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CVP Analysis


CVP analysis shows the relationship
among the various ingrediants of profit
planning namely unit sale price,
variable cost , sales volume , sales mix
and fixed cost.

CVP analysis is a management
accounting tool to show the relationship
between these ingrediants of profit
Break-Even Analysis
● A Break-even analysis is concerned with the study
of revenues and cost in relation to sales volume
and particularly the determination of that volume
of sales at which the firms revenues and total
costs will be exactly equal.
● BEP may be defined as a point at which the firm's
total revenues are exactly equal to total cost,
yielding zero income.
Cash Break-Even Point

Cash Break-even point is total cash fixed
cost divided by contribution margin per

For this purpose fixed cost are divided
into cash fixed cost such as salaries,
rent etc and non- cash fixed cost such as
depreciation , deferred expenses etc.
Important terms and concepts in CVP

Fixed cost : It represents those expenses which
do not vary in total with the change in volume
of output for a given period of time.

Variable cost : It represents those expenses
which increase or decrease in proportion to the
output and sales.

Contribution : The excess of selling price over
and above the variable cost is known as
P / V or Contribution ratio

Profit volume ratio ,Contribution ratio or
Marginal ratio reveals the rate of
contribution per product as a percentage
of turnover.

A high P/v ratio indicates high
profitability and low P/v ratio indicates
low profitability.
Margin Of Safety

It is the amount by which the actual volume of sales
exceeds the break-even sales.

A high margin of safety indicates that the concern will
make profits even if there is a fall in production or

A low margin indicates that fixed costs are high and
profit cannot be made unless sales are increased to
absorb the fixed costs or the selling price is increased
or costs are reduced or a profitable product is made to
substitute an existing product.
Applications of Marginal Costing

Pricing Decisions

Make or Buy decision

Problem of key factor

Selection of a suitable product / sales mix

Level of activity planning

Shut down decision

Discontinuance of a product line

Formulae for CVP Analysis

Marginal cost = Variable costs

Contribution = Sales – Variable Cost

= Fixed Cost + Profit

P/v ratio = Contribution * 100


BEP ( units ) = Fixed Cost * 100

Contribution per unit

BEP ( Rs ) = Fixed Cost / Pv ratio
Margin of Safety ( units ) = Actual Sales – BEP

Margin of Safety ( Rs ) = Profit / Pv ratio

Desired sales ( units ) = Fixed cost + Desired Profit

Contribution per unit

Desired Sales ( Rs ) = Fixed cost + Desired Profit

P/v ratio