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A TEACHERS’ JOURNEY: PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY ON PURITIVE

BEHAVIORAL STANDARDS OF STUDENTS WITH


BROKEN FAMILY

Nova Hebron-Ariston Edith SA. Delos Santos, Ed. D


Master Teacher I, Pililla National High School Principal II, Pililla National High School

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to identify the authentic behavioral standards
of the students with broken family. This was conducted at Pililla
National High School, Pililla Rizal, and school year 2018-2019. The
researcher used purposive sampling technique, which is a type of non-
probability sampling procedure in which the respondents were selected
from the target population based on fit with the purposes of the study
and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using the cited criteria
set by the researchers, the respondents comprised 34 senior high school
students or 11 percent on the total enrolment of 297 Pililla National
High School for Senior High School with broken family. This study
utilized the mix method of research in which the researcher combines
the elements of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The study used
the researchers made questionnaire, which includes the profile of the
respondents as Part I and behavioral standards and belonging of the
respondents in Part II. To identify the puritive behavioral standards of
the students with broken family, the respondents will be given the
researchers made questionnaire to answer and identify the quantitative
and qualitative responses in each questions which frequency,
percentage and rank distribution was utilized. It was found out that
majority of the respondents with broken family are female aged 15-19
or belong to adolescent period with 10, 000 below monthly family
income or lower class household. On the qualitative data, the
researchers found out that there are two puritive behavioral standards
and belonging occurred after separation of parent; first qualitative
results was pertaining to the students’ behavioral breakdown and
positive behavioral breakthrough. It was also found out that there were
behavioral bumps manifested on the students after parents’ separation,
these were bad temper, moody, rebellious and hurt other people’s
feelings. There are visible bound to have feelings of sadness that made
the students irritable or snappy, worrying about little things, feeling
lazy, bored and tired. Students were also experience sleep
disturbances, nightmares, sleeping at all times or no sleep at all. On
the other hand, families can have expectations on the offspring’
behavior and the roles of parents and guardian. Even though, students
could have single parent, and have female-headed households with
beliefs about what helps strong relationships are influences by values
and experiences that mother or guardian exposed while offspring are
growing up. Still, the offspring could not feel the sadness and being
alone.

KEYWORDS: Puritive Behavioral Standards, Behavioral


Standards and Belonging, Phenomenological Approach, Broken Family
Introduction is one of the strengths of the family, which
Family is the basic components of all members share values and beliefs, which
the society. It is composed of a father, a create a true meaning of belonging and
mother and offspring which bonded by bonding.
unconditional love for each other. It also Even so, there as much as
plays a crucial role in molding students’ devastating matters regarding family
personality. It is also an essential factor for relationships like parent’s separation,
a human’s whole being; attitude, family problems and misunderstanding
background and achievements like honors within the family members leading to major
and dignity relies on the structure of the cause of single parent or broken families
family a student lives with. The way the that could give an impact to the students’
students act towards other people could be behavior. A family in which the parents
accounted to the people whom they often separated is said to be disruptive to the
mingle with, and it is called as “parents”. students’ life no matter how carefully
In line with this, parents are the protected by the parents. Over time, the
most important source of behavior that students will come to accept the new
might change students’ outlook in life. The “normal”, but recognize that it will take
very important part of parenting job is to time for this acceptance to happen and that
nurture the students while growing up. It is behavioral bumps will occur along the way.
through loving and supportive early parent- It has been noted throughout the
child relationships that the foundations for Philippines specifically to e-Journal of
future healthy relationships are formed. Education that students’ misbehaviors such
The other part of the parents’ job is to as disruptive talking, chronic avoidance of
provide structure for the students. In this work, clowning, interfering with teaching
role, parents usually give direction, impose activities, harassing classmates, verbal
rules, use discipline, set limits, establish insults, rudeness to teacher, defiance and
and follow through with consequences, the hostility are some major issues oftentimes
students accountable for their behavior and reported and recorded in the school’s
teach values. In general, it is a mixture of guidance office.
both involvement and control that will help Apparently, teachers faced
the students acquire the internal resources disturbing behaviors in the classroom are
needed to succeed. intolerable and stress provoking, and need
Research indicates no amount of to spend a great deal of time and energy to
formal teaching can compare to the manage the classroom. Obviously,
influences of parents have on the offspring, students’ misbehaviors retard the
by word and by example. And, with the smoothness and effectiveness of teaching
early years being the most significant stage and impede the learning of the students and
in life, in order to develop the students’ the whole class (Sun et.al 2012).
sense of security, social awareness and This has been one of the major
confidence in learning, the importance of problem in the school setting where
taking on the role of parents as first teacher teachers always struggling on the
and how this could be given to the student effectiveness of the lesson that commonly
a head-start of building a home. believed to be the cause of student’s
Furthermore, home is where a mislead in life. From the findings of
family lives which may be alternated to the Thompson (2009), it was shown that the
world “house”, but a house is more students’ misbehavior not only escalated
appropriately referring to the materials the time but also lowered the academic
structure, whereas “house” refers to the achievement and increased delinquent
intangible things that binds the family behavior.
members together. A sense of togetherness
As stated by Dr. William Sears supposed to be enrolled in Senior High
(2018) at Askdrsears.com, the younger School for the school year 2018-2019.
child’s behavior commonly regress after On the other hand, Pililla National
the separation because of uncertainties and High School has a total enrolment of 297
worries that the other parent will no longer Senior High School ranging 15-19 years old
be around as much. has 34 students or 11 percent with broken
In relation to the previous family or separated parents. This result
statement, given that household income might become a big factor on the goal of the
explains a part of the negative effect of educational institution to give the quality
single parenthood on educational aspiration basic education. Thus, the school
and student disengagement, income support undertook comprehensive theoretical
for single-parent families seems to be modeling among students status and
critical policy. However, the negative promote factors at multiple levels of the
effects of single parenthood especially due social environment, including family, peer,
to separation remain significant even after school, and neighborhood contexts.
controlling for household income suggests In line with this educational
that other social and cultural programs institution goal, according to Honorable Sol
should be available for parents and their Aragones (2016) in House Bill No. 4742,
children to deal with parental separation Section 1 (b) states that;
(Park, 2008). “Recognize and promote
Aside from academic failure, the responsibility of the State to
Department of Education through the create and sustain an enabling
cooperation of Regional Statistics environment for adolescents to
Committee and National Economic and enable them to achieve their
Developmental Authority (NEDA) Region development aspirations and
IV-A sought for other aspects to where the potentials as well as mobilize them
effect of broken family is extremely felt by to positively contribute to the
many students today. As reflected to the development of the nation”.
report on CALABARZON 2017 Regional
Social Economic Trends, the total The goal structures of educational
household population of 11,503,934, there institution have proven to be helpful in
are 215,757 household are reported with understanding how students construct
separated parents. The province of Rizal meaning about what constitutes successful
obtained the 2,283,849 total household achievement in school. Schools, through
population with 44,335 or 1.9 percent their policies and practices, can emphasize
recorded as with separated parents. improvement, mastery, and intellectual
In line with this, Luis G. Banua, development or social comparison, relative
Chairperson, Regional Statistics ability, and competition among students.
Committee and Regional Director, National Furthermore, Pililla National High
Economic and Development Authority of School setting of goal is to get the evidence
Region IV-A together with Charito C. that students’ perceptions of the goals
Armonia, Vice-Chairperson, Regional emphasized in the school as a whole are
Statistics Committee and Regional related to their personal achievement goals,
Director, Philippine Statistics Authority of feelings of academic efficacy, use of
Region IV-A reiterated that there are effective learning strategies, and in-school
1,167,236 in the Region of behavior even without complete
CALABARZON belong to age bracket of composition of family. This might bring
15-19 and 286,107 or 24.5 percent are from the students desire to become good
the province of Rizal. Through this result, individual and better person.
24.5 percent of the population of Rizal are
In addition, growing attentions that teenagers are the risk for anti-social
given in the school is focused on promoting behavior. Oftentimes becomes aggressive
puritive behavioral standards among and violent. Thus in an early age, they are
students are advised for the positive already involves to criminal behavior. This
students development, encouraging health is due to lack of parental attachment.
promoting behavior, and investing Likewise, teenagers’ anti-social behavior
resources for youth. also depends on the quality of their
attachments to parents and other influential
Literature Review relations.
Students specifically adolescence is According to Soriano (2010),
a critical developmental period in delinquency is also part of the behavioral
everyone’s life. The stage where family problems of the teenagers. He stated that
stress is the most common cause of students’ delinquency is a criminal or
behavioral problems of the students, antisocial behavior of the adolescents. The
parental separation and stepfamilies are the causes of adolescents’ delinquency from
origins of a broken home. However, most theories have focused on children
students becomes risk-taking due to from disadvantaged families, ignoring the
economic hardship, quality of parenting, fact that children from affluent homes also
and exposure to stress. According to Ahron commit crimes. The latter may commit
(2007), the effort and care that parents put crimes because of the lack of adequate
into establishing their post separation parental control.
families are crucial and will pay off over the Similarly, undergoing these
years in their many benefits to the children. circumstances, it will not be surprising if
The significant disadvantages of these sacrificed the health of the students
children from single-parent or broken that might cause any kind of students
families, especially those who experienced experience physical and mental symptoms
parental separation have important such as fatigue, insomnia, tooth grinding at
implications for stratification and night, headaches, depression, anxiety and
inequality in the recent trend of increasing panic attacks, irritability, and panic
number of separated parents. behavior, low immunity, and palpitations.
In the changing demographic According to Magpantay (2014),
environment, family structure is emerging students belonging to broken family are
as an important mechanism through which exposed to more stressful experiences and
intergenerational transmission of circumstances than those are living with
socioeconomic status occurs. Given that continuously married parents. It build up
household income explains a part of the behavioral problems on cognitive, social
negative effect of single parenthood on and emotional standpoint. Usually, things
educational aspiration and students’ like decision-making, actions and words of
disengagement, income support for single- the student would correspond to how they
parent families seems to be a critical policy. look on their situation. It can be a good or
Moreover, Park (2008) states that the bad outcome, but mostly, the latter.
relative importance of parent child The most common cause of
interaction for single parent families behavioral problems of the students
implies that special policy focus should be nowadays is family stress. Students
directed to strengthen the positive become risk-taking due to economic
relationship between a single parent and hardship, which oftentimes established
offspring. after the separation of the parents.
In relationship to the above Likewise, Doughty (2008) states that
statements, Social Development Theory by students suffer badly from parental break-
Weis, Catalano, and Hawkins (2010) states up, and that those who are brought up by a
single parent are more likely to do badly at have greatly enhanced the public’s
school, suffer poor health, and fall into awareness of school safety and discipline.
crime, addiction and poverty as adults. This reason has prompted the researcher to
The report reflected on the identify the positive behavior support could
Department of Health and National give by promoting positive school
Statistics Office that emotional disorders environment, free from school violence and
ranked as those that cause considerable disruptive behavior.
distress and interference with the way in
which students perform at school and Research Questions
during play. This research entitled “A Teacher’s
In this case, teacher in school must Journey: Phenomenological Study of
be often too quick to identify parents’ Puritive Behavioral Standards of Students
separation as one of the main reason for with Broken Family” is designed primarily
students’ school behavior problem. Most to answer and investigate questions
people in the society pointed out the parents regarding behavioral standards of student
separation is a reason for a wide range of who belong to broken family.
greater social problems, which usually Specifically, this study sought to
looked at conduct disorders resulted to answer the following questions;
aggressiveness, violence or anti-social 1. What is the profile of the
behavior of students. respondents in terms of;
On the other hand, as the bearer of 1.1 age;
quality basic education, which collaborates 1.2 gender; and
the importance of teachers responsibilities 1.3 monthly family income?
for students, putting aside some time to 2. What are the behavioral
look after teacher-student relationship in standards and belonging of the
school will become priority. Building and respondents with broken
maintaining positive relationships with family?
students will strengthen positive 3. From the findings of the study,
experiences and outweigh difficult ones. what intervention program may
As stated by Connell et. Al. (2008), a major be developed?
tenet of prevention is that a program that
tightly links developmental and Scope and Limitation
intervention which likely to provide This study is focused on “A
effective strategies for reducing student and Teacher’s Journey; Phenomenological
adolescent maladjustment and preventing Study on the Puritive Behavioral Standards
the occurrence of more serious forms of of Students with Broken Family”. This was
problem behavior, such as delinquency, conducted at Pililla National High School,
anti-social behavior and deviant peer Pililla Rizal, and school year 2018-2019.
association. The respondents of the study were
Problem behavior in students is 34 senior high school students who belong
particularly salient because of the possible to broken family and were chosen using
social emotional and cognitive harm and purposive sampling technique.
potential life course implications and Table 1
eventual costs to society. Understanding Respondents of the Study
the developmental factors associated with
challenging behavior, positive or negative,
is a very complex phenomenon.
According to Skiba and Peterson as
cited by Christensen et. Al (2008), dramatic
occurrences of school violence in the past
The study used the researchers students with broken family and validated
made test which includes the profile of the by the experts and guidance counselors.
respondents as Part I and personal After the approval of the
belonging and perception of the questionnaire. The researcher personally
respondents in Part II. distributed the questionnaire to the
To identify the puritive behavioral respondents who were enrolled in Pililla
standards of the students with broken National High School for the School Year
family, the respondents will be given the 2018-2019, purposively students with
researchers made test to answer and broken family.
identify the quantitative and qualitative The statistical evaluation of the raw
responses in each questions. data was computed; to identify the data in
the profile of the respondents with broken
Research Methodology family, frequency, percentage and rank
This study utilized the mix method distribution was used. Second question,
of research in which the researcher which identifies the personal belonging and
combines the elements of qualitative and perception of the respondents with broken
quantitative approaches. According to family, frequency, percentage and rank
Creswell (2013), this refers to an emergent distribution, was utilized.
methodology of research that advances the The perception of the respondents
systematic integration or mixing of in each item which requires the qualitative
quantitative and qualitative data within a data were also collected and grouped
single investigation or sustained program of according to the similarity of the
inquiry. The basic premise of this respondents’ answer.
methodology is that such integration
permits a more complete and synergic Discussion of Results
utilization of data than do separate This part of the research presents the
quantitative and qualitative data collection analysis and interpretation of data based on
and analysis. the research questions.

a. Sampling Table 2 presents the frequency,


The researcher used purposive percentage and rank distribution of the
sampling technique, which is a type of non- profile of the respondents.
probability sampling procedure in which Table 2
the respondents were selected from the Frequency, Percentage and Rank
target population based on fit with the Distribution of the Respondents in
purposes of the study and specific inclusion Terms of Profile
and exclusion criteria.
Using the above criteria set by the
researcher, the respondents comprised 34
senior high school students or 11 percent on
the total enrolment of 297 Pililla National
High School for Senior High School with
broken family.

b. Data Collection
The researcher first scanned and
browsed related literature and studies and
samples of questionnaires. Then developed
the researcher made questionnaire for
The table shows that there are 20 place that demands special attention to the
respondents or 58 percent belong to 15-19 most number of individuals which could be
age bracket, followed by age bracket 20-24 seen in school. It is important to remember
with 7 frequency or 21 percent, 25-29 age that some types of protective factors that
bracket with 5 frequency or 15 percent and may be very visible to the students are such
last, 30 above age bracket with 2 as related to family and school.
respondents or 6 percent. According to Ubial (2012),
On the other hand, female have 21 adolescent is a period of rapid
or 62 percent and male have 13 or 38 development, physical, hormonal,
percent on the distribution of respondents in neurological and psychological changes
terms of gender. Otherwise, monthly make this is a time of adventure and
family income, 31 of the respondents or 91 learning.
percent belong to 10, 000 below, while 10, On the other hand, if the students
001 – 19, 999 bracket obtained 2 or 6 were in the period of adjustments of having
percent, and 20, 000 above have 1 or 3 a broken home. An educational institution
percent of the total respondents. should be the students’ figure of family
It could be gleaned from the table belonging. The effort of integrated
that, majority of the respondents were 15- students’ positive behavioral standards and
19 age bracket. Female outnumbered male development may depend on how well the
and most of the respondents have a monthly educational institution has managed to
family income ranging from 10, 000 below. provide proper care in all areas.
This means that majority of the
respondents with broken family are female Table 3 presents the frequency,
aged 15-19 or belong to adolescent period percentage and rank distribution on the
with 10, 000 below monthly family income personal belonging and perceptions of the
or lower class household. respondents and its qualitative results.
This was supported by the study Family is known to be the most
conducted by Tamas (2010), which states important and potent part of students’
that children in intact families who behavioral standards and belonging.
experience parents’ separation perform Parents must manage the basic behavioral
worse academically. It was found out that needs of their offspring in emotional,
female are more vulnerable than male. personal and social matters. But the
Teacher took the extra help for the learners problem of students’ development
to explain and understand the situation in a associated with behavioral standards and
positive manner. belonging to the broken families which
Adolescents (aged 15-19) like become really very serious matter. Broken
senior high school students are one of the families’ increases day by day and so the
most rapid and formative phases of human problem on students’ behavioral standards
development, and the distinctive physical, and belonging reach its highest rate.
cognitive, social and emotional that take
Table 3
Frequency, Percentage and Rank Distribution on the Behavioral Standards
and Belonging of the Respondents
BEHAVIORAL STANDARDS AND FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE RANK
BELONGING
1. With whom are you living with
Mother 21 62 1
Father 4 12 3
Guardian 9 26 2
TOTAL 34
2. Since when did you experience having a
broken family?
Birth 11 32 1
1-3 years ago 8 24 3
4-6 years ago 5 15 4
Recent years 10 29 2
TOTAL 34
3. My life will not be complete without
my….
Mother 26 76 1
Father 8 24 2
TOTAL 34
4. What is your idea/s why their
relationship does not work?
Financial problem 3 9 4
Third party 14 41 1
Problem with relatives 4 12 3
Others 13 38 2
TOTAL 34
5. How many friends do you have?
8 and above 33 97 1
4-7 0 0 3
1-3 1 3 2
TOTAL 34
6. Does having a broken family have a
negative effect on your social life?
Yes 23 68 1
No 11 32 2
TOTAL 34
7. What are your advantages of having a
broken family?
More independent 16 47 1.5
More responsible 16 47 1.5
Others 2 6 3
TOTAL 34
8. What are your advantages of having a
broken family?
Less caring 9 26 2
Attention will be lessen 8 24 3
Low grades 10 29 1
Others 7 21 4
TOTAL 34
9. What becomes the negative effect of you
having a broken family?
Rebelling 13 39 1
Disrespecting others 0 0 4
Bad temper 10 29 3
Others 11 32 2
TOTAL 34
positive behavioral breakthrough, with which
The Students’ Behavioral Breakdown most of the respondents lived with the
It was found out that there were mother.
behavioral bumps manifested on the students Families can have expectations on the
after parents’ separation, these were bad offspring’ behavior and the roles of parents
temper, moody, rebellious and hurt other and guardian. Even though, students could
people’s feelings. There are visible bound to have single parent, and have female-headed
have feelings of sadness that made the households with beliefs about what helps
students irritable or snappy, worrying about strong relationships are influences by values
little things, feeling lazy, bored and tired. and experiences that mother or guardian
Students were also experience sleep exposed while offspring are growing up.
disturbances, nightmares, sleeping at all Still, the offspring could not feel the sadness
times or no sleep at all. and being alone.
Undergoing such circumstances, it It was noted by Park (2008), even in
will not be surprising if the health of the developing societies have found no
students will also be sacrificed. It is revealed apparently negative effects of single
that most of the time, students experience parenthood. Students with female-headed
physical and mental symptoms such as too households tended to have greater
much thinking leading to insomnia, educational opportunities in terms of school
headaches, depression, anxiety and panic enrollments and attainment relative to
attacks, irritability and panic behavior. students in male-headed households.
To support the statements, Social This was supported by the statement
Development Theory by Weis et al as cited of Price (2017), that there are differences
by Magpantay (2014), students behavior within cultures, whose guardian or carers
depends on the quality of parents’ value the offspring, having a definite and
attachments, if students remain unattached or positive support network of friends and
develop attachments to deviant others, environment can make a big difference in the
students behavior may become deviant as students behavioral standards and belonging.
well. The social development model Grandparents specially mother-figure like
suggests that interaction with anti-social carer can provide safety, security and care for
peers and adults promotes participation in developing a feeling of sense of belonging
delinquency and substance abuse. within the household.
According to Tamas (2015), From the findings and results, the
consequences of broken family always lead researchers drawn the Students Attitudinal
to negative outcomes, including change in Grade Intervention Program (project
academic achievement. Much less attention SAGIP). This intervention program is
of parents has been paid to examining the intended for the students at risk of dropping
extent to which the drop in academic out which includes positive behavioral
achievement could be attributed to factors implementation plan. This simply represent
that already existed prior to the parents’ a set of comprehensive strategies and
separation. intervention that elaborates the ideas that
modify each individual students’ positive
The Students’ Positive Behavioral behavior.
Breakthrough This intervention program also
It was revealed that students with conducts functional behavioral assessments
separation of parents occur since birth have and address students behavior in a positive
approach. The contents of this intervention students confusions and behavioral bumps
program includes: prevention strategies, especially to those students who experienced
teaching appropriate behavior, increasing of having broken family
appropriate behavior and reinforcement and This was supported by the School-
strategies for effective behavior Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and
management. Supports of Dunlop et al (2010), which states
This will be intended for the positive that intervention program for behavioral
behavioral approach for classroom, positive standards could give a noticeable difference
behavioral approach for home, and positive in the students behavior by handling new
behavioral approach for self. ways of discovering problems in the
Each module will elaborate the classroom with appropriate communication
importance of having positive behavioral and improved ways.
approach and its strategies to eliminate the

Advocacy Plans and Dissemination


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