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ECE 4270

ECE 4270 Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing

Fundamentals of
Digital Signal Processing Lecture 1:
Course Logistics & Introduction

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering


Georgia Institute of Technology
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Summer Semester, 2004 Georgia Institute of Technology
Summer Semester, 2004

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #1 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #2

Course Objectives Course Topics

• To establish the idea of using computing techniques • Discrete-index signals • Discrete & Fast Fourier
to alter the properties of a signal for desired effects, Transform
via understanding of • Linear systems
– Fundamentals of discrete-time, linear, shift-invariant signals • z-Transforms • Special Filtering Topics
and systems in • Sampling & – Inverse & Matched
• Representation: sampling and quantization; Filtering
Quantization
• Processing: filtering and transform techniques;
• Frequency Response • Time-Frequency Analysis
• Processing System Design: filter & processing
algorithm design. • IIR and FIR Filters • Non-linear Filtering
– Efficient computational algorithms and their implementation.
• Filter Design Techniques
• To gain preliminary experience in computational • Symbolic Processing*
processing of real signal and to relate the above
understanding to real world scenario

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #3 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #4
Prerequisites Instructor Info & Office Hours

• ECE3075 • Prof. B.H. Juang


– Random Signals • Class Hours: MWF 1200-1310
– probability density functions, correlation, power • Office Hours
spectral densities, moments – MW 1400-1530, BH310
• Also should have prior exposure to linear systems – Or by appointment
analysis and transform analysis • Resources:
– convolution and filtering – http://users.ece.gatech.edu/~juang
– Fourier transforms • Contact info:
– Laplace and z transforms – GCATT 341
– Phone: 404-894-6618
– E-mail: juang@ece.gatech.edu

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #5 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #6

Grading Schedule Tests & Homework


Tests
• 2 Random Quizzes (20 minutes each)
Weight • 2 Scheduled Quizzes (70 minutes each)
– June 4 and June 30
Quiz #1 20% – Open book, open notes
• Final Exam
Quiz #2 20% – July 28, 2004, 1450-1740
– Open book, open notes; Comprehensive
Random Quizzes 10% Homework
• Textbook has “basic problems with answers”, “basic problems”,
Homework 20% “advanced problems”, and “extension problems”; homework mostly
from first 2 categories, some from 3rd
Final Exam 30% • Weekly; due 1 week after assignment
• Solutions posted to class web site after homework turned in
• Essential to good understanding and facility in the material

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #7 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #8
Textbook What is DSP?
Input Output
• Oppenheim and Schafer, Discrete- Signal Signal
Analog-to- Digital-to-
Time Signal Processing, 2nd edition
(Prentice-Hall, 1999)
Digital Computer Analog
Conversion Conversion
• Supplemental texts:
– Hayes, Digital Signal Processing Digital
(Schaum’s Outlines Series), 1999 • Method to represent a quantity, a phenomenon or an event
– McClellan, Schafer, & Yoder, DSP • Why digital?
First Signal
• What is a signal?
– Both on reserve in library – something (as a sound, gesture, or object) that conveys notice or information;
– a detectable physical quantity (as a voltage, current, or magnetic field strength) by
• Some class notes which messages or information can be transmitted
– primarily for special topics & non- • What are we interested in?
linear techniques Processing
• What kind of processing we need and encounter almost everyday?
• Special effects?

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #9 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #10

Common Computing Advantages of Digital Representations


• Text processing – handling of text, tables, basic arithmetic and
Input Output
logic operations (i.e., calculator functions)
SIgnal A-to-D Signal D-to-A Signal
– Word processing
– Language processing Converter Processor Converter
– Spreadsheet processing
– Presentation processing • Permanence and robustness of signal representations; zero-
– ….. distortion reproduction is achievable
• Signal Processing – a more general form of information • Advanced IC technology works well for digital systems
processing, including handling of speech, audio, image, video, etc. • Virtually infinite flexibility with digital systems
– Filtering
– Multi-functionality
– Analysis, recognition, synthesis and coding of real world signals
– Multi-input/multi-output
– Detection and estimation of signals in presence of noise or
interference • Indispensable in telecommunications which is virtually all digital
– ….. at the present time

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #11 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #12
Digital Processing of Analog Signals Discrete-time Signal

xc(t) x[n] y[n] yc(t) • A sequence of numbers


A-to-D Computer D-to-A • Mathematical representation:

x = {x[n]}, −∞ < n < ∞


• A-to-D conversion: bandwidth control, sampling and
quantization • Sampled from an analog signal xa (t ) at time nT,
• Computational processing: implemented on computers or x[n] = xa (nT ), −∞ < n < ∞
ASICs with finite-precision arithmetic
– Basic numerical processing: add, subtract, multiply • T is called sampling period and its reciprocal is the
sampling frequency
(scaling, amplification, attenuation), mute, …
– Algorithmic numerical processing: convolution or linear • x[n] may be quantized to one of a finite set of values
filtering, non-linear filtering (e.g., median filtering), difference which is then represented digitally in bits, hence a digital
equations, DFT, inverse filtering, MAX/MIN, … signal; course material mostly deals with discrete-time
• D-to-A conversion: re-quantification* and filtering (or signal
interpolation) for reconstruction

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #13 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #14

Quantization Discrete Signals


6

out Sampled quantize


Quantization: sample 4
Sinusoid
5sin(2πnT)
7 2.4 • transforming a continuously- 2

valued input into a 0

y
6 1.8
representation that assumes
6
6
Analog sinusoid, -2
Discrete
5 1.2 one out of a finite set of values 4 5sin(2πx)
-4
4 sinusoid
round[5sin(2πnT)]
4 0.6 2
• The finite set of output values -6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
2

3 in is indexed; e.g., the value 1.8 0 n


y

y
0.3 0.9 1.5 2.1
2
has an index of 6, or (110)2 in -2 6

Quantized
-2

binary representation -4 4 sinusoid -4


1 round[5sin(2πx)]
• Storage or transmission uses -6
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
2
-6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0 x
binary representation; a 0
n

y
quantization table is needed -2

A 3-bit uniform quantizer sample


quantize
-4

-6
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
x

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #15 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #16
The Sampling Theorem Basic Interests & Issues in DSP
Sampled 1000 Hz and 7000 Hz Cosine Waves; fs = 8000 Hz
• Digital Filters: Filter design, noise analysis, structures
1
• Fourier Analysis: Spectrum estimation, FFT, cosine transform,
0.5
amplitude

cepstrum, short-time FT
0 • Signal Modeling and Analysis: Linear prediction, wavelets,
-0.5 chaos, fractals
-1 • Hardware and Software: Minicomputers, array processors, DSP
chips, workstations, PCs, MATLAB, real-time operating systems
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
time in ms • Applications: Speech, radar, image, video, data, ...

Aliasing is avoided if we sample at a rate that is greater


than twice the highest frequency in the signal. We can
therefore reconstruct the original signal.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #17 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #18

Rader and Gold Paper Ben Gold and Charlie Rader

1997 Kilby
Medallists

C. M. Rader and B. Gold, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 55,


pp. 149-171, February, 1967.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #19 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #20
State-of-the-Art Graphics, 1965 DSP in 1967

The TX-2 Computer, Circa 1967

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #21 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #22

Jim Kaiser J. F. Kaiser, 1966

J. F. Kaiser, in System Analysis by Digital Computer, ed.


By F. F. Kuo and J. F. Kaiser, John Wiley & Sons, 1966.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #23 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #24
FIR Bandpass Digital Filter Parks and McClellan, 1972
Coefficients for FIR Bandpass Filter
0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4
0 20 40 60 80 100
sample index m
Frequency Response of FIR Equiripple Bandpass Filter
log magnitude in dB

-50

-100
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
frequency in kHz

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #25 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #26

Jim McClellan The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

N −1 kn
X[k] = ∑ x[n]WN k = 0,1,K, N −1
n=0
WN ≡ e − j (2π / N )
1 N −1
x[n] = ∑ X [k ]WN− kn , n = 0,1,K, N − 1
N k =0
• Exact representation of finite-length or periodic sequences
(x[n+N]=x[n]).
• X[k] and x[n] can be computed efficiently by the FFT. (Gauss
knew about it, Cooley and Tukey rediscovered it at just the right
time.)

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #27 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #28
Cooley and Tukey, 1965 Jim Cooley at Arden House, 1968

J. W. Cooley and J. W. Tukey, Mathematics of Computation,


Vol. 19, pp. 297-301, 1965.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #29 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #30

“Oppenheim and Schafer”, 1975 Jim Flanagan, Larry Rabiner, & Ron Schafer

1999 Kilby
Medallist

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #31 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #32
“Rabiner and Gold”, 1975 Linear Predictive Signal Modeling

• Assumes “all-pole” signal model


N
y[n ] = ∑ ak y[n − k ] + e[n ]
k =1
• Minimize mean-square prediction error
2
 p

E =  y[n ] - ∑α k y[n − k ] 
 k =1 

• The predictor coefficients give an estimate of . Solution


involves correlation and solving linear equations.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #33 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #34

Atal and Schroeder, 1970 Some LPC Contributors


John Markel and
Steen Gray

Bishnu Atal

B. S. Atal and M. R. Schroeder, BSTJ, Vol. 49, Manfred Schroeder


pp. 1973-1986, October, 1970. John Makhoul

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #35 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #36
Spectrum Analysis with FFT & LPC DSP Applications in Speech Recognition

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #37 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #38

Multidimensional DSP Fourier Spectrum of an Image

• Problems often more than twice as hard.


• Early research
* Image digitization
* 2D filters: design, stability
* Transforms, reconstruction problems
* Applications to image processing, seismology, medical
imaging
• Digital video, digital photography, … now a reality.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #39 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #40
William Pratt, 1978
Multidimensional DSP Pioneers

• B. Haskell - motion compensation in video


• T. Huang - compression, vision
• A. Jain - key text, statistical modeling
• R. Mersereau - multidimensional DSP text
• W. Pratt - major text, 1978
• A. Rosenfeld - vision, key book, 1969
• D. Sakrison - early work on perception
• W. Schreiber - television, compression
• T. Stockham - visual models

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #41 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #42

DSP Algorithms Barnwell, Mersereau, and Schafer

• Common algorithms
– Linear filtering: FIR, IIR
– FFT, cosine transform, filterbanks
– Correlation
– Matrix calculations
• Common features
– Lots of multiply/accumulate operations
– Block processing is often appropriate
– Fixed-point arithmetic for economical solutions
– Real-time operation

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #43 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #44
The Rockland Digital Filter, 1971 Speak and Spell, 1978

Chip still works, but


the buttons break off

For the price of a small house, you could have one of these.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #45 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #46

The TMS32010, 1983 DSP Today


Input Output
A-to-D Computer D-to-A

TMS320-C31

First PC plug-in board from Atlanta Signal Processors Inc.

MPEG audio encoder/decoder from ASPI


Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #47 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #48
Sony MusicClip What’s Next?

• Moore’s Law keeps working for us????


x[n] y[n] yc(t) • Design tools are getting better and better.
Memory Computer D-to-A
• Applications abound.
• Standards are increasingly important.
• Still need for theory and algorithm research.
• Contains 64 Mbytes of memory – Nonlinear systems, wavelets, chaos, fractals, ...
• Stores music in MP3 - type representation – Higher-level symbolic processing
• Computer is Texas Instruments TMS320C54?? – Hardware/software, low power, ...
• DSP has become a fundamental subject for engineering and
computer science.

Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #49 Summer 2004 ECE 4270 B. H. Juang Copyright 2004 Lecture #1, Slide #50