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B.Sc.

6TH SEMESTER PHYSICS PROJECT


RAMAKRISHNA MISSION RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS)

PROJECT SUBMITTED BY: ANIRBAN


MAJUMDAR
REGISTRATION NUMBER: A03-1112-2059-16
ADMIT NUMBER: 6PHSA16R006

GUIDED AND SUPERVISED BY


Dr. SOBHAN KUMAR SOUNDA
86/1, College Street road, Kolkata
Kolkata-700073,
700073, West Bengal

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN

This is to certify that this reading project work on ‘Two-By By-Two


Representation of Lorentz Group’ submitted by Anirban
nirban Majumdar, a
final year B.Sc. student of Department of Physics, RKMRC- RKMRC
Narendrapur, is absolutely based upon his work which was performed
under the supervision of myself, and that neither this work nor any part
of it h
has
as been submitted for any degree/ diploma/ proje
project
ct work or any
other academic award elsewhere before.

Dr. Sobhan
So an Kumar Sounda
Project Supervisor
Department of Physics
Presidency University
86/1, College Street road, Kolkata-700073,
Kolkata 700073,
West Bengal
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The success and final outcome of this reading project required a lot of
guidance and assistance from many people and I am extremely privileged to have got
this all along the completion of my project. All that I have done is only due to such
supervision and assistance and I would not forget to thank them.

Firstly, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my project supervisor


and guide Prof. Dr. Sobhan Kumar Sounda for the continuous support in my reading
project study and related works, with his patience, motivation, and immense knowledge.
His guidance helped me in all the time of understanding and writing of this reading
project. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my reading
project study.

I am thankful to and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement, support


and guidance from all the teaching professors of Department of Physics,
Ramakrishna Mission Residential College (Autonomous), which helped me in
successfully completing my project work.

I also respect and thank to Swami Bhudevananda Maharaj, Principal, and


Swami Krishnanathananda Maharaj, Vice Principal, for providing me an opportunity to
do the project work in my 6th semester course and giving me all support and guidance
which made me complete the project duly. I am extremely thankful to them for
providing such a nice support and guidance, although they had very busy schedule
managing the official works.

I thank my fellow classmates for the stimulating discussions, for the sleepless
nights we were working together before deadlines, and for all the fun we have had in
the last few months. Also I would like to thank my family: my parents, sister & others
for supporting me spiritually throughout writing this project.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank the internal and external project
expert not only for their insightful comments and encouragement, but also for the
hard question which incented me to widen my understanding about the topic from
various perspectives.

SIGNATURE WITH DATE


Index
TOPIC PAGE NUMBER
ABSTRACT 01
GENERAL LINEAR & SPECIAL LINEAR
GROUPS
02
NAIMARK REPRESENTATION OF THE LORENTZ GROUP
FORMALISM 02-03
BOOST ALONG THE Z DIRECTION 03-04
BOOST ALONG THE X DIRECTION 04-05
ROTATION AROUND THE Z AXIS 05
ROTATION AROUND THE Y AXIS 06
WIGNER’s LITTLE GROUP
FORMALISM 07
MASSIVE PARTICLE AT REST 07-08
IMAGINARY-MASS PARTICLE
MOVING FASTER THAN LIGHT
ALONG THE Z DIRECTION, WITH 08-09
ITS
VANISHING ENERGY COMPONENT
MASSLESS PARTICLE MOVING
09-10
ALONG THE Z DIRECTION
BIBLOGRAPHY 11
ABSTRACT

The Lorentz group starts with a group of four-by four matrices performing Lorentz
transformations on the Minkowskian vector space of ( , , , ), leaving the quantity − − −
invariant. It is possible to perform this transformation using two-by-two representations. This
mathematical aspect is known as the (2, ℂ) as the universal covering group for the Lorentz
group.In this project we will be studied the two-by-two representation of NAIMARK GROUP and
WIGNER’s LITTLE GROUP.

1/11
In mathematics, the general linear group of degree is the set of × invertible matrices,
together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication. This forms a group, because the
product of two invertible matrices is again invertible, and the inverse of an invertible matrix is
GENERAL LINEAR &
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaainvertible. The group is so named because the columns of an
SPECIAL LINEAR
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaainvertible matrix are independent. Typical
GROUPS :-
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa notation of the general linear group is , of degree n over
any field F (such as the field of complex numbers,ℂ).The special linear group, written as ( , ), is
the subgroup of ( , ) consisting of matrices with a determinant of 1.These groups are important
in the theory of group representations, and also arise in the study of spatial symmetries and
symmetries of vector spaces.

NAIMARK REPRESENTATION OF THE LORENTZ GROUP


First we construct a two-by-two vector operator by which we can map the 4 dimensional
Minkowskian vector to a two-by-two matrix. The operator is defined as,
≡ ̂+ ̂+ +
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 −
Where ≡ ; ≡ ; ≡ ; ≡
0 1 0 −1 1 0 0
Now In this two-by-two representation, we write the four-vector as a matrix
≡ .⃗

1 0 1 0 0 1 0 −
⇒ ≡
0 1 0 −1 1 0 0

+ −
⇒ ≡
+ −

Then its determinant is precisely the invariant quantity − − − . Thus the Lorentz
transformation on this matrix is a determinant-preserving transformation. Let us consider the
transformation matrix as,
∗ ∗
≡ ; ≡ ∗ ∗ Withdet( ) = 1

This matrix has six independent parameters. The group of these G matrices is known to be locally
isomorphic to the group of four-by-four matrices performing Lorentz transformations on the four
vector ( , , , ). In other word, for each G matrix there is a corresponding four-by-four Lorentz
transform matrix.The matrix G is not a unitary matrix, because its Hermitian conjugate is not always
its inverse. The group can have a unitary subgroup called (2) performing rotations. As far as we
can see, this G-matrix formalism was first presented by Naimark in 1954. Thus, we call this formalism
the Naimark representation of the Lorentz group. We shall see first that this representation is

2/11
convenient for studying space-time symmetries of particles. With this point in mind, we can now
consider the transformation as,

′≡

+ + + + ∗ ∗
⇒ = ∗ ∗
− − − −
∗( ∗( ∗( ∗ ∗( ∗( ∗( ∗
+ + + )+ + )+ − )+ ( − ) + )+ + )+ − )+ ( − )
⇒ = ∗( ∗( ∗( ∗ ∗( ∗( ∗( ∗
− − + )+ + )+ − )+ ( − ) + )+ + )+ − )+ ( − )

We can write the above equation as,


∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
+ +
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
+ +
= ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
− −
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ −

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 0 0 1
⇒ = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 − 0 0 1 −
1 −1 0 0 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 −1 0 0
……………(1)

As in the Minkowskian world, there are three space dimensions and one time dimension. It is
therefore possible to make Lorentz boosts along the three different directions.

BOOST ALONG THE Z DIRECTION:

If we boost along the z direction, the transformation matrix is

cosh sinh 0 0
sinh cosh 0 0
=
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

So, according to equation (1),


∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
1 1 0 0 cosh sinh 0 0 1 1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 sinh cosh 0 0 0 0 1
= ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 − 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 −
1 −1 0 0 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 −1 0 0
0 0 0 1
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ( ∗ ∗)
0 0 + − + −
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 + − + ( − )
⇒ = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 − + − + −( − )
− 0 0 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ( ∗ ∗)
+ −( − ) + −

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ + = − = + = − =

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
+ = + =1 ( − )= ( − )=
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗) ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗)
+ = ( − = + = − = + = − = + = ( − =0

3/11
& from the condition that det( ) = 1, det =1
− = ∗ ∗
− ∗ ∗
=1

By doing the solutions of the above equations we can get the G matrix for z boosts, i.e.-

≡ 0
0
BOOST ALONG THE X DIRECTION:

Similarly, for the boost along the x direction, the corresponding transformation matrix is

cosh 0 sinh 0
0 1 0 0
=
sinh 0 cosh 0
0 0 0 1

So, according to equation (1),


∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
1 1 0 0 cosh 0 sinh 0 1 1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
= ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 − sinh 0 cosh 0 0 0 1 −
1 −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 −1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ( ∗ ∗)
cosh 1 sinh 0 + − + −
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
sinh 0 cosh + − + ( − )
⇒ = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
sinh 0 cosh − + − + −( − )
cosh −1 sinh 0 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ( ∗ ∗)
+ −( − ) + −

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ + = + = + = + = cosh

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ + = + = + = + = sinh

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ − = − =1 ( − )= ( − )=

∗ ∗) ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗)
∴ ( − = − = − = ( − =0

& from the condition that det( ) = 1, det =1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
− = − =1

4/11
So, the corresponding G matrix is

cosh sinh
2 2

sinh cosh
2 2

ANTI-CLOCKWISE ROTATION AROUND THE Z AXIS:

Rotation around the z axis is obtained via the following transformation equation,

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
=
0 0 cos − sin
0 0 sin cos

So, according to equation (1),


∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
= ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 − 0 0 cos − sin 0 0 1 −
1 −1 0 0 0 0 sin cos ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 −1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ( ∗ ∗)
1 1 0 0 + − + −
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 + − + ( − )
⇒ = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 − + − + −( − )
∗ ∗
1 −1 0 0 + −( ∗ − ∗
) ∗
+ ∗ ( ∗
− ∗)

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ + = + =

∗ ∗) ∗ ∗)
∴ ( − = − ( − =−

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ + = − = − = + =1
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗) ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗)
+ = ( − = + = − = + = − = + = ( − =0

& from the condition that det( ) = 1, det =1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
− = − =1

So, the corresponding G matrix is

≡ 0
0

5/11
ANTI-CLOCK WISE ROTATION AROUND THE Y AXIS:

Rotation around the y axis is obtained via the following transformation equation,

1 0 0 0
0 cos − sin 0
=
0 sin cos 0
0 0 0 1

So, according to equation (1),


∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 0 cos − sin 0 0 0 1
= ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 0 1 − 0 sin cos 0 0 0 1 −
1 −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 −1 0 0
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ( ∗ ∗)
1 cos − sin 0 + − + −
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 sin cos + − + ( − )
⇒ = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
0 sin cos − + − + −( − )
1 − cos sin 0 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ( ∗ ∗)
+ −( − ) + −

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ − = − = + = + = cos

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ − = − = −( + )= + = sin

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ + = + =1 ( − )= ( − )=

∗ ∗) ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗)
∴ ( − = + = + = ( − =0

& from the condition that det( ) = 1, det =1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
− = − =1

So, the corresponding G matrix is

cos −sin
2 2

sin cos
2 2

6/11
WIGNER’s LITTLE GROUP

It was Einstein who defined the energy-momentum four vector, and showed that it also has
the same Lorentz-transformation law as the space-time four-vector. Now similarly to the previous
operation we can write the four-momentum as a matrix

≡ .⃗

1 0 1 0 0 1 0 − ⎛ ⎞
⇒ ≡ [Considering c=1]
0 1 0 −1 1 0 0
⎝ ⎠
+ −
⇒ ≡
+ −

Withdet( ) =
where m is the particle mass.

Now Einstein’s transformation law can be written as-


′≡

+ + + − ∗ ∗
⇒ = ∗ ∗
− − + −

Later in 1939, Wigner was interested in constructing subgroups of the Lorentz group whose
transformations leave a given four-momentum invariant, and called these subsets “LITTLE
GROUPS.”Thus, Wigner’s little group consists of two-by-two matrices satisfying

This two-by-two matrix is not an identity matrix, but tells about internal space-time symmetry of
the particle with a given energy-momentum four-vector. This aspect was not known when Einstein
formulated his special relativity in 1905.

MASSIVE PARTICLE AT REST:

For a massive particle at rest, the normalized vectorcan be written as,

1
0

0
0
& corresponding matrix is
1
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 − 0

0 1 0 −1 1 0 0 0
0

7/11
⇒ ≡ 1 0
0 1
So,
∗ ∗
1 0 1 0
= ∗ ∗
0 1 0 1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
1 0 = + +
⇒ ∗ ∗
0 1 ∗+ ∗+

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ + = + =1 + = + =0

& from the condition that det( ) = 1, det =1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
− = − =1

By doing the solutions of the above equations we get


≡ ∗ ∗

Considering = cos , = −sin , we get

cos −sin
2 2

cos sin
2 2
This is a reducible representation. The whole vector space is splitted into 2 invariant one
dimensional subspace. After diagonalization the W matrix can be written as,
[This is the irreducible representation
≡ 0
of W matrix for massive particle at rest]
0
The little group in this case is the rotation subgroup, O(2). Since the particle is at rest, its
momentum is not affected by a rotation.

IMAGINARY-MASS PARTICLE MOVING FASTER THAN LIGHT ALONG THE Z DIRECTION, WITH ITS
VANISHING ENERGY COMPONENT:

For imaginary-mass particle moving faster than light along the z direction, with its
vanishing energy component, the normalized vector can be written as,

0
1

0
0
& corresponding matrix is
0
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 − 1

0 1 0 −1 1 0 0 0
0
⇒ ≡ 1 0
0 −1

8/11
So,
∗ ∗
1 0 1 0
= ∗ ∗
0 −1 0 −1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
1 0 = − −
⇒ ∗ ∗
0 −1 ∗− ∗−

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
∴ − =− − =1 − = − =0

& from the condition that det( ) = 1, det =1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
− = − =1

By doing the solutions of the above equations we can get the W matrix,
≡ ∗ ∗

Considering = cosh , = sinh , we get

cosh sinh
2 2

cosh sinh
2 2
The little group in this case is the hyperbolic rotation subgroup.

MASS LESS PARTICLE MOVING ALONG THE Z DIRECTION:

For mass less particle moving along the z direction, the normalized vector can be written
as,

1
1

0
0
& corresponding matrix is
1
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 − 1

0 1 0 −1 1 0 0 0
0
≡ 1 0
0 0

So,
∗ ∗
1 0 1 0
= ∗ ∗
0 0 0 0
∗ ∗

1 0 =
∗ ∗
0 0

∴ ∗ =1 ∗ = ∗ = ∗ =0

9/11
& from the condition that det( ) = 1, det =1

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
− = − =1

By doing the solutions of the above equations we can get the W matrix
≡ ∗
0
Considering = 1, = , we get

1
≡ 0 1

The little group in this case is the parabolic or Euclidean subgroup, E(2), because it’s eigen value is 1.

10/11
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Poincar´e Sphere and Decoherence Problems (arXiv:1203.4539v3 [math-ph]
12 Oct 2012) by Y. S. Kim, Center for Fundamental Physics, University of
Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, U.S.A.

2. Special Relativity and Classical Field Theory: The Theoretical Minimum by


Art Friedman and Leonard Susskind.

3. PHASE SPACE PICTURE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS: Group Theuretical


Approach by Y. S. Kim (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College
Park, Maryland 207 42, USA) and M. E. Noz (Department of Radiology, New York University,
New York 10016, USA )

11/11