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processing on m different machine. The order in which the m/c is required to process a job is call

process sequence of that job. The process sequences of all the job are the same. But the processing

times for various jobs on a ma/c may differ. If an operation is absent in a job, and then the

processing time of the operation of that job is zero.

2. Set –up time for the operation are sequence independent, and are included in processing

time.

3. Job descriptors are known in advance.

4. m different m/c are continuously available.

5. Each individual operation of jobs is processed till its completion without break.

The main difference of the flow shop scheduling from the basic single

scheduling is that the inserted idle time may be advantageous in flow shop scheduling. Though the

current machine is free, if the job from the previous m/c is not released to be idle for some time.

Hence inserted idle time on some machine would lead to optimality.

Job

1 5 4

2 3 1

3 6 2

4 7 8

If the sequence of the job is 2-1-4-3, then the corresponding makespan is computed as

shown in fig.

In fig. , the makespan is 25. Also, note the inserted idle times on machine 2 are from 0 to 3,

4 to 8 and 12 to 15.

GANTT CHART FOR SEQUENCE 2-1-4-3

Consider another sequence say 3-4-1-2. The Gantt chart for this sequence is

shown in fig.

The makespan for the schedule in fig. is 26. The m/c 2 has idle time

from 0 to 6 and from 8 to 13.

in single machine scheduling, in flow shop scheduling, inserted idle time would minimize

the makespan.

In the above two sequences, 2-1-4-3 and 3-4-1-2, the first sequence

has lesser makespan. Like this one can enumerate all 4! Sequences then select the sequence

with the minimum makespan as the optimal sequence. Since, n! grows exponentially with n,

one needs some efficient procedure to solve the problem for large size of n, it would be

difficult to solve the problem. Under such situation we can use some efficult heuristic.

• JOHNSON’S PROBLEM:-

general flow shop problem is exponential in nature. This means, the function grows

exponentially with an increase in the problem size. But for a problem with 2 machines and

n jobs. Johnson had developed had a polynomial algorithm to get optimal solution in a

definite time one can get the optimal solution.

Consider the following flow shop problem.

i 1 2

1 t11 t12

2 t21 t22

3 t31 t32

: : :

I ti1 ti2

: : :

N tn1 tn2

In the above table, tij represents the processing time of the job I on m/c j.

• JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM:

STEP 1. Find the the minimum among various ti1, and ti2.

STEP 2. If the minimum processing time requires m/c 2, place the associated job in the

last available position in sequence. Go to step3.

STEP 2B. If the minimum processing time requires m/c 2, place the associated job in the

last available position in sequence. Go to step3.

STEP3. Remove the assigned job from consideration and return to step 1 until all positions

in sequence are fill.

• EXAMPLE:-

Consider the following two m/c and six job flow shop

scheduling problem. Using Johnson’s algorithm, obtain the optimal which will minimize

the makespana

I 1 2

1 5 4

2 2 3

3 13 14

4 10 1

5 8 9

6 12 11

SOLUTION:

which is shown below.

tik Sequence

1 1,2,3,4,5,6 t42 4=[6] xxxxx4

2 1,2,3,5,6 t21 2=[1] 2xxxx4

3 1,3,5,6 t12 1=[5] 2xxx14

4 3,5,6 t51 5=[2] 25xx14

5 3,6 t62 6=[4] 25x614

6 3 t31 3=[3] 253614

The makespan is determined as shown below.

In the following table.

Time-in on M\c 2=max [M\c 1 time-out of the current job, M/c 2 time-out of the previous

job]

PROCESSING TIME

M/C-1 M/C-2

Job time-in time-out time-in time-out idle time on m/c

2

2 o 2 2 5 2

5 2 10 10 19 5

3 10 23 23 37 4

6 23 35 37 48 0

1 35 40 48 52 0

4 40 50 52 53 0

The makespan for this schedule is 53. The makespan can aloes be

obtained using Gantt chart which is shown in fig.

table.

One can extend John son’s algorithm to the problem shown in

table if any one the following two condition is satisfied.

If min ti3 > max ti2

the Johnson’s algorithm in the following way.

table

The objective is to obtain optimal sequence for the data given in the

table the makespan is to be determined for the optimal sequence by using the data of the

original problem shown in table

using an example problem.

M/C-A M/C-B

1 t11+t12 t12+t13

2 t21+t22 t22+t23

3 t31+t32 t32+t33

; ; ;

I ti1+ti2 ti2+ti3

; ; ;

N tn1+tn2 tn2+tn2

• BRANCH AND BOUND TECHNIQUE:-

Ignall and Schrage and indecently by lomnicki. The underlying branching tree has the same

structure as the tree shown in the single machine scheduling problem except that δ

represents a partial permutation occurring at the beginning of the sequence instead of at the

end. In other words the job sequence is constructed in a forward direction while proceeding

down the branching tree. For each node on the tree a lower bound on the makespan

associated whit the completion of the corresponding partial sequence δ is obtained by

considering the work remaining on each machine. To illustrate the procedure for m=3, the

required terminologies are presented below.

Let,

δ1 denote the set of jobs that are not contained in the partial permutation δ.

For a given partial sequence δ, let.

q1 be the latest completion time on m/c 1 among jobs in δ.

q2 the latest completion time on m/c 2 among jobs in δ, and

q3 the latest completion time on m/c 3 among jobs in δ.

Σ1 tj1

j€δ

Moreover suppose that a particular job K is the last job in the sequence.

Under this situation, after the job K is process on m/c 1, it will take atleast time units on m/c

2 and m/c 3 before the whole schedule is completed.

In the most favorable situation the last job.

(a) encounters no delay between the completion of an the start of its diredt successor

(b) has the minimum sum (tj2 + tj3) among jobs j € δ1.

j€δ j€δ

Similar reasoning applied to the processing on the processing, yet required on m/c 2 yields a

second lower bound.

j€δ j€δ

Finally, a lower bound based on the processing yet required on m/c 3 is

b3 = q3 + Σ1 tj3

The fine lower bound using an example problem.

• CDS HEURISTIC:-

solution in finite time, since the flow shop scheduling is a combinatorial problem. This

means the time complexity function of flow shop problem is exponential in nature.

CDS(Campbell, Dudek and Smith) heuristic is one such heuristic used for flow shop

scheduling

The CDS heuristic corresponds to multistage use of johnson’s rule to a new problem formed

from the original with processing time.

At stage 1,

t1j1 = tj1 and t1j2 = tjm

in other words, jonson’s rule is applied to the first and m th opetion

and intermediate operation are ignored.

At stage 2,

t2j1 = tj1 + tj2, t2j2 = tjm + tjm-1,

that is Johnson’s rule is applied to the sum of the first two and the last

two operation processing times. In general at stage i.

At stage 2,

i i

2 i

t j1 = ∑ tjk, and t j2 = ∑ tj m-1

k=1 k=1

for each stage I (I = 1,2,…., m-1), the job order obtained is used to

calculate a makeswpan for the original problem. After m-1, stages the best makerpan among

the m-1 schedules is identified.

• JOB SHOP SCHEDULING:-

operations. If some of the jobs are having less than m operation, number of dummy

operation with zero process time are assumed. By this assumption the condition of equal

number of operations for all the jobs is ensured. In job shop scheduling problem the process

sequence of the job . hence the flow of each job in job shop scheduling is not unidirectional.

in nature. Hence heuristic approaches are popular in this area.

Unlike the flow shop model, there is initial m/c that performs only the

first operation of a job, nor is there a terminal m/c that performs only the last operation of a

job.

In the flow shop an operation number in the operation sequence of a

job may be same as the position number of the required m/c. hence there is no need to

distinguish between them. But in the in the job shop case different jobs will have different

operation sequences. So we cannot assume a straight flow for the job shop problem will be

described with triplet where k is the required m/c for processing the jth operation of the ith

job.

Consider the following data of a job shop scheduling involving four

jobs three operation and hence three machines.

The first table consists of operation processing times and the second table consist of

operation sequences of the jobs. The set of machines required for a given job constitute a

routing.

For example, job 4 has routing of 1-2-3.

GANTT CHRAT

• Types of schedules:-

job shop problem one can insert any arbitrary amount of idle time at any machine between

adjacent pairs of operation. There idle time are not useful in any sense. In fact these will

lead to non-optimal solution while minimizing makespan measure.

The number of semi-active schedules is finite and is less than the

total number of possible schedules.

constrained either by (a)processing a different job on the same machine or (b) by processing

the directly preceding operation on n different m/c. in the former case where the completion

of an earlier operation on the same m/c is constrained it may still be possible to find

obvious means of improvement . even when no local-sheriffs are possible a better

scheduled on some machine. This type of adjustment in which some operation is begun

earlier without delaying any other operation is called a global left-shift or simply a left-

shift.

The set of active schedules dominates the set of semi active schedule

in terms of optimizing any regular measure of performance. So it is sufficientto consider

only active schedules.

possible. There is on guarantee that the non-delay subset will contain an optimum. The

Venn diagram showing the relative sizes between sdifferent types of schedules is shown in

the following fig. there will be at least one optimal schedule in the set of active schedules.

• SCHEDULE GENERATION:-

In job shop scheduling schedule is generated by taking the various aspect which we

discussed earlier such that the final schedule has a better value for an assumed measure of

performance. So the process of schedule generation is considered to be very important

phase in job shop scheduling. A generation procedure can be classified as a single-pass

mechanism or an adjusting mechanism.

fixed. Therefore a full shedder can be generated with a single-pass through the list of

operation are added to the scheduling.

In these procedures an operation will be considered only when all of

its predecessors have been schedule. The number of stages for a one-pass procedure is equal

to the number of operations or nm(no. of jobs x no. of operation)

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