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WHAT IS REVIEW OF LITERATURE?

PRIMARY SOURCE: is written by a person(s) who


developed the theory or conducted the research
• The review of the literature is defined as a broad,
comprehensive, in-depth, systematic, and -Journal articles of original research
critical review of scholarly publications, -Theses & dissertation.
unpublished scholarly print materials, -Conference abstract &proceeding
audiovisual materials, and personal
SECONDARY CHOICE: is written by a person(s) other than
communications, within specific time period.
the individual who developed the theory or conducted
PURPOSES OF LITERATURE REVIEW the research

• Determines an appropriate research -Journal articles


design/method (instruments, data collection -Book or chapter on book
and analysis methods) for answering the
SOURCES OF LITERATURE
research question
JOURNAL ARTICLES: These are good sources, especially
• Determines the need for replication of a well
for up-to-date information. They are frequently used in
designed study or refinement of a study
literature reviews because they offer a relatively concise,
• Determines and discovers unanswered up-to-date format for research.
questions what is known about a subject,
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS: These can be useful in
concept or problem
providing the latest research, or research that has not
• Determines gaps, consistencies & been published.
inconsistencies about a subject, concept or
THESES AND DISSERTATIONS: these can be useful
problem
sources of information. However there are
• Describes strengths & weaknesses of designs, disadvantages. they can be difficult to obtain since they
methods of inquiry and instruments used in are not published, but are generally only available from
earlier workS the library or interlibrary system

BOOKS: remember that books tend to be less up-to-


date, as it takes longer for a book to be published than
Working with for a journal article.
Literature
GOVERNMENT/CORPORATE REPORTS: Many
government departments and corporations commission
carry out research. Their published findings can provide
Manage Review
Find it!
it!
Use it!
it!
a useful source of information, depending on your field
of study.
Understandi
Knowing the Choosing ng the lit
literature
Reading
your research review’s
INTERNET: Fastest-growing source of information. Bear
efficiently topic
types purpose in mind that anyone can post information on the Internet
Using Keeping Developing Ensuring so the quality may not be reliable
available track of your adequate
resources references question coverage GENERAL GUIDELINES TO WRITING
Writing
A LITERATURE REVIEW
Arguing Writing
Honing your
relevant your purposefull
search skills
annotations rationale y  Introduce the literature review by pointing out
the major research topic that will be discussed
Informing Working on
your work style and
with theory tone  Identify the broad problem area but don’t be too
global (for example, discussing the history of
Designing education when the topic is on specific
method
instructional strategy)
 Discuss the general importance of your topic for  Then pose a formal research question or state a
those in your field hypothesis—be sure this is clearly linked to your
literature review
 Don’t attempt to cover everything written on
your topic  All sources cited in the literature review should
be listed in the references
 You will need to pick out the research most
relevant to the topic you are studying  To sum, a literature review should include
introduction, summary and critique of journal
 You will use the studies in your literature review
articles, justifications for your research project
as “evidence” that your research question is an
and the hypothesis for your research project
important one
COMMON ERRORS IN MAKING
 It is important to cover research relevant to all
THE LITERATURE REVIEW
the variables being studied.
 Review isn’t logically organized
 Research that explains the relationship between
these variables is a top priority.  Review isn’t focused on most important facets of
the study
 You will need to plan how you will structure your
literature review and write from this plan.  Review doesn’t relate literature to the study

ORGANIZING YOUR LITERATURE REVIEW  Too few references or outdated references cited

 TOPICAL ORDER—organize by main topics or  Review isn’t written in author’s own words
issues; emphasize the relationship of the issues
 Review reads like a series of disjointed
to the main “problem”
summaries
 CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER—organize the
 Review doesn’t argue a point
literature by the dates the research was
published  Recent references are omitted
 PROBLEM-CAUSE-SOLUTION—Organize the PLAGIARISM INCLUDES (Galvan, pg. 89):
review so that it moves from the problem to the
solution 1. Using another writer’s words without proper
citation
 GENERAL TO SPECIFIC ORDER—(Also called the
funnel approach) Examine broad-based research 2. Using another writer’s ideas without proper
first and then focus on specific studies that relate citation
to the topic 3. Citing a source but reproducing the exact word
 SPECIFIC TO GENERAL ORDER—Try to make without quotation marks
discuss specific research studies so conclusions 4. Borrowing the structure of another author’s
can be drawn phrases/sentences without giving the source
LITERATURE REVIEW 5. Borrowing all or part of another student’s paper
 After reviewing the literature, summarize what 6. Using paper-writing service or having a friend
has been done, what has not been done, and write the paper
what needs to be done

 Remember you are arguing your point of why


your study is important!