cu=29.N0.72 Hara et al(1971)

51
Soils type N DR φ γ
blows % degree KN/m3

Very loose 0→4 0 → 15 < 28 11 → 16

Loose 4 → 10 15 → 35 28 → 30 14 → 18

Medium 10 → 30 35 → 65 30 → 36 17 → 20
dense

Dense; 30 → 50 65 → 85 36 → 41 17 → 22

Very dense > 50 85 → 100 > 41 20 → 23

Soils type N qu KPa

Very soft <2 < 25

Soft 2→4 25 → 50

Medium 4→8 50 → 100

Stiff 8 → 15 100 → 200

Very stiff 15 → 30 200 → 400

Hard > 30 > 400

52
Thank you for your
attention
 Mr. Sieng PEOU
 Master science of
geotechnical
engineering

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