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©Madeleine Carreon 11 MAD 3

-Post and lintel architecture

-Construction of Geoglypse

Ex. Nasca Lines ; Peru
*BCE / BC: Before the Common Era / Before Christ
*CE / AD: Common/Current Era / Ano Domini (Year of the
Art History
I. Meaning
III. Ancient Art
• Art -Latin “Ars” / “Artis” meaning skill
A. Mesopotamian (9,000–539 BCE)
-Art can be beauty, truth, or a combination of both
Subcultures: Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian-Babylonian
-It can have a message, an idea or both
-Portraits are made in marble, black-gray diorite, clay bricks
• ARTifact -any work produced by skill
or slab-type for architecture
• ARTisan -one who has the skill -Art was for religious purposes
• ARTist -conscious use of skill and creative imagination -Painting and Sculpture were main art-forms
especially in the production of aesthetic objects -Cuneiform writing and printing was introduced
-can be a person who paints, draws, makes sculptures, acts, -although metal was imported into Mesopotamia, jewelry
makes music, dances, or performs became an artform
-“Nobody knows why one is an artist, but an artist can be 1. Sumerian
identified by a self.” -Eshunna Statues also known as, “The Worshippers” (2700
-“-He who works with his hands, head and heart is an BCE, 1-3 ft tall)
artist.” (St. Francis o Assisi) *Thinking, Feeling, Willing -Temple of Ur / Ziggurat of Ur, Sumer
• Art History -His + Story 2. Akkadian
-making sense out of the past (antipathy to the past and -rulers used art for propaganda
sympathy to the future) 3. Assyrian-Babylonian
-“Art belongs to everybody and nobody..” (Julian Barnes, -Goddess Istar, Gods Enki and Enlil
The Noise of Time) -Ishtar Gate and Babylonian Sphinx
II. Stone Age Art -Hanging Gardens of Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar
-period of prehistory B. Egyptian (6000-30 BCE)
-refers loosely to any works created during these 3 periods -human proportions are expressed and defined
commonly referred to as “Pre-historic Art” -kahit naka-side profile yung figures, nakaharap parin yung
A. Paleolithic (2,500,000-10,000 BCE) pag-drawing nung eyes and it looks like a fish from afar
-saw the first petrographs and petroglypse of animal and -hands / fingers have the same equal length
archaic shapes composes up to 98% of stone age era -authoritative figures (ex. Pharaohs) are drawn bigger than
-Ice Age Art by Cave dwellers normal people
Ex. Stationary Art at the Hall of the Bulls; Lascaux Cave in -they loved making jewelry
France -Temple of Horus and The Pyramids of Giza
-Paleolithic Rock Art Cupules: world’s oldest petroglyphs a. Pre-Dynastic b. Dynastic
and the most ubiquitous form of prehistoric abstract signs 2 types of columns
-portable artworks; figurines 1. Egyptian Composite columns -from Philae
Ex. Venus of Willendorf; Austria 2. Papyriform columns -from Luxor Temple
>35,000 – 25,000 BCE made from White Granite C. Greco-Roman (2500 BCE-49 CE)
Lady of Capuche; France - characterized by an apparent indebtedness to Greek forms
>25,000 BCE made from Mammoth Tusk Ivory or motifs modified by technological innovation,
B. Mesolithic (10,000-4,000 BCE) monumental scale, the combination of symbolic with
-began art found in functional materials like pottery and narrative treatment of subject matter, and an emphasis on
utilities among nomads; more human forms began to the commemorative aspect of a work of art.
rampantly emerge in art Greek Roman
C. Neolithic (4,000-2,000 BCE) Quality Glory Grandeur
-Also known as “Calcolithic / Bronze Age” Highlighted
-enrichment of art in the Stone Age Architecture Temple Theatre
-Art from human settlements; Al Fresco -usually on vases -usually on walls
-Organization of farm communities and early agriculture Painting -men naked; superior -women naked;
-Terracotta or clay art progresses beings symbolism of fertility /
-Engraving Megaliths reproduction
Ex. Knowth Megalith ; Ireland & Stonehenge ; England Pottery Arts Painted on the vase Engraved on clay

©Madeleine Carreon 11 MAD 3

Sculpture -Adored nude hero -Dignified clothes *Romanesque Art and Gothic Art began as architectural
statesman modes. Their sculptures and painting are to add accent.
D. Far East China V. Renaissance Art
-crafts and painting, calligraphy Reasons for the start of Renaissance Art:
Ex. Lacquer tray & Ink on Paper • Academe opens to study Greco-Roman civilization
IV. Medieval Art • Crusaders from the Middle East brought back sciences
-The medieval period of art history developed after the fall of and technologies to Europe
the Roman Empire in 300 CE to the beginning of the • Invention of Printing
Renaissance in 1400 CE. • Plant oil became a media
-In the Middle Ages, art evolved addressing Biblical subjects, • Organization of guilds
Christian dogma, and Church expressions • Translation of the Bible into Vulgate
-Some subjects include a mix of mystics and morals • Art is studied in the Academe
A. Early Christian Art A. Italian Renaissance
-also know as “Carolingian” -Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci
-Early Christian Catacombs: human-made subterranean -La Fornarina by Raphael
passageways for religious practice; any chamber used as a B. Dutch Renaissance
burial place is a catacomb, although associated w/ the roman -The Storm on the Sea of Galilee by Rembrandt Van Rijn
empire -Man Meditating by Gerhaert
B. Byzantine Art C. French and German Renaissance
-characteristics was the translation of church theology into -Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels by Jean Fouquet
artistic forms such as sculptures, mosaics, and iconclasm Styles / Modes:
paintings • Chiaroscuro
-Byzantine naif paintings were created with a flair of folk -effect of contrasted light and shadow; light comes from a
Christianity single source only!
-Nave : the main body of the church located between the side • Baroque
aisles -flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th
-The interior is filled with intricate designs while the exterior century
design is plain -encouraged by the Catholic Church
Ex. Hagia Sophia -style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, deep
C. Romanesque colour, grandeur to achieve a sense of awe
-characterized with vigorous style with intricate décor -may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco,
-Sculpture and paintings are accents of Romanesque a flawed pearl
architecture >Baroque Architecture: communicate religious themes
-Mostly massive colorful scales -associated w/ Baroque cultural movement, often identified
-Stain glass was popular in this era w/ absolutism, the counter reformation and catholic revival
-Do not confuse it with Roman Art and Romantic Art Baroque Earthquake Churches in the Ph
>Romanesque architecture: characterized by semi-circular Ex. Tomas Villanueva Church / Miago Church in Iloilo
arches, circular towers with geometric tops, squarish crossing Lady of Assumption, Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur
centers. Church of San Agustin, Paoay, Ilocos Norte
-The typical design of Romanesque church has few windows, Church of San Agustin, Intramuros, Manila
small doorways and massive walls. >Revived style of classical Greek and Roman sculpture, had
-The small windows and heavy walls made the interiors vast idealized the human form. This was modified by Mannerism,
and gloomy / madilim in short. urging artists to give their works a unique and personal style
-Usually the roofs of these structures are pointy and introduced the idea of sculptures featuring strong
ex. Basilica of St. Denis, Cathedral of Pisa contrasts; youth and age, beauty and ugliness, men and
D. Gothic women.
-usually these structures has bright- stained glass that makes • Rococo
the interiors bright. -elegant and exhuberant
-Renaissance writers coined the term Gothic to describe the -If Baroque is fantastic, then Rococo is flamboyant
extremely decorative type of architecture. -If Baroque wishes to awe, Rococo wants to surprise
-Architects used supporting arches called flying buttresses -characterized by fanciful curved asymmetrical forms and
that helps prevent the buildings from collapsing. elaborate ornamentation, sometimes to the point of
-The designs are usually three-dimensional complexity
Ex. Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres Cathedral
©Madeleine Carreon 11 MAD 3

>Rococo Paintings: playful subject matter and color vivid - Worked in pastels and oil.
Pastel Palette -Adopted the big diagonal view point and abrupt cutting of
>Rococo Sculptures / Architecture: intricate designs, fancy composition by picture frame.
figurines -favorite subject was ballet
2 strong art movements: 4. Pierre August Renoir
a. Naturalism-art - Artist of genre and portrait of real people.
-precise representation of reality -interested in the interplay of colors caused by flickering of
b. Academism sunshine and shadow
-art has configurations and proportions -his tone harmonies are attained by innumerable light
VI. Neo-Classic Painting refactions.
-From the Greek “Neo,” meaning new and the Latin 5. Auguste Rodin
“Classicus,” meaning class - Sculptor
-unemotional form of art harkening back to the grandeur of -Interested in covering dynamic, experimental process, rather
ancient Greece and Rome than in the finished work itself.
-involved an emphasis on linear design in the depiction of B. Post-Impressionism (After 1880)
classical events, characters and themes, using historically - Independent artist simply decided to leave Impressionism
correct settings and costumes behind and follow their own artistic directions. The term
-revival of interest in classical thought, which was of some ‘Post-Impressionism’ was never actually used until 1910 when
importance in the American and French revolutions art critic Roger Fry opened an exhibition at London’s Grafton
Neo-Classic Architecture in the Philippines Galleries that featured works from several reactionary artist.
Ex. National Museum He called his exhibit ‘Manet and the Post- Impressionists’ and
VII. Romantic Art the label stuck.
-Late 18th-19th century Pointillism
-focused on emotions, feelings, and moods of all kinds - Originated by Pierre Seurat. This new technique is based on
including spirituality, imagination, mystery the skilful putting side by side touches of pure color.
-the subject matter varied widely including landscapes, Artists:
religion, revolution, and peaceful beauty 1. Paul Gauguin
*UP Oblation: criss-crosses the style of Neo-classic and - Applied paint smoothly; colors are bright in flat, unmodeled
essence of Romantic Art shapes painted tropical landscapes and brown-skinned
VIII. Modern Art natives.
A. Impressionism (Late 1860s - Late 1890s) 2. Paul Cezanne
-A movement in French painting sometimes called “optical - Pre cubism: Simple handling of masses and planes given
realism” because of its almost scientific interest in the actual depth by structure, color and unconventional perspective
visual experience and effect of light and movement on C. Fauvism (1905-1910)
appearance on appearance of objects - Used to describe paintings depicting wild beasts in the use
General Features of Impressionist Art: of brilliant luminous colors and bold spontaneous handling
a. Light and its reflection paint
b. Quickly painted surfaces Henri Matisse
c. Dots, dashes, commas and other short brushstrokes - Leader of the fauves. His paintings have an extraordinary
d. Bright pure colors and separating them, and letting the decorative quality with flat patterned compositions in pure
eye’s perception mix them colors
e. Modern life as the subject matter D. Expressionism (Late 19th C to early 20th C)
Artists: - It is an opposition to academic standards and emphasized
1. Claude Monet artists’ subjective emotion which overrides fidelity to the
- A landscape impressionist and leader of the pleinaris actual appearance of things
• Pleinaris – people who believed working outdoors Artists:
-Adapted the practice of painting a single subject a number of 1. Vincent Van Gogh <3
times in varying lights and seasons - He was a unique and greatest dutch artist who worked with
2. Edouard Manet a sense of urgency which often caused him a great deal of
- Painted with full brush and full strokes, placement of colors stress. He was famed for his bold, dramatic brush strokes
side by side, placing a concentration of light on an important which expressed emotion and added a feeling of movement
feature of the picture to record the impression of the eye to his works. It´s thought that he often used paint straight
naturally and immediately receives. from the tube (impasto) and in the 70 days leading up to his
3. Edgar Degas death, he averaged one painting per day
©Madeleine Carreon 11 MAD 3

2. Edward Munich -“Action Painting” a term by critic Harold Rosenberg to

- Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intense, evocative describe the work of certain members of the New York School
treatment of psychological and emotional themes was a Artists:
major influence on the development of German 1. Arshille Gorky
Expressionism in the early 20th century. - Has been anointed by scholars as both the last Surrealist
E. Abstraction (starts between 1910-1920) and the first Abstract Expressionist
- It is a movement of conscious and methodological 2. Jackson Pollock
destruction of particular and recognizable in appearance; - An American painter and a major figure in the abstract
Artistic elimination of rational visual association expressionist movement.
Wassily Kandinsky -He was widely noticed for his technique of pouring or
- An influential russian painter and art theorist. He is credited splashing liquid household paint on to a horizontal surface
with painting the first purely abstract works. (“drip technique”), enabling him to view and paint his
F. Cubism (1907-1915) canvases from all directions. It was also called ‘action
- Showed objects in their basic geometric shapes. It was painting’, since he used the force of his whole body to paint,
invented around 1907 in Paris by Pablo Picasso and Georges often in a frenetic dancing style.
Braque. It was the first abstract style of modern art. Cubist 3. Willem de Kooning
paintings ignore the traditions of perspective drawing and - After Jackson Pollock, de Kooning was the most prominent
show you many views of a subject at one time. The Cubists and celebrated of the Abstract Expressionist painters.
believed that the traditions of Western art had become -His pictures typify the vigorous gestural style of the
exhausted and to revitalize their work, they drew on the movement and he, perhaps, did more than any of his
expressive energy of art from other cultures, particularly contemporaries to develop a radically abstract style of
African art. painting that fused Cubism, Surrealism and Expressionism
Artists: 4. Mark Rothko
1. Georges Braque - Mark Rothko sought to make paintings that would bring
- French painter and leader of Cubism. Braque’s large people to tears. “I’m interested only in expressing basic
compositions incorporated the Cubist aim of representing the human emotions—tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on,” he
world as seen from a number of different viewpoints. declared. “And the fact that a lot of people break down and
2. Pablo Picasso cry when confronted with my pictures shows that I can
- Spanish painter and sculptor. Best known as co-founder of communicate those basic human emotions….If you…are
Cubism. Known as the Father of collage moved only by their color relationships, then you miss the
3. Marcel Duchamp point.”
- More associated with Dadaism and Surrealism. Duchamp I. Pop Art (1954-1970)
first forayed in Cubism - The most significant style to emerge in America in the 60s
G. De Stijl (1917-1931) whose popular imagery was derived from commercial
- De Stijl is a school of art founded in the Netherlands in 1917, sources, the mass media and everyday life
marked especially by the use of black and white with primary Artists:
colors, rectangular forms and asymmetry. From “the style”, 1. Roy Lichtenstein
the name of a magazine published by its participants in the - Started the art world in 1962 by exhibiting paintings based
movement. Founded by architect Gerrit Rietveld, and artists, on comic book cartoons
Theo Van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian 2. Andy Warhol
Piet Mondrian - A leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop
- Recognized as the purest and most methodical of the early art. His works explore the relationship between artistic
abstractionists. He radically simplified elements of his works expression, celebrity culture and advertisement that
in an effort to reflect what he believed to be the order flourished by the 1960s.
underlying the visible world. He strictly limited his color
palette to black, white and the three primary colors. The use
of asymmetrical balance and a simplified pictorial vocabulary
were crucial in the development of modern art.
H. Abstract Expressionism (1946-1956)
- A movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly,
and with force to their huge canvases in an effort to show
feelings and emotions, paintings gesturally, non-
geometrically, sometimes applying paint with large brushes,
sometimes dripping or even throwing in onto canvas