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Filtration

Why Filter?
• Ensure no solids settle onto packers
and completion accessories
• Ensure no solid particles present that
may block pore spaces/throats in the
perforations and/or the reservoir
Filtering

Cartridge Diatomaceous
Earth (DE)

Nominal Absolute Nominal


Filtration Ratings
• ABSOLUTE
• Removes ALL particles greater than a
specified size, also removes finer
particles in filter cake
• NOMINAL
• Removes a major percentage of the
particles of the rated size, some larger
may also pass, and some fines may be
removed depending on filter cake
properties
Filtration
Types of Filter Units
• Bag or sack
• Absolute cartridge
• Nominal cartridge
• Diatomaceous earth
Cartridge Filter Unit
Filtration
Types of Filters
• DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTER
UNITS
• Commonly called “DE” filters
• Combines surface and depth
mechanism in disposable filter media
• Rated nominally
• Uses diatoms as filter media, requires
backup filters in case of bypassing
DE Filtration
De Filter Press
Filtration
Filtration Specification
• Some quality control specifications are:
• The filtration systems shall remove all
particles, 1/10 pore size limit accepted
• Solids concentration will not exceed the
50 Nephelometric Turbidity
Units(NTU’s)
All tanks and pipe work must be cleaned beforehand

NEW BRINE MIXED


WITH FRESH W ATER BAG FILTER (OPTIONAL)
AND CLEAN Inspect D.E. bed frequently
CONSTITUENTS DIATOMACEOUS
(SALT) EARTH FILTER
RECIRC

Measure CARTRIDGE FILTER(S)


Cleanliness

DIRTY CLEAN Check differential


pressure across
Visual inspection
cartridge to ensure
optimum operation
Dumped (as per
environmental RETURNS
regulations) Downhole tubulars must be
Casing and tubulars previously scrupulously clean
cleaned with surfactants/solvents
(usually proprietary chemicals) DOWNHOLE
Turbidity
• a device for determining the surface
area of a powder by measuring the
light-scattering properties of a fluid
suspension
Turbidity Testing
• Quick easy quality check
• Only measures the clarity of the fluid
• Start with a clean sample, for the base
case
• Sample the fluid before it enters the
well
• No direct relationship to total
suspended solids
Laser Particle Counter
• No brine is clean until proved to be so
• Laser particle counter is the best
method
• All critical brines should be tested using
this device
• Testing will provide both particle size
and distribution