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DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION

Design for production produce a design which brings out an


acceptable compromise between the production and operational
demand at the same time it takes into consideration the other
demand of repair maintenance and lifetime activities.

Various factors to be considered for ship like period during design


stage is known as design fors;

The overall objectives of design for production are


: To reduce the production cost to a minimum compatible with the
required at design
: To enable the design to fulfill its operational function with
acceptable reliability and efficiency

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDRED in DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION

: Design intermediates to be made suitable for the production


process: Design To be made according to the material available
limitation and suitability of shipyard
:Importance are to be given in structural design suitability of
accurate hull form structural design connections using large no of
identical components are also to be considered
: Optimum utilization of ship yard facilities and ship facilities
: Minimization of material usage and work content.
: Good acceptability eases of transport storage and assembly Easy
design for the erection of assemblies and components
: Minimize welding and cutting advanced outfitting processes may be
adopted
: minimize material movement

Design for production Specific examples


1: Straight line camber instead of parabolic.
2: Avoid double curvature plates
3: Plates of available max size should be used
4: Reduce the amount of welding
5: Use simple fabrication method
6: maximise the usage of identical thickness plates
7: Internal webs are made straight.
8: Assembly diagonal such that there is at least one side flat in each
block

Design for Maintenance

1: Example in case of removing an engine casing is one of the functions


of removing engine parts.
2: Double bottom height 2m in time of inspection should have easy
access to the double bottom.
3:Tools design for maintenance make sure that whenever the
maintenance required the tools needed for it should be in easyvicinity
4:Double bottom heights
5:identification :ALARMS
6: Accessibility
7: Take out if any particular part is to be repaired then it should be
easily taken out for repair

DESIGN FOR OPERATION

: Comfort
: Injury
: Vibration fatigue
: Accessibility
: Doors cofferdam double bottom manhole height should be a
particular height
DESIGN FOR ABANDONMENT

: Environmental problems should not be there


: Removal of wastage.
: Hazardous should be minimum at the tie of removal
: Design for STANDARDISATION
:Reduction of repeated work by using the same drawings equipments,
joints, quality control, Work procedure ,processes planning ,
Reduction of labour, Quick ordering, quick acquisition

DISADVANTAGES
Cannot be used one of the kind

DESIGN FOR WELDING


:Base metal selected should not undergo degradation in their physical
and chemical properties like
Loss of toughness
loss of ductility
loss of strength
Corrosion resistance
Bimetallic corrosion

Avoid abrupt change in geometry or cross-section to reduce stress


concentration (Eg. Corners of hatch openings Superstructure endings)
Avoid excessive welding to minimize welding stress
Welding symbols must be specified with non destructive testing
symbols...
A detailed welding plan needs to be specified, Welding sequence be
such that the distortion be minimum. It depends on type of welding
used

Prodn design
1. Design info to be made suitable for pdn process
2.design to be made according to material available and limitations &
suitability.
3.structural design to be given importance
4.optimum initialization of crane ,shop facilities
5.minimise material usage
6.good accessibility and ease of transport $ storage
7.components easy to assemble and erect
8.elimination or modification of structural component design difficult
9.bulbous bow to be made of many pieces
10.hull design to be optimised
11.min welding and cutting to be used
12. dished plates to be avoided
13.avanced outfitting procedures may be adopted

Q: Discuss briefly the importance of QC in ship production?


A: The advantages of employing effective QC in ship building are:
1. Defects are detected early and rectification can be carried out at
the most convenient time and in the most economical way.
2. Work is reduced in the final stages of hull construction, which is
difficult and costly and takes place in bad working conditions.
3. Wasteful work and scrap are reduced.
4. Progress of the work becomes steady so that planning and
scheduling becomes more effective.
5. Analysis of tolerances required at each shape allow the cost of
improving the process or equipment to be balanced against the
benefits of less frequent correction or rejection of workplaces,
thereby helping to establish a long-term procurement policy.44

Welding stds
In Ship building, tolerances allowed are:
For main structural members: 0.15 t or mm whichever is less
For others:- 0.2 t or mm whichever is less.
In custom built products, the tolerances should be specified in the
contract

Root gap:
The root gap of the joint should be as per the welding. Procedure
qualification test. An increase or decrease in root should be rectified
by suitable methods like gas cutting. grinding, fitting backing strip,
building up of edges by welding, etc.

Bevel angle:
A reduction in bevel angle beyond specifications can lead to
penetration problems in welding. An increase in bevel angle will
increase the cost of fabrication by way of increased consumable
requirement, cost for correction of weld distortion etc.

Root face:
A reduction in thickness of root face will cause burning the plate
edges whereas an increase in thickness of root face can cause lack of
root fusion - Increased amount of back gouging/chipping can
sometimes cause weld distortion

Surface finish of cut edge:


Serrations at the cut edges can cause entrapment of slag and lack
of side wall fusion.

Surface condition of the joint:


Foreign matters like rust, dust, oil, grease, paint, etc in the weld
joint cause porosity in the weld.
Welding procedure to be used:
The welding procedure to be used in the welding of the joint should
be qualified. Welding procedure specifications and Welding procedure
Qualification Record should be available for checking.

Welders and Welding operators:


Welders and Welding operators to be engaged on the job should be
qualified.

Welding machines and accessories:


Welding machine should be in good condition. Accessories like wire
brush, chipping hammers, gouging torches and pro-activities like
helmets gloves etc should be available for production of sound weld.

Critical Path

It is that sequence of activities that decide the total project


duration .Critical path is formed by critical activities. A critical path
consumes maximum time. A critical path has zero float. The expected
completion dates cannot be met if even one critical activity is
delayed. A dummy activity joining two critical activities is also a
critical activity. A critical path reveals those activities which must be
manipulated by some means or the other if the scheduled completion
dates are to be met.

Difference between PERT and CPM.

The fundamental network of PERT and CPM are though identical,


yet there are certain differences in details as given:

PERT:
1. A probabilistic model with uncertainty in activity duration.
Expected time is calculated from t0,tm and tp.
2. An event oriented approach
3. PERT terminology uses words like network diagram, events and
slack.
4. The use of dummy activities is required for representing the
proper sequencing.
5. Pert basically does not demarcate between critical and non critical
activities.
6. It finds applications in projects where resources are always made
available as and when required.
7. Especially suitable in defense projects and R&D where activity
times cannot be reliably predicted.

CPM:
1.A deterministic model with well known activity times based upon
past experience. It assumes that ,the expected time is actually the
time taken.
2.An activity oriented system.
3.CPM terminology employs words like arrow diagram, nodes and float.
4.The use of dummy activities is not necessary. The arrow diagram
thus becomes slightly simpler.
5.CPM marks critical activities.
6.It is employed to those projects where minimum overall costs is of
primary importance. There is better utilization of resources.
7.Especially suitable for problems in industrial setting, plant
maintenance, civil construction projects etc.

Technique:
CPM employs the following steps for accomplishing a project
planning.
1. Break down the project into various activities systematically.
2. Label all activities.
3. Arrange all the activities in a logical sequence.
4. Construct the arrow diagram.
5. Number all the nodes and activities.
6. Find the time for each activity.
7. Mark the activity times on the arrow diagram.
8. Calculate the early and late, starting and finishing times.
9. Tabulate various times and mark EST and LFT on the arrow
diagram.
10. Calculate the total float for each activity.
11. Identify the critical activities and critical paths on the arrow
diagram.
12. Calculate the total project duration.
13. If it is intended to reduce the total project duration, crash the
critical activities of the network.
14. Optimise the cost.
15. Update the network.
16. Smooth the network resources.

PROCESS PLANNING:
It is the
: Systematic determination of methods by which a product (ship) is to
be manufactured, economically and on schedule.
: Function which establishes processes and process parameters to be
used to convert the raw materials into finished product.

: Intermediate stage between designing and manufacturing

MAIN INFORMATION FOR PROCESS PLANNING:


: Product specifications and quantity of work
: Quantity of work to be completed.
: Availability of raw materials, tools, equipments, personnel.
: Sequence of production
: Standard time.
: Machines on which process will be performed.
: Schedule of the process.

PROCESS PLANNING PROCEDURE:


1)Preparation of working drawing showing geometrical shape,
dimensions, tolerances, type of surface finish, surface coating,
information for inspection, identification code, material
specifications.
2) Make or buy decision.
3) Process selection based on level of automation, kind of work flow,
quality level, delivery urgencies. etc.
4) Machine capacity and machine selection.
5) Selection of materials, jigs, fixtures, auxiliary equipments.
6) Prepare documents like operation and route sheets9

Planning and production control

A ship building process is


1. Complex
2. Long cycle of operation

The most important objective in ship building is maintaining the


deliver schedule in view of the above point.
Proper planning is essential to determine the many sequential & inter
related operations and activities for orderly ship construction

PLANNING ACTIVITIES

1 long term (2-3years or more)


2 medium terms (monthly, I monthly, 6 monthly)
3 short terms (Day to day)
Long term

constitute master plan of ships


master plan contains the master schedule which is circulated from
the planning dept to various other important depts. of the ship yards

The complex nature of ship building makes good planning and prod
control very important because ship building is a capital intensive
activity with large capital investment in plant and may therefore high
equipment utilization with high output is an essential requirement.
Also technique of advanced outfitting can not be successfully
implemented without a high level of plant output .good PPC also helps
in timely completion of work and maintenance of delivery schedule.
this is an important factor as far as the reputation of the ship
builder is concerned

in some respects planning and PC has become a little easier with the
introduction of flow production and the standardization of ships
being built computers have made the task of planning and PC also
easier and more effective the planning may be done in 3 stages, long
medium and short term at various levels inside the ship yard. The long
term plan contains the cardinal dates eg signing of the contract, keel
laying, launching, test and trials, delivery.

this is then broken down into six monthly, 3 monthly,monthly,weekly


and daily activities Production control is based on progress reporting
there are team of production controllers who monitor the progress of
work on a day to day or weekly basis and report the bottlenecks to
the managements to take the corrective action
PLANNING

divided into...
1. STRATEGIC PLANNING
a. profit plan
b. sales plan

2. TECHNICAL PLANNING
a. principal extents (keel lying)
b.block definition
c.advanced outfitting

3.PRODUCTION PLANNING
a.Drawing schedule
b.Material plan
c.Welding plan
d.assembly plan

4.IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING
a.Shop schedule
b.Work par

Levels of planning

1.Basic planning
2.Detailed planning ..weight and size of unit. mode of outfitting
.material requisite plan
3.Working detailed plan ..Schedules (PERT CMM).Producton drawing
standard
4.work intensive planning .material issue

Effectiveness of planning
1 communication
2 satisfy owners & classification societies requirement
3 Minimise design change
4 preperation of standard
5 accuracy and work instruction plan
6 effective accuracy control measures
7 hull construction schedule preparation
8 Preparation of process lines

PRODUCTION SCHEDULE
Once the contract plans are released and basic planning is over, hull
construction planning group initiates detailed planning in two phases:
1)department level planning/scheduling
2)shop level planning/scheduling
Scheduling can be defined simply as the allocation of resources and time
for various production units to closely match with the project completion
dates and budget estimates. Basically it determines when and
where,what is to be done.
There are four distinct stages to this:

I)Basic scheduling
Ship building master scheduling-relates all cardinal dates for all
ships/projects to be built in a specific period.

Hull erection master scheduling


1)Responsibilty of the production engineer
2)co-ordinates with onboard outfit schedules
3)main input are block defintion plan
4)emphasis on outfit of large macinery like diesel generator which
have to be fitted before any other block in ER.This requires treating
such an item as a seprater block.
Shipbuilding activity timing schedule
1)using block predefinition plan,erection master schedule,outfit
palns,outfit master schedule
2)bar chart showing the required time for each process right from
yard plan issue to erection
3)provides dates for erection,commence and completion of hull
assembly issue of hull construction drawing,acquistion of
materials,major outfit on board dates
4)it is the basis of all the schedules

II)Major scheduling
Made from erection master schedule.
It shows:
a)shortest practical period of erection
b)easiest erection sequence
c)duration required for fitting and aligning blocks
d)date for erection
e)daily m/h requirements for fitters and welders

IIa)Assembly master schedule


1)derived from EMS,s/b activity timing,design maaster sschedule
2)forecasted work is depicted using welding length for assembly
3)duration required for assembly of each block for all ships

IIb)Integrated schedule
1)i/p from o/f dpt,o/f shop master schedule
2)shop schedules are updated every two months together with IIa

III)Working scheduling include:


1)assembly,subassembly,part fabrication,monthly schedule
2)yard plan,mold loft issue curves
Accuracy control

the use of statical principles to monitor,control and continously


improve ship building design details,planning and work methods to
maximize productivity.It also provides a quantitative feed back loop
b/w production,planning,design and engineering

Statical principles
1)nothing called absolute accuracy
2)variations from specified dimensions are always iminent
3)fundamental basis is the theory of probability
4)the dimensions vary from component to component due to inherent
machines characteristics,envt. conditions and workers expertise
5)any important continous probablity distribution is a normal
distribution or Guassian distribution
6)it is the plot of the variation observed in the product

ISM
The purpose of this Code is to provide an international standard for
the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution
prevention.
Recognizing that no two shipping companies or ship owners are the
same, and that ships operate under a wide range of different
conditions, the Code is based on general principles and objectives.
Objectives
1. The objectives of the Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention
of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the
environment, in particular to the marine environment and to property.

2.Safety management objectives of the Company should,


.1 provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working
environment;
.2 establish safeguards against all identified risks; and
.3 continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore
and aboard ships, including preparing for emergencies related both to
safety and environmental protection.
3 The safety management system should ensure:
.1 compliance with mandatory rules and regulations; and
.2 that applicable codes, guidelines and standards recommended by
the Organization, Administrations, classification societies and
maritime industry organizations are taken into account.

Application
The requirements of this Code may be applied to all ships.
Functional requirements for a safety management system
Requirements of safety management system of companies
1 a safety and environmental-protection policy;
2 instructions and procedures to ensure safe operation of ships and
protection of the environment in compliance with relevant
international and flag State legislation;
3 defined levels of authority and lines of communication between, and
amongst, shore and shipboard personnel;
4 procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities with the
provisions of this Code;
5 procedures to prepare for and respond to emergency situations; and
6 procedures for internal audits and management reviews.

AutoCAD drafting
It is a tool for designing .Here 2d and 3d designing is possible 2d
design gives an outline of the structure which we are meant to
produce 3D will give the overall view of the product prototype can be
avoided. By using this tool a client is able to see his product before
construction & suggest improvements if needed it is more accurate &
more flexible is possible using this structural; analysis can be done so
that drawings can be generated in a small time using plotters
tribone modelling

it is software meant for modeling


using his new designs can be developed after this the surface of
design is faired & then patched
after this we can generate the hull for modeling
we can take parts from the geometry macro if not in geometry macro
we can produce in geometry macro we can model the whole ship
after modelling the ships the production information can be directly
taken into the prod uction site
automaic nesting is also done16

CAD::
it includes tools to perform the overall technical definition of the
ship but does not include engineering details or acquisition or
fabrication studies
CAE::
it includes tasks to perform calculations & to develop design
documents and procurement specifications for main equipments and
materials
CAM::
it includes tools to obtain all the information necessary to procure
the remaining equipment & materials and to fabricate and erect the
ship.
The contract class and detail designs of commercial ships are
performed with CAD|CAE|CAM soft wares respectively

ADVANTAGES OF CAD/CAM SYSTEMS:


They are
:Ability to produce concept and feasibility ship design studies quickly
and accurately than any conventional method
:Ability to rapidly evaluate design option and optimization.
:Ability to 'lock in' and assemble successful design experiences and
procedures.
:Ability to add attractive design to the database for future use.
:Ability to interface with computer graphics.
:Ability to transfer data in digital form between design and
manufacturing designs of the shipyard.
:Ability to employ shipyard standards.
:Ability to assemble and 'lock in' successful building strategies and
procedures.

INPUTS FOR AN EFFICIENT CAD/CAM:


:numerical data on past design
:geometrical data on past design, hull forms etc.
:weight and space scaling laws.
:resistance and propulsion data.
:sea route
:cost data
:sea spectrum
:Strength and structural data
:Engine performance data
:typical block plan
:typical o/f plans
:material list(MLC, MLS)
:shipyard standards

The difference between corporate planing and production planning

a. OVERVIEW
there are two different overview for the corporate planning &
production planning the corporate planning has the total yard
overview. The yard overview is essentially the sum of all individual
projects The product planing refer to only the individual construction
or repair jobs.

b.Time bound planning

in case of the corporate planning planning is done keeping in mind the


long term consideration including market workload employment
forecasting whereas in production planning is done keeping in mind the
time a project is started till it is completed

c.Objective

Corporate policy of a ship yard aims at improving the occupation rate


take maximum numbers of the orders and to have maximum business
over a period of time where production planning aims at reducing the
cost of production improves the flow of work and the completion of
work

LEVEL OF PEOPLE

level of people that are involved in case of corporate planning are at


the topmost level of managers and employs the heads of the
departments and units where the people involves for the design for
production involves people only at the production level.

CHANGES AND MODIFICATIONS

often it is seen that the changes to production planning are made if


they are found not to be capable with the schedule but the corporate
policy does not change very easily as it involves lot off ground work
and effort to reach it.
SHIPBUILDING POLICY & BUILDING STRATERGY

Over view the shipbuilding policy consists of the shipyards plans to


make or produce a certain kind of ship over a period of time where as
build strategy is shipyard capacity standards and performances and
combines those with contract or customer requirements

Application:

Built design helps to provide input to design and include strategic


tactical and detailed production engg and product analysis where as
shipbuilding policy gives an ideas as whole to the complete yard of
goals of production and further output

shipbuilding policy is utilized by complete yard and is used for the


working of each department where as the build strategy can be used
only for the input of production and design department
it has no effect in corporate planning and other departments

time bound planning :


shipbuilding policy is usually applied for a long time over a period of
time during which the ships are to be built say (5-6 years) here as
build strategy is to be taken only till the time the ship is to be
repaired or built in the YARD.

Q: Explain in detail the principle of flow line production in SB?


A: Principles of flow line production in SB:-
1. Various stages of ship building are sequentially carried out.
2. These are work stations for each stage of production where
different jobs are undertaken. The jobs undertaken at a particular
workstation may be similar in nature. These areas or workshops are
equipped with many tools, and equipment to do such jobs and manned by
specially trained personnel.
3. Repetitive operations may be carried out at workstations.
4. The system is highly suited to producing idle items in large
quantities, i.e. mass production.
5. The production system is suitable for high production loads.
The traditional production system shipbuilding is craft oriented. in
this, diver products are made in a single shop, make scheduling of the
production process difficult. Level of shop loading is low and sequence
work unpredictable.
The flow line production, on the other hand has the following
features:-
1. The shipbuilding process is divided into many activities such as Engg
Work, steel work, and electrical work, which are independent of the
other. Each of these major activities further broken down in production
stages as shown below. These stages are sequentially completed

2. There are separate workstations where different specifically


identified jobs are undertaken.
3. Repetitive operations can be done smoothly
4. Suited to mass production
5. High level of shop loading achieved
6. Work stations may be classified based on:
(a) Similarity of procedure and routine
(b) Operating line
(c) Size, shape and dimensions of parts of the product

Advantages:-
1. High degree of control and supervision is possible.
2. Logical flow of materials and components within and between work
stations.
3. QC methods can be applied conveniently
4. Scheduling and collection of work performance data is simple.
5. High degree of utilisation of infrastructural facilities.
6. Need for highly specialised tradesmen is reduced.

Disadvantages:
1. Less flexibility
2. Disruption in one part will shut down the system
3. Monotonous work.

FLOW PROCESS CHARTS:


They are
1)Bar chart
2)Curve chart
3)Gantt chart
4)Mechanical chart

BAR CHART:
(1 picture)

Gantt chart:
Gantt charts are a project planning tool that can be used to
represent the timing of tasks required to complete a project. Because
Gantt charts are simple to understand and easy to construct, they
are used by most project managers for all but the most complex
projects.
In a Gantt chart, each task takes up one row. Dates run along the top
in increments of days, weeks or months, depending on the total length
of the project. The expected time for each task is represented by a
horizontal bar whose left end marks the expected beginning of the
task and whose right end marks the expected completion date.
As the project progresses, the chart is updated by filling according
to the progress of work
This way, one can get a quick reading of project progress
In constructing a Gantt chart, keep the tasks to a manageable number
(not more than 15 or 20) so that the chart fits on a single page. More
complex projects may need subordinate charts

For team projects, it often helps to have an additional column


containing numbers or initials which identify who on the team is
responsible for the task.

Machine chart

:It is modified bar chart


: In this load is marked against a time scale.
:one horizontal bar on line allocated to each DEPARTMENT.

It displays :
:plans for future
:progress on present operations
:past achievements
:relationship of overall variables
:delays and causes
:work progress till any day.
It is of 2 types:
(I)Order control chart: Here time is listed in horizontal axis and
orders along vertical axis .
(1 picture)
(ii)Machine load chart: Here time is along horizontal axis and m/c
along vertical axis.
(1 picture)

MACHINE LOAD CHART

b)Making a report of progress:


:fixed interval on every stage
:report must contain job identification of
c)Transmission of report:
:hard copy
:oral system
:electronic system.
d)corrective measures taken.

GROUP TECHNOLOGY

Group technology is also called family manufacture, started as an


outgrowth of an attempt to develop a more efficient system of
classification and coding for the use in management of industrial
processes. A classification system is essential to the organization of
data in order to facilitate analysis and synthesis, formulation of
hypothesis,experimentation,deduction and finally generalization to
practical application.
Group technology is also called cellular manufacture.
Work flow (called virtual work flow) involves movement of the people
from one place to another(real flow - work piece from station to
station).Same group of people moves with the product .Main aim is to
prevent people waiting (machines may wait).Concept of zones and stages
is applied.

Group technology has been most extensively used in the machining


industry, where the cell consists of a grouped number of machines and
people who operate them .The operators are trained to operate all the
machines .A major objective of Group Technology is to reduce inventory
of work in process to only what is needed .Setup time in the cell is
minimized, because cells are designed so that machines need only some
adjustments rather than completely reset.

An additional benefit is that the job satisfaction is high in Group


Technology. When a cell is loaded, workers only see the individual
product emerge within a short period of time .The productivity is higher
in group technology.

The group is the basic production unit of zone or product oriented


ship construction, in which the total integration of all departments is the
shipyard.
In ship building, cell consists of a crew of workers whose most
sophisticated piece of equipment is a spanner wrench or a simple arc
welder .In ship building, a cell or group is responsible for completing all
aspects of a given block or unit including piping, ducting, painting etc. In
a conventional type of manufacturing the idleness is higher .The workers
have to wait .In order to complete one product some times, the workers
may need specific task to be completed .One goes to find the part and
rest wait .eg: sometimes drawing may not be available if the ship is
divided into small zones(geographical areas), then the master schedule
never has to be concerned with many interface between any of the
entire system on the ship .These zones represent the output of a Group
Technology or group. The cell is then loaded with all the resources
necessary for the completion of some manageable work package .Such a
work package may include a portion of the fire mains system, along with
ventilation ducts, electric circuits etc.

Advantages of Group Technologies

1) Work content estimation is more efficient, since it differentiates


between kinds of jobs (rather than just based on steel weight)
2) Accuracy is greater
3) Many similar activities can be clubbed together (eg: a single
foundation for many equipments rather than separate seating for each)

IHOP:
The main components of this approach are
1)HBCM: where in hull parts, SA ,blocks are manufactured in
accordance. The principles of GT(family manufacturer) in org prod
lines(process lanes or work flows).The blocks are designed such that:
:for block assembly; They are assignable to or of the minimum no. of
work package groups considering similarities in problem area and need
to minimise variations in working times.
:for block erection; they are table configurations requiring temporary
support or reinforcement and hence minimum working time.
:for o/f and painting; sized so that maximum accessibility to all
regions is possible.

2)ZOFM: which makes possible eficiency gaining through concurrent


hull construction and o/f.
:provides precise zones by stage control.There are 3 basic stages:
:on-unit o/f: fitting assembled in-house independent of hul structure.
:on-block o/f: fitting arrangements on ceiling of block is upside down
in one zone while on its deck is another zone.
:on-board o/f: fittings during erection and after building zones are
holds, tanks, ER etc.

3)ZPTM: surface preparation and painting are treated as integral


aspect of overall construction process.
:It transfers much of the painting work in a building dock to
preceding manufacturing levels like an assembly process.

4)PPFM: Classifies pipe pieces into groups having design and


manufacturing attributes similar to make batch production possible.

5)PWBS: This is the classification system which facilitates the above


mentioned division of work and their integration by defining interim
products(parts, sub assembly, assembly, blocks).
:This is done by co:ordinated work flow.
ISO 9000 Quality system:

: International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva,


Switzerland
: ISO 9000 evolved from the standardisation of QA systems of
several nations.

Characteristics:
: can be implemented in any type or size of org.
: independent of produce, commodity
: has international acceptance and recognition
: ensures consistent improvement in quality.

1. ISO 8402: 1986 quality : vocabulary


2. ISO 9000: 1987 qual man and QA stds: guidelines for selection and
use of 150 standards
3. ISO 9001: 1987 qual systems : model for quality assurance in
design, development, production,installation,and servicing

4. ISO 9002: 1987 qual sys : model for quality assurance in


production and installation
5. ISO 9003: 1987 qual sys : model for quality assurance in inspection
and test
6. ISO 9004: provides guidelines for technical, administrative and
human factors affecting the quality of production or services.
Emphasis on satisfaction of customer's needs, establishment of
functions, responsibilities and importance of assessing potential risks
and benefits.
: used for internal quality assurance
: deals with qual related cost, qual in marketing, qual in
specific, qual in procurement, qual in production documentation, etc.
Steps for ISO 9000 classification:
1. Quality assurance training
2. Task force
3. Analyse existing procedures and enforce corrective action
4. Design and develop standard procedures
5. Documentations : Quality manual
: Quality procedure
: Work instructions
6. Implement quality systems
7. Audit 6
8. Audit 6 from 3rd party
9. Apply classification and maintain system when certified.

ISO 9000:
: Credibility passport for international standard
: Designing
: Developing
: Installation
: Production
: Servicing

Benefits:
: International recognition of ability, credibility, expertise
: Provides competitive edge
: Climate for consistent improvement in quality
: Reduces waste and repairs
: Maintains streamlined records, material handling, storage
: Maintains process quality
: Insures benefits

Limitations:
: Demand of resources for implementation
: Registration is expensive
: Requires upgrading and test facilities
: Cost is increased

Production control:
: for monitoring cost and schedule adherence
: responsible for issuing manhour budgets based on which progress
may be evaluated.
: monitoring can be based on the following three parameters:

1. Manhour expenditures:
: applies to all work process
: measure of manpower index

2. Production progress:
: uses different parameters like weight, length of weld, laid cable
length per unit time to determine the progress index
: based on it shifting work, over time, subcontract involvement may be
decided upon.

3. Productivity indices:
: utilises both m/p expended and also production progress parameters
: there are plotted relative to established standards of efficiency
based on past experience
: any curve above the efficiency reference above average rate of m/n
expend.
Lofting:
The full-size mold loft had a large, well-lighted, clear floor having a
smooth wood surface. The fairing of lines from the preliminary lines and
offsets were done using the full-size beam and depth of the ship but
having the length contracted to 1/4th -size due to space limitations.
After the lines had been faired, the body plan was laid down, the frame
lines were run in, and the final mold loft offsets were picked off.
Templates were made of different materials like basswood, plywood,
Masonite, and heavy waxed paper. The templates were marked with
necessary information such as plate edges, frame lines and check lines
for accuracy of the dimensions. This was transferred to the plate by
scribing or centre-punching.

Optical lofting:
This consists of drawing structural members 1/10 full size,
photographing the drawing on a glass negative to about 1/140 full size
and then projecting the negative image to a full size on a steel plate.
Optical lofting requires a much smaller working space than that
required for a full scale lofting. The high degree of accuracy requires
magnifying glasses, special vernier scales, etc. The body plan is drawn
with fine-line pens on a smooth, flat table, or on drafting film. The ink
drawings, most of which are tracings of portions of the lay downs, are
photographed on a glass negative which can then be used to project
layout information onto the plate.
NC tapes can be prepared by using 1/10 scale information and a
digitizer. A digitizer is a manually operated device for converting points
along any line into numerical data for use in the preparation of NC tapes.
This method of preparing tapes is much hazardous than the method that
employs direct computer-aided lofting through numerical detailing.

Computer-aided lofting: The use of computers to define lines of a


ship and structural parts developed rapidly during the 1960's and 70's.
During this period various combinations of optical lofting and
computerized lofting were used to define the parts.
Computerized lofting requires the use of various items of computer
hardware to handle the software, which consists of program modules
tailored to produce the output information.
Computer software systems cover all phases of lofting from the
development of the ship's lines to the production of NC tapes in addition
to a variety of supplementary design and fabrication information. These
systems require special talented personnel. Even though attempts have
been made in some systems to simplify the programming so that less
skilled personnel can be used to model portions of certain programs, the
overall personnel requirements in both of the above mentioned areas
become increasingly critical to the success of the computer applications
as the programs expend their coverage.

a. Fairing of lines:
The programming for this module fairs the lines of the vessel from
offsets taken from preliminary lines and generates a database. Normally
20 stations are used and the the computer fairs the lines between the
stations. It should be noted that the preliminary lines should be
accurate.
If only a preliminary type of lines were desired, the computer can
produce input from very rough input, but the output lines would not be
considered satisfactory for accurate hull surface development.
The resulting mathematical curves are faired using an iteration
process. if necessary, the position of the station data points may have to
be moved slightly by a skilled operator using the programming to ease
the strain, or curvature, in the beam a minimum amount.
Before computer fairing begins, the controlling boundary of the hull
as required by the program must be determined. These bounds usually
involve bow and stern ending points, side and bottom tangents, and deck
lines. After each step in the fairing process, a drawing of stations and
diagonals can be requested by the user to ensure that the program and
the method of using it are functioning properly. On completion of fairing,
lines drawing can be prepared. The final frame and waterline offsets are
then routinely tabulated as part of the computer output.
One of the advantages of a computerised lines program is that a
variety of hulls can be developed from one basic hull.

b. Body plan:
To define traces of decks, longitudinals, girders, and seam sight
edges, the draftsman must specify a number of points on the associated
trace along the length of the ship.

Material list

MATERIAL LIST BY SYSTEM (MLS)


list of materials required for construction of a ship board outfit system

MATERIAL LIST FOR COMPONENTS (MLC)


a list of materials required for construction of outfit components other
than pipe

MATERIALS LIFE FOR FITTING (MLF)


material list of all outfit components required by pallet

MATERIAL LIST for pipe (MLP)


A list of materials for manufacture of pipe pieces

The lists that are available are such that bulk of planning data on such
list is immediately available for reuse.

These lists are readily identifiable material requirement formats for


material control and function.
Materials on material list for systems (MLS) are ultimately incorporated
on material list for pallets (MLP) either directly or as component for
custom manufactured.MLP and MLC are listed in their new identities as
custom manufactured item on material list for pallet

A pallet is a group of outfit materials necessary to perform a defined


increment of work which is identified by MLF.
The first thing that is developed is the material list for the system thus
as the materials of the pallet involve the list all upgraded.
The use of computer or the machine are used to upgrade the material
lists maintenance of material list is perhaps the most important
computer application
Numerical control:
programmable automation in which the process is controlled by
numbers, letters and symbols. In NC, the numbers from a program of
instructions designed for a particular work part or job. When the job
changes, the prog of instructions are changed. this capability to change
the program for each new job is what gives NC its flexibility. it is much
easier to write new prog than to make major changes in the production
equipment.
NC technology has been applied to a wide variety of applications,
including drafting, assembly, inspection, sheet metal press-working and
spot welding.

Basic Components:
it consists of three basic components:
1. prog of instructions
2. controller unit or the machine control unit.
3. machine tool or other controlled process.

NC procedure:
following steps must be accomplished:
1. Process planning:
work part drawing must be interpreted in terms of manufacturing
process to be used. it concerns making the route sheet sequence of the
operation to be done.
2. Part programming:
programming the process for job completion is done next. There are
two ways to program the NC. They are:
Manual part programming
Computer aided part programming
3. Tape preparation:
A punched tape is prepared from the part programmer's NC process
plan.
4. Tape verification:
For this the program is run and tool movements plotted on paper. At
times it may require 3-4 trials before the tape is correct and ready to
use.
5. Production:
Actual use of NC tape.

NC motion control systems:


There are three basic types of motion control system:
1. Point To Point (PTP)
2. Straight cut
3. Contouring
1. PTP:
The objective is to move the cutting tool to a predefined location.
The speed and path are not important. e.g. NC drill presses. They are the
simplest and the least expensive.
2. Straight Cut:
In this the movement of the tool is parallel to one of the major axes
at a controlled rate for machining. Angular cuts are not possible. This
machine can also make PTP movements.
3. Contouring:
Capable of performing both PTP and straight cut. Also called
continuous path m/c. They are the most complex, flexible and expensive
types of m/c tool controls.

Application of NC:
Milling
Drilling and related processes.
Boring
Turning
Grinding
Sawing

Most appropriate jobs for NC:


1. Parts are processed frequently and in small lot sizes.
2. The part geometry is complex.
3. Many operations must be performed on the part in its processing.
4. Much metal needs to be removed.
5. Engineering design carnages are likely.
6. Close tolerances must be held on the work part
7. It is an expensive part where mistakes in processing would be costly.
8. The part requires 100% inspection.

Range of potential applications of NC:


Presswork m/c tools
Welding m/c
inspection m/c
automatic drafting
Assembly m/c
tube bending
flame cutting
plasma arc cutting
automated knitting m/c
cloth cutting
automatic riveting
wire wrap m/c

Advantages of NC:
1. Reduced non productive time:
Reduces no of setups, less time in setting up, reduced work piece
handling time, automatic tool changes etc.
2. Reduced fixturing:
NC fixtures are simpler and cheaper to fabricate.
3. Reduced manufacturing lead time:
Since jobs are set up quickly with NC and fewer setups required,
lead time is reduced.
4. Greater manufacturing flexibility:
It is easy to adapt to ED changes, alterations of production
schedules, change over in jobs etc. with NC
5. Improved QC:
Produces parts with greater accuracy, reduced scrap and lower
inspection requirements.
6. Reduced inventory
7. Reduced floor space requirement.

Disadvantages of NC:
1. Higher investment cost.
2. Higher maintenance cost.
3. Finding and/or NC personnel.

Pallets
it is the basis for the control of work and main communication link -can
be viewed as empty buckets filled with various software and hardware
items. each of it includes info including work instruction schedules work
locations material lists resources including materials tools facilities and
manpower .Each pallet is defined filled with necessary info and
resources and delivered to proper work sites at proper time. Work is
then performed and the resulting interim product is produced ..

:Pallets thus represent work packages that are identified by zone/


problem area /stage and provide production with all the info and
resources needed for exactly a unit of work

:Various pallet coding systems have been developed to facilitate the use
of pallet concept by design material control and production..
2) Outfit designs advice hull str group of o/f requirements for
penetration and reinforcements in structure Also o/f production process
communicate with hull const Prodn engineers about requirements for o/f
on-block or on-board

3)Also communication is shared between o/f design hull design at the


procurement dept..

Plant location:
The location n of the plant has a direct influence on the cost as of
production and on the effectiveness of marketing. Since a company
remains in that location for many years, errors in decision making in the
plant location will lead to long term problems. Plant location is of vital
importance in production-system design. It affects the cost of shipping
raw materials and finished products, costs of operations, including
labour, taxes, construction, land, utilities, power and many other factors.
It affects expansion potential. These effects, in some situations, can
spell the difference between success and failure companies over the long
run.

The following are the factors which influence the selection of plant
location:
1. Regional considerations
2. Community
3. Site selection

1. Regional considerations:
a. The location of markets:
In a plant location decision, locating plants near markets for their
products and services,
is ideal.
Factors considered should be:
- Transportation cost
- Perishability
- Bulkiness
- Heaviness
- Fragility
b. The location of materials:
The various inputs of production systems are raw materials,
supplies, semi-finished goods,
parts, equipments and tools. Location of these materials is important
for plant location
decisions.
c. Transportation facilities:
Adequate transportation facilities are essential for the economical
operations of
production systems of transportation facilities available are:

- Water transport: Almost all major industrial cities are located on


important waterways. it's
the least costly form of transportation per ton-km. Companies which
produce or buy heavy,
bulky and low-value-per ton commodities still consider water
transport an important factor
in locating plants.
- Railroad: Railroads add a great deal of flexibility to transportation
network. The cost per
ton-km is greater than that of water transport.
- Trucks: These have an advantage over railroads in terms of more
flexibility. Over many
alternative routes, trucks can be moved more easily. The arrival and
departure times are
also more flexible than railroads.
- Pipelines: These are used extensively for the transport of natural
gas and petroleum.
Pipelines are laid in fixed locations. Just like water transport,
pipelines have the
advantage of low cost per ton-km.
- Airlines: They are the fastest type of transport. but the cost per
ton-km is more expensive.
But airline transport is also considered by some companies. For
example, precision-parts
companies which provide quick delivery of replacement parts to
companies.
d. Labour supply:
One of the important inputs in production systems is manpower.
Some of the labour-related
questions are:
- number of potential employees available
- their levels of skill and education
- productivity of labour force
- cost of labour and fringe benefits involved
- cost of living as related to labour costs, etc.
e. Climate:
There are two distinct needs of companies in terms of climate.
First, the climate should be
mild enough, so that the employees remain in a certain region. Second,
some industries require
certain types of climate for production. For example, in the
agriculture business, some
products need dry climate and damp climate for others.

2. The choice of community:


The next step in selecting plant location involves the choice of a
particular community
within the region selected. Some of the factors which affect the
decision are:
- Managerial preferences
- Community facilities
- Community attitudes
- Government and taxation
- Availability of sites
- Financing and other inducements

Many of the plants are located in particular communities just because


of the ties with the
community and the management.
Community facilities include the living facilities for the employees
such as schools, shopping
and medical facilities, residential housing, recreational opportunities,
police and fire
protection cultural opportunities and so forth.

Community government and taxation represent factors which tend to


change over the years. So the
plant location decisions should be based on the current situation.

Some communities offer even financial inducements to companies to


influence them to build
plants in their areas.

3. The choice of site:


The final decision concerns the choice of a particular site within a
community. For this the
following should be investigated:
- size of the site
- drainage and soil conditions
- water supplies
- utilities such as electricity, natural gas, sewer systems.
- waste disposal and environmental considerations
- transportation facilities
- land and development costs

Sources of information in plant location:


The selection of a plant location is very complex task. Once the
information is gathered, the above mentioned factors can be discussed.
There are several types of organisations that assist managers in their
plant location decision making. Most states have industrial development
agencies to help industries in locating a site, since such industries are a
source of tax revenue.

Methods for analysing the plant location decision:


For arriving at a location decision, managers may use technique which
are not influenced by personal bias. In attempting to weigh the other
factors against one another, two methods are generally used:

Rating plan: In this, weights are assigned to each of the factors that
should be considered. For this, first a list must be made of the
important factors that have a say in the decision, the factors are rated
by giving points to the individual factors. The factor deemed most
important is given the highest weight and each of the other a lesser
amount.

Cost analysis: As an aid in evaluating plant location, estimates should be


made for all costs entering into the operation of the plant in each of the
locations. This estimate should cover the initial cost of the physical
facilities, raw materials, manufacture and the cost of distribution. After
the determination of each of these costs, the unit cost for
manufacturing the product in each of the locations can be reckoned and
may be used to aid in deciding on the optimum location.

PRODUCT WORK BREAK DOWN STRUCTURE:


Theory management approach must specify, what is to be done,
where is to be done, when is to be done and what resources are to be
applied .This specification generally takes the form of division of the
total process into components parts .The system by which these
components are subdivided in order to control the process is called a
work break down structure.
Two types of work break down structure are there:
a) system oriented work break down structure
b) product oriented work break down structure

1) System based W.B.S


System based work break down structure is the traditional approach
of division of the work on the basis of systems.
As per system based work break down structure, the ship deign
process can be divided as:

System oriented work break down structure are


used for initial estimates and early design shape .They are not
appropriate for planning, scheduling and executing a zone oriented
manufacturing process.
Each major groups are hierarchically subdivided into subgroups and
then to elements.
For example,
group : hull structure
element : overall arrangement : structural drawing

subgroup: hull structural bulkheads


element : longitudinal bulkheads and transverse bulkheads

Disadvantages

1. System wise splitting of work is highly sequential


2. Working in isolation : that is no communication between two
departments/systems in system
oriented work break down system
3. Less sharing of responsibility
4. Time consumed is more since the nature is sequential
5. Information handling will be difficult
6. Introduction of Modern Production Methodologies is difficult
7. Concurrent engineering cannot be applied
8. Experts required for each aspect .Role of expertise is more than
general skill in S.W.B.S
e.g.: Ballast pump

P.W.B.S:
:Developed in U.S.A in 1920's and applied in ship building in the 80's
:The classification scheme to subdivide works in accordance with
interim product view is called product oriented work break down
structure
In this type of system parts and subassemblies are grouped by
common permanent characteristics and classified by both design and
manufacturing attribute .The classification system typically specifies
parameters such as forms, dimensions, tolerance, material and types
and complexity of machinery operation.
For example the "cargo hold block" : steel, piping, electrical and deck

All functional systems are incorporated in a product .Here the cargo


hold block is the final product .In this product all the systems needed
for cargo hold will be installed and final product will be cargo hold
block.
P.W.B.S first divide the ship building process into three basic type of
work:
a) Hull construction
b) Outfitting
c) Painting
These three types of works are further subdivided into fabrication
and assembly classification which are normally associated only with
hull construction and outfitting .Within the painting classification,
fabrication applies to the manufacture or preparation of paint and
assembly means its application(diag 4)

S.W.B.S : outfitting cable + electrical + machinery + structural


P.W.B.S : engine room or auxiliary E.B

Advantages
1.Effective information handling
2.Methods such as advanced outfitting can be implemented
effectively
3.Reduction in time production since no sequential activity
4.Improves the working condition
5.Well defined zone or stages and responsibility sharing
6.No cross communication .Main communication between closed
product
7. Since similar products are grouped together, some advantages of
mass production can be achieved

Potential problems or disadvantages:

1.Contradiction may occur .This can actually be minimized by


optimization .Hence CAD/CAM is necessary for implementing P.W.B.S.
2.All quality related problems will be shifted to the joining point
.Quality of one product should be exactly same as the adjacent
product .For this purpose accuracy control is required.
(Cross functionability)it is found that a team of 5 to 6 persons are
most efficient (1 from hull,1 engineering etc). There are
corresponding groups in design, production, planning etc.
P.W.B.S divides the ship building process into three, namely: hull
construction,outfitting,painting
(diag 5)

P.W.B.S classify the interim products in accordance with their


need for resources,i.e material, manpower, facilities and expenses.
e.g::Common parameters to different structural panels regardless of
their location in ships.

The four aspects of product of P.W.B.S:


1.System

Structural function or operational function of a product


e.g::longitudinal bulkhead or transverse bulkhead, fire main system,
mooring system, fuel oil service system, lighting system e.t.c

2.Zone
Geographical division of product
e.g::cargo hold, engine room, superstructure
or their subdivision or combination
e.g::structural block or outfit unit

3.Problem area

Division of production process into similar types of work problems.


e.g::a)by feature, curves vs. flat blocks
steel vs aluminium structure
b)by quantity, e.g:volume of blocks
c)by quality, e.g:grade of workers ,grade of facilities required
d)kind of work, e.g:marking, cutting, welding, blasting e.t.c

4.Stage
A division of production process by sequence,
e.g:substeps of fabrication, subassembly,erections e.t.c

Robotic weld
The utilization of industrial robots for weld processes, with specific
emphasis on gas metal arc welding (GMAW) has been a practice for
some time .Industrial robots can positively impact the welding
process by providing the following major improvements to the manual
process:
1) Production increase
2) Reduction of direct labor
3) Improvement of weld parameter and process control
4) Removal of the operator from a sometimes tedious and potentially
hazardous environment.

The important points to be considered for a welding robot are:


1) It must be a point to point, continuous path robot.
2) It must be able to record programs for back up.
3) Operators must make sure encoders are set precisely.
4) The base must be mounted securely to the floor.
5) It must have interface capabilities.
6) Quality of robot weld.

The critical factors for the success of a robot arc welding system
can be summarized as follows:
1) Intelligent choice of family part selection.
2) Concentration on refinement of manufacturing practices prior to
the arc welding requirement.
3) Production and utilization of high integrity, machine tool quality
Class A fixtures.
4) Detailed and documented evaluation of required weld parameters
for a specific process.
5) Judicious use of part and material handling equipment.
6) Proper system control for maximum operator efficiency.

TYPES OF WELDING ROBOTS:

Presently there are four types of welding robots .Their coordination


is:
a) Rectilinear
b) Articulated
c) Cylindrical
d) Spherical

In order to introduce a welding robot system successfully, overall


considerations including structural design, assembly method, and cost
performance were carried out:
1) The effecting positioning facilities of the robot was designed to
move widely over the large hull structure using full NC system .The
portable type robot was adopted for the system.
2) Full off line teaching system was developed, answering to the
variety of structure elements and welding patterns. The system now
has been applied in IHI shipyard successfully.

Market investigation

govt policy determines it like direct cost, rate of foreign exchange,


Trade agreements between GOVT and countries

Type of ships
1.categorised to MULTIPURPOSE & SPECIALISED Ships
2.range of DWT
Max and min size of main dimensions
4.trade route restrictions

Trade analysis
1.Type of cargo
2.vol of cargo
3. Details of ship owners & companies
trend in requirements of new ships

STAGE II
Preliminary design investigation or skew design and costing
done to find the type of ship required to fit market requirements
FDG does this job and it fids the future aspects of ship building

STAGE III finalization of tenders and contracts


Here fixation of prices occurs due to keen competition of many
companies in tenders

tender is a document issued by the ship owner to convey the details


of terma & conditions of the deals between the owner & ship yard

Management decides the Yard to which deal is to be given


Finalisation of the Technical specs of the ship

like
1. quantum of cargo
2.Type of cargo
3.any other function to be performed other than carrying cargo or in
addition to carrying to cargo
eg:carrying passengers, fishing tugs, naval ships, cable carrying ships,
dredgers

STAGE IV DETAIL DESIGN


Quite a few items in this stage would have been completed before
signing the contract. For a merchant ship dwt,type of cargo, function
of ship,routes,engine power etc would have been finalised including
towing tank test,maneuvring etc.

As fitted drawings:After the construction of the ship detailed


drawings of ships are made containing all information of the ship
actually built.The various items of outfit could be decided even
before signing of a contract in case of a merchant ship.

STAGE IV PLANNING
a)Nature of the activity,its linkage with the activity before and after
b)Time schedule - time for each activity to happen

STAGE VI PRODUCTION
The most important element in this stage is control which is done by
the production manager

STAGE VII
Completion of the ship, test,trials and delivery to the owner.

STAGE VIII GUARANTEE


Generally guarantee is one year of the ship.

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
1)Market analysis
2)Preliminary design
3)Finalisationand acceptance of tenders and documents
4)Detail design
5)Planning
6)Production
7)Completion of ship
8)Guarantee
PRODUCTION SCHEDULE
Once the contract plans are released and basic planning is over,hull
construction planning group initiates detailed planning in two phases:
1)department level planning/scheduling
2)shop level planning/scheduling
Scheduling can be defined simply as the allocation of resources and time
for various production units to closely match with the project completion
dates and budget estimates.Basically it determines when and where,what
is to be done.There are four distinct stages to this:

I)Basic scheduling
Ship building master scheduling-relates all cardinal dates for all
ships/projects to be built in a specific period.

Hull erection master scheduling


1)Responsibilty of the production engineer
2)co-ordinates with onboard outfit schedules
3)main input are block defintion plan
4)emphasis on outfit of large macinery like diesel generator which have
to be fitted before any other block in ER.This requires treating such an
item as a seprater block.

Shipbuilding activity timing schedule


1)using block predefinition plan,erection master schedule,outfit
palns,outfit master schedule
2)bar chart showing the required time for each process right from yard
plan issue to erection
3)provides dates for erection,commence and completion of hull assembly
issue of hull construction drawing,acquistion of materials,major outfit on
board dates
4)it is the basis of all the schedules

II)Major scheduling
Made from erection master schedule.It shows:
a)shortest practical period of erection
b)easiest erection sequence
c)duration required for fitting and aligning blocks
d)date for erection
e)daily m/h requirements for fitters and welders

IIa)Assembly master schedule


1)derived from EMS,s/b activity timing,design maaster sschedule
2)forecasted work is depicted using welding length for assembly
3)duration required for assembly of each block for all ships

IIb)Integrated schedule
1)i/p from o/f dpt,o/f shop master schedule
2)shop schedules are updated every two months together with IIa

III)Working scheduling include:


1)assembly,subassembly,part fabrication,monthly schedule
2)yard plan,mold loft issue curves

Accuracy control
the use of statical principles to monitor,control and continously improve
ship building design details,planning and work methods to maximize
productivity.It also provides a quantitative feed back loop b/w
production,planning,design and engineering

Statical principles
1)nothing called absolute accuracy
2)variations from specified dimensionds are always iminent
3)fundamental basis is the theory of probability
4)the dimensions vary from component to component due to inherent
machines characteristics,envt. conditions and workers expertise
5)any important continous probablity distribution is a normal distribution
or Guassian distribution
6)it is the plot of the variation observed in the product.

Shell expansion:
it is a 2d drawing showing the arrangement of plates stiffner, butt
seams and fillets. All vertical dimensions in this drawing are taken around
the girth of the vessel rather than being a direct vertical projection.
This technique illustrates both the side plating and bottom plating as a
continuous whole. This also shows numbering of plates and lettering of
plate strake (R,A,B,....). For reference purpose, the strker run out as a
girth decreases fore and aft.
Shell is expanded in the transverse plane. The girth of the main
deck, tween decks, double bottom, etc is taken at each station and
ordinate are plotted to get the profile and the shell expansion. Bulkheads
are fitted vertically and after that strakes are decided. The plate in
each strake is numbered from aft to forward. The girth of the ship
decreases towards the ends and so the width of the plate must be
decreased. To save making the plate too narrow at the ends, a number of
pairs of adjacent strakes are run into one. The strakes are taken from
midship drawing and the primary members are also plotted. The max size
of the plate is 10X2.5 m and the other checks that are done are the
minimum distance between the butt welds(150mm) minimum distance
between any other two welds are100mm. Butt and seam at the position of
stiffening members should be avoided.

STANDARDISATION:
Standardisation means producing maximum variety of products from
minimum variety of materials, path, tools and process.
Standardisation is one way wich leads to economical
products.Standardisation usually means that non standard products will
not be except when a customer orders them to be made.
Standardisation is the process of establishing standards or units of
means by which extent of quality, quantity, value ,performance etc may
be compared and measured.
ROLL OF STANDARDISATION IN SHIP DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION:
1)Product standardisation
2)Process standardisation
Standardisation by series production:
Design:
:Once a ship having produced for the sister ship, few specifications,
drawings and parts list have to be prepared and issued.
:Thus more time is available to develop new designs or to improve
established designs.
:better resources utilisation is possible.
:allocation of work to available talent. ie a naval architect can specialise
in bow design ,propeller design or resistance calculation etc.

ACQUIRING STANDARDISATION IN DESIGN STAGE:


:With the help of feasibility study, decide what type of ships to be build
in future.
:Define standard type of ships.(coastal tanker, VLCC, DH type etc)
:From thin type of ships, designer to develop minimum variety of ships to
match the range.
:Introduce new materials, components etc if necessary.
:Define the main dimensions of the ship in a standard maner.ie It should
be compatable with existing ship.
:Designing of lines, computer added designs to be used.ie fairing
softwares etc to minimise errors.

IN THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN STAGE[International Satndards]:


:Use plates and stiffeners which are of standard type.
:Use standard type of joints.
:Use materials of standard type.
:Use of standardised equipment and outfit items.Eg::hatches, manholes,
companion ways, doorsn windows, portholes, sanitaryfittings, plumbing
and wiring fittings equipments like pumps etc.

ADVANTAGES OF SERIES PRODUCTION:


a)Reduction cost
:Design cost being spread over several ships.
:Design over head spread over several ships.
:Design due to ordering material and equipment is built.
:Reduced rejuctions and scrap.ie Rework is reduced.

b)Increase in productivity
:Experience gained while building first vessel can be used on the
subsequent identical vessel.

Other advantages:
1)Scope for improved methods and layouts.
2)Opportunities for more efficient design.
3)Greatly reduces pre:production planning activities.
4)Well proven design and methods improve planing and control.
5)Fewer delays arise from waiting for materials, instruction tools etc.
6)Accurate delivery promises.
7)Holding stocks of standard items.
8)Storage and post location can be improved.
9)Better inspection and quality control is possible.
10)Quality standards can be easily defined.
11)In the case of replacing of a ship, if standard items are used, it can
be easily replaced or repaired.

PROCESS STANDARDISATION:
1)Manufacturing process
:welding(welding manual)
:painting scheme
:use of standard machines.Eg::CNC, plasma cutting.
2)Process standards::Eg:: ISO 9000, 9001, EN 14000 etc.
If process are good ,product is guaranteed to be good.
3)Series ship production.

DISADVANTAGES OF STANDARDISATION:
1)Reduction in choice of ships to be build.
2)Changes in owners requirement(type of ship)seriously affect a shipyard
producing a standard type of ship.
3)Difficult to introduce new models because of less flexible production
facilities and due to high cost of specialised production equipment.
4)Favour for large famous shipyards.
5)Standards are set to resist changes and thin standardisation may
become a path to progress

STANNDARDISATION is divided into


1)PRODUCT
It is divided into
i)ISI(industrial) ii)AGMARK(food) iii)STEP(software)
ISI is divided into
BS, BIS, DIN, JIS, NES, GOST

2)PROCESS
i)ISO ii)ISM iii)EN 14000
ISO is divide into 9000 and 9001

STANDARDISATION(as applied in ship building):


:A principle of design for production which aims at achieving repeatibility
in manufacturing process which leads to significant improvement in
productivity.
:The main goal is to develop a group of standard building blocks that can
be combined to produce very different final products.
There are basically 2 types of standards
i)BASIC STANDARDS:It include material and component stand design
stand, o/f stand, production engineering stand, andinspection stand.

Material and component stand:It covers hardware items such as steel


plates, valves, pipe pieces, doors, ladders etc.
O/f and design stand:use standard materials and components to form sb
assemblies and O/f units.
Production engineering stand:It describes the procedures and processes
of production work.
Inspection stand:It details procedures for accuracy control and
inspection.
ii)STANDARD DRAWINGS:It show typical sub assemblies and o/f units
that can be used directly as new designs or guidance for preparing new
drawings.These include drawings for structures assembly, machinery
arrangement, piping layout, o/f unit etc.

WORK INSTRUCTION DESIGN:


:groups design into by the product aspects, problem areas and stage or
the basis of manufacturing process.
:It consists of fitting work instruction for assemblyand ,manufacturing
work instructions for pipe pieces and other componenents.
:regarded as an extension of transition design ito endproducts are yard
plans or simply work instruction plans.
:Material list of fittinng(MLF) and material list for manufacturing a pipe
piece(MLP) or any component(MLC) is attached with each work
instruction design.
WORK INSTRUCTION SCHEDULING:
:It includes preparation of weekly and daily schedules for Assembly, SA,
PF using same patterns.
:Weekly schedule order work to be performed over a 2 week period and
update every week.
:daily schedules regard work to be completed next day and are updated
daily by superiors.