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EXPERIMENT NO.

10
Aim: To study about Line of Balance techniques.

Introduction

Generally the precedence structure of finished products consists of more than


one sub assembly component each of the subassemblies components in the product
structure is termed as a process stage which clearly demarcates the completion of a
particular activity of the product line of balance is a technique which is used to find out
the state of complication of various process pages of a product which has limited
production volume at a given time.

Generally MRP system is applied when a product has too many process stages,
long lead time and large production volume. But in many situations the product will have
limited volume and small lead time. Under such situation, usage of MRP system will be
uneconomical. Hence , LOB is considered to be a suitable technique for finding out the
status of completion of different process stages which are involved in manufacturing a
product.

Here the actual level of completion of each process stage is compared with its
expected level of completion at a given time. This would help us in finding out the
backlog at each process stage of the product, and take appropriate action to expedite
the activities of that process stage to cope up with the targeted level of production.

This kind of status review of the product may be done at each process stage of
the product. Based on the feedback, one can initiate corrective action to expedite
things, if necessary, at each process stage. Therefore, the line of balance (LOB) is the
scale against which the progress is measured at a given time. The actual progress is
represented by a LOB chart.
Application areas of LOB

Some application areas where LOB can be applied are listed below:

Production of aircraft.

Production of missiles.

Production of heavy machineries.

Production of special equipments.

Application software development projects which are having more or less similar

modules.

From the above examples, one can notice a unique feature production
volume because of restricted demand.

Line of balance:

Many types of projects contain repeated blocks of activities. Examples of these kinds of
projects include road and high-rise construction. In both of these types of projects there
is a set of tasks repeated across many work areas. Arrow and Precedence
Diagramming are both able to model these types of schedules effectively. The Line-of-
Balance (also known as the Vertical Production Method) is a graphical technique that
can be used in conjunction with Arrow or Precedence Diagrams.

In the Line-of-Balance diagram, the x-axis represents (as in the bar chart) the timeline of
the project. The y-axis identifies the work areas that define the project. The blank chart
below is the starting point for the Line-of-Balance schedule
As crews arrive on the project, they begin at the first work area and move through the
project. In the figure below, Activity A has a total duration of 10 weeks. Spread across
each of the work areas the productivity of Activity A can be shown to be 2 weeks per
floor.

Now consider the implication of an Activity B that has a productivity of one week per
floor. If we try to start Activity B as soon as possible, then the start of activity B on the
first floor can occur at the end of week 2.
As we continue to add Activity B throughout the remaining work areas we can see that
Activity B starts on the second floor, at the end of week 4; on the third floor, at the end
of week 6 and so on; as shown in the diagram below.

The breaks in the Activity B line, shown as red dashed lines above, are significant. This
gap means that the crew is waiting around for Activity A to clear out before it can start.
In the case of the project above, starting work as soon as you can will result in a lost
productivity of 4 crew weeks.

The diagram below shows that you should delay starting Activity B for four weeks. If you
do that, then you will keep the crew productive for their entire stay on your project. If you
were running a real project, you might include a bit extra time in case things backup, but
you would likely not start Activity B as soon as it could start!
Use of graphical methods, such as the Line-of-Balance method result in a common
understanding of how crews follow one another through the job work areas. Such an
immediate, intuitive understanding of the project is often not possible with the output
provided by commonly used software products.

A key conclusion for you to remember regardless of what computer program you use, if
you don’t understand what it’s doing to your projects crew productivities, you will not be
able to control costs on your projects.

As a result the Line-of-Balance diagram is an essential communication and productivity


analysis tool for projects that have repetitive work areas.

Input to LOB
The list of input to LOB is given below:

Product structure.

Monthly production volume of the product.

Time of review.

Cumulative units of production at each process stage.


Steps of LOB
The steps of LOB are listed below:

Step 1: draw the process plan for producing one unit of the product using the
product structure.

Step 2: Construct a cumulative delivery schedule and corresponding graph.

Step 3: Construct LOB chart by the side of the cumulative delivery schedule
graph for a given time period.

Step 4: For each process stage, find the status of completion. If the process
stage is the final process stage, go to step 4a; otherwise, go to step 4b.

Step 4a: Draw a vertical line through the period of review in the cumulative
delivery schedule graph interesting the cumulative delivery schedule curve. This point of
intersection represents the expected cumulative number of units to be produced in that
process stage at that time. Then draw a horizontal line from this point of intersection up
to the vertical strip corresponding to the process stage under consideration in the
progress chart.

Inference:

(i) If the horizontal line is above the tip of the vertical strip corresponding to
the process stage of interest in the progress chart, then it indicates that
the actual cumulative number of units to be produced in that process
stage is less than the expected cumulative number of unit to be produced
in that process stage at that point of time.

(ii) If the horizontal line is below the tip of the vertical strip corresponding to
the process stage of interest in the progress chart, then it indicates that
the process stage has already produced excess cumulative number of
units than required at that point of time.

(iii) If the horizontal line touches the tip of the vertical strip corresponding to
the process stage of interest in the progress chart, then it indicates that
the process stage has produced exact cumulative number of unit that is
required at that point of time.

Step 4b: Add the lead time of the process stage of interest, and lead times of
various other process stages if they exist in between the process stage of
interest and the final process stage of the product, to the period of review. Let
this added value be T.

Draw a vertical line through the time T in the cumulative delivery schedule
intersecting the cumulative delivery schedule curve. The rest of the process is
similar as in step 4a.