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ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF CEBU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY –

HITACHI ROBOTICS AND METROLOGY LABORATORY, CEBU CITY;


A PROPOSED REHABILITATION PLAN

___________________

A Thesis
Presented to
The Graduate School
CEBU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY – MAIN CAMPUS
R. Palma St., Corner M.J. Cuenco Avenue, Cebu City

___________________

In Partial Fulfilment for the


Requirements of the Degree
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY

___________________

EDGAR P. CORTES

October 2012
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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

Rationale of the Study

Many elements have affected into environments, and the environments

have directly affected people. Well designed environments make people happy,

energize and vice versa. These elements start with building structure and shape,

and complete with color, light, electrical system, outside viewing and furnish.

Sometimes, the influence of light through good electrical system in the

environment is much more than other elements. Understanding the relationship

between light, good electrical system and the environment can help designers or

architects to improve interior designs for better performance (S. Samani, 2011).

Electrical system design has become increasingly significant to electrical

designers and engineers. With the advent of high energy cost, designers have

needed to become more aware of the electrical systems. In an electric utility

system, loss means the difference between the amounts of sent energy from a

station and build amount to customers in an electrical system. Invariably,

laboratories, commercial buildings, schools and household’s electrical distribution

system are no exception on it.

In these important aspects of electrical distribution system, electrical

power and energy lost when transmitted to customers can represent a significant

expense to Cebu Technological University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology


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Laboratory. Reducing electrical losses through enhancement of the present

installation will limit the associated economic burden.

For Cebu Technological University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology

Laboratory, it is difficult to state in general terms what savings might achieve by

implementing economically justifiable measures to reduce electrical system

deficiencies. It has existing systems that already consist of low – loss

components and configuration, but those old lines and equipment, may discover

numerous possibilities to achieve losses.

Finally, this study aims to assess the electrical system of Cebu

Technological University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology Laboratory, performs

efficient analysis and used as a guide to improve the systems efficiency.

In the process of eliminating electrical system deficiencies, this study

proposes a defect identification methodology using Plan – Do – Check – Act and

determined which component contributes greatly to the electrical system,

therefore this study.

Literature Background

The most electrical grid that spans continents is typically made up of few

large networks. Within those network, all hundreds of thousands of electricity

flows freely among lines and distribution cables of many electrical systems in

accordance with Kirchhoffs’s Law (IEEE Spectrum, Jul. 2003).


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In the process of bringing power from generation delivery points to the

customers and transforming the same to lower voltage, electricity is dissipated or

lost. The transmission of electricity results in some loss of electrical energy even

in the most efficient systems (IEEE Spectrum, Jan. 2004).

In the Philippines, the extent to which losses occur due to electrical installation

deficiencies in any electrical distribution system is measured by the value called

efficiency. The lost electrical energy is bought by the utility company and resold

to the customer, this unpaid energy results to major operating cost. The

components of cost are usually combined into a single figure either in terms of

cents per kilowatt-hour of total energy loss or as pesos of per kilowatt-hour of

peak loss. Expressing losses in terms of peso per kilowatt is called capitalized

cost of losses and in some advantage in that it shows directly the amount of

money that could be economically spent to save 1kw of losses (Hazan, 1982).

Department of Energy estimates that at least 154, 000,000,000 kilowatt-

hours will be needed in the next decade as baseline consumption for end –use

lighting. In this case it is very important for Cebu Technological University –

Hitachi Laboratory to determine the optimal levels of illumination requirements in

or order to save energy.

Figure 1.1 shows the conceptual framework of the study wherein it aims

to identifies electrical deficiencies; evaluate the identified defects through PDCA

defect identification methodology and present action plan as a design proposal

for the enhancement.


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Electrical System of Technological University –


Hitachi Robotics & Metrology Laboratory

Electrical System Defects

High Loss Electrical Components


Light(Daylighting)
Non - conformance to Code

Evaluation Methodology

PDCA

Proposal Methodology

Action Plan

Enhancement Proposal

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework


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Study revealed that the transmission of electricity results in some loss of

electrical energy even in the most efficient systems. The media through which

energy is transferred imposed electrical resistance to the flow of energy.

Additional energy is required to overcome this transmission medium resistance.

In a typical electric transmission and distribution system, energy loss is small

compared to the total amount of energy delivered to the customers (Slominski,

1982).

Losses occur in every piece of electrical equipment that carries of process

power. However, only types of equipment contribute significantly to the cost of

losses. Devises such as switches, breakers and connectors may carry large

currents but produces negligible losses. Only that equipment that has a

considerable electrical resistance is a significant producer of losses. This

equipment consists of all types of lines and transformers (including regulating

transformers). Capacitors also have a significant but indirect effect on losses

(Melnik, 1990).

National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) Research Project

90-7 quoted that the losses that occur during final stages of the power delivery

process, such as those in distribution transformers are more expensive than the

same amount of losses occurring during earlier stages, the same way the

utilization load must be carried, thus the energy carried through the earlier stage

results to additional losses.


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Most of the theoretical concepts about loss characteristics of transformers

(substation transformers, distribution transformers, voltage regulating

transformers) are more complex than those of an overhead line.

Losses of a line are attributed to the line’s electrical resistance and are

determined by the square of current multiplied by the resistance. Although

transformers do not exhibit this type of loss, they also display other type o f loss.

National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) Research Project

90-7 stress further that line losses follow the square of current times the line

resistance law, any steps taken to reduce the flow of current in lines will produce

reduction benefit. The most effective way to reduce line current is to operate

lines at highest voltage.

Furthermore, the evaluation and reduction of losses on a distribution lines

is complex and detailed because of the great variety of line configuration at the

load conditions. Nevertheless, line loss evaluation can produce significantly

savings when considered along with other system improvement.

The effect of line voltage on losses goes further than that represented by

the nominal voltage of the facilities distributed feeders that often have low day

to day operating voltages, experience higher losses than the would if the

operating voltage were sustained at the higher level. Although short-term

reduction in load can be achieved by reducing voltage, as some cooperative do

during severe peak periods. The long-term effect of low operating voltage is

increased losses consequently increased load at the supply station. One reason
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of this situation is that, over long run, consumers’ tend to install larger

equipment to get better performance from the low voltage supply. In some cases

the utility provider may even contribute to the problem by changing distribution

transformers taps to improve utilization voltage at the expense of increasing

primary line amperes.

Furthermore, to fully comprehend the effect of day to day voltage level

and load and losses, it is important to distinguish long term effect of day to day

voltage level on load and losses, it is important to distinguished long term and

short term effect.

The reduction of losses associated with higher electric lines voltage

relative to system nominal voltage is in the form of reduced power losses in lines

and in distribution transformer winding losses. On the other hand, voltage

increase can cause an increase in the distribution transformer core losses.

Substantially exceed loss increased due to higher core losses, for this reason;

line drop compensators should be utilized on system voltage regulators to limit

primary voltage during light load periods.

The size of the conductors used on the distribution lines has significant

effect on the efficiency of the line. Losses are determined by the power formula,

and large conductors have lower resistance value, thus the losses are less.

Booth et. al., (1990) stated also that electrical loss has been defined as

the difference between the power and the input to the system and the power

and energy sold to the customers or otherwise used in productive manner.


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Electrical meters measure the amount of power and energy sold to customers, so

the accuracy and dependability of these devises is essential to an effective loss.

Power and energy that is received by consumers but not recorded to the billing

system is not a loss in strict sense of the world.

J.M. Del Carmen, in his technical report presented to the International

Convention of Rural Electrification (1992), reported that there are several factors

determined the magnitude of the technical losses such as, the ratio of the

capacity of the transformers and conductors relative to the load with overload

facilities were older. These re - recycled facilities being less efficient that

contributes to the increase of losses, size and length of the conductors relative to

the load were small extended lines are used, utilization of low transmission and

distribution voltages over relative long distance source of power to the load and

meter calibration (since meter slows down as it ages, contribute to higher

losses).

To stress the idea further, the proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International

Conference on System Science – 2002/IEEE reported that in an electric system,

designed with widely scattered and interconnected by load distribution lines may

suffer significant losses. The losses depend on the line resistance and currents

and are usually referred to as thermal losses. While the line resistance is fixed,

the currents are complex function of the systems topology and the location of

load.
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Study revealed also that the transmission of electricity results in some

loss of electrical energy even in the most efficient systems. The media through

which energy is transferred imposed electrical resistance to the flow of energy.

Additional energy is required to overcome this transmission medium resistance.

In a typical electric transmission and distribution system, energy loss is small

compared to the total amount of energy delivered to the customers

(Rahmatullah, 1992).

Losses occur in every piece of electrical equipment that carries of process

power. However, only types of equipment contribute significantly to the cost of

losses. Devises such as switches, breakers and connectors may carry large

currents but produces negligible losses. Only that equipment that has a

considerable electrical resistance is a significant producer of losses. This

equipment consists of all types of lines and transformers (including regulating

transformers). Capacitors also have a significant but indirect effect on losses (del

Carmen, 1992).

Low-tension losses are one of the factors that contribute technical

system loss. According to Rahmatullah in his technical report presented to the

International convention on rural Electrification (1992), reported that low tension

losses are caused by the load currents flowing through the resistance of the

wires and it should be realized that for each kVA of load at low tension, the

currents are 26.50 times greater than they are in high tension voltage. The result
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is that for each kVA at low tension the loss is 702 times greater than a kVA at a

high-tension loss of a line in the same conductor.

In most building operations electricity occupies the highest share of the

total operating expenditures. In fact, according to E.C. Pangan (2002) in his

thesis entitled Electrical System of the Cebu State College of Science and

Technology, Cebu City Basis for Rehabilitation presented to CSCST – College of

Advance Studies reported that the average monthly operating cost for CSCST –

Main Campus based from the General Fund Record 101 are as follows: Water,

PHP 21,808.57; Telephone, PHP 39,078.17; Janitorial, PHP 79,000.00 and PHP

123,359.22 for the electricity. From which electricity occupies the highest

position being the highest in cost.

The magnitude of Cebu Technological University – Hitachi Robotics and

Metrology Laboratory annual expense for losses due to electrical installation

deficiencies clearly suggests that reducing losses can produce significant benefits

to school’s operating cost.


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THE PROBLEM

This study assessed the electrical system of Cebu Technological University

– Hitachi Robotics and Metrology Laboratory during the academic year 2012 -

2013 as basis for the proposed rehabilitation plan.

Statement of the Problem

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the present condition of electrical system of Cebu Technological

University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology Laboratory as to:

1.1 illumination

1.2 transformers

1.3 wires/cables and bus bars

1.4 panel boards, feeders and sub-feeders, and

1.5 over current protection devices?

2. What is the extent of conformance of the aforementioned variables and

electrical components that contribute technical systems loss, to the

Philippine Electrical Code (PEC), National Electrical Code (NEC) and

Occupational Safety & Health Standard by the Department of Labor and

Employment (DOLE)?

3. Based on the findings, what rehabilitation plan could be proposed?


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Significance of the Study

The following are among the possible significant contributions of the

study.

School Administrators

Determining electrical design deficiencies for Cebu Technological

University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology Laboratory will help, guide and

pinpoint a component of design factors that best support instructional programs.

This study will serve as guide for school administrators for the proposed

rehabilitation plan.

This study may also serve as economic justification for the allocation or

appropriation of budget for the laboratory electrical system rehabilitation.

Teachers, Employees & Students

Electrical design enhancement for Cebu Technological University – Hitachi

Robotics and Metrology Laboratory help student and teachers as primary users to

come up of accurate results and correct interpretation on every laboratory

experiments conducted.

This will also minimize to even eliminate risks for electrical hazards that

may cause injuries to the occupants.

This will become a basis for awareness on the importance of good energy

management.
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This section describes the methodology used, the sources of data, the

respondent(s), locale of the study, and data gathering procedures

The researcher used a causal – comparative research method. In this

study, it sought to determine particular, actual situation as they are. It involved

on assessment of electrical system of Cebu Technological University – Hitachi

Robotics and Metrology Laboratory, analysis in data gathered and interpretation

of conditions that exist.

Flow of the Study

This study aims to asses electrical system of Cebu Technological

University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology Laboratory, determine design

deficiencies and present corrective actions.

Survey is administered through actual site inspection, interview and

functional group discussion of the administrators involved.

Ocular inspection had been conducted to check the total connected load,

evaluation through used of thermal imager and other electrical analyzing

instruments to circuit breakers, circuit home runs, and electrical panels,

grounding system protection, illumination and observed violation to existing

standards.
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Field interview focusing on the practices, equipment failure incidents due

to low or high voltage, breaker failure and other related useful data had been

conducted

The data gathered through interview and ocular inspections and from

results through the use of electrical analyzing equipment were tallied and treated

statistically.

Recommendations, analysis, interpretation of data and recommendations

are patterned to a commonly used tool, the Plan – Do – Check – Act cycle.

Figure 1.2 shows the research flow diagram using PDCA cycle.

Environment

The study was conducted at Cebu Technological University – Hitachi

Robotics and Metrology Laboratory located at M.J. Cuenco Avenue corner R.

Palma Street, Cebu City and has a coordinates of 10° 17’ 47” N ; 123° 54’ 24”

East.

Cebu Technological University is an educational institution located at M.J.

Cuenco Avenue corner R. Palma Street, Cebu City, Philippines. The state

university, previously named Cebu State College of Science and Technology. It

was on July 27, 2009 when Philippine Congress passed into law Republic Act No.

9744 which subsequently signed by president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on

November 10, 2009. Republic Act. 9744 converted Cebu State College of Science
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and Technology into a university and renamed it Cebu Technological University

(www.wikipedia.org).

The birth of Cebu Technological University – Hitachi Robotics and

Metrology Laboratory is when the Hitachi Global Storage Technologies (Hitachi

GST) expands its knowledge and skills enhancement initiative in the Philippines

with the launch of its regional laboratory center last November 21, 2009 at the

main campus of the Cebu Technological University. The university is one of the

recipients of the state of the art robotics and metrology equipments.

Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures

as the science of measurement embracing both experimental and theoretical

determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology,

while robotics is the science or study of the technology associated with the

design, fabrication, theory and applications of robots (The Freeman, November

22, 2009).
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PLAN: Collection of data,


evaluation and problem
identification

ACT: Presentation of DO: Implement the plan


through presentation of a
solutions & computation revised design proposal as
of financial benefits initial step.

CHECK: Check standard


conformance (OHSAS, NEC
& PEC)

Figure 1.2 Flow of the Study


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Figure 1.3 Location Map (Source: Google Maps)


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Figure 1.4 Site Map Plan (Source: Google Maps)


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Respondent

The respondents of the study are the laboratory in charge/administrators

of the Cebu Technological University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology

Laboratory.

Instruments and Procedure

Zonal cavity method is the instrument used for the design enhancement

proposal. It involves the assumption of finished ceiling, wall and floor

reflectance; substitution of values in a simple formulas to find room cavity ratios;

used of table to find coefficient of utilization for the luminaire to be used and

substitution of values in simple formula to find footcandles or number of fixtures.

Room Data

Room data is the physical data obtained from blueprints of the actual

measurement. Inside dimensions should be used. The reflectance of the surface

is a measure of amount of light which reflects from the surface. It is expressed

as a percentage of the total amount of light falling on the surface. In general,

light – colored surfaces will have higher reflectance than those with dark finishes.

In the design stage, the designer must come to understanding as to the

expected maintained reflectance. In the absence of any information, the values

shown in Table 1.1 may be used to guide for making lighting calculations.
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Surfaces Offices Industrial Plants Schools Residences Hospitals

Ceiling 80-92 80-90 70-90 60-90 80-92

Walls 40-60 40-60 40-60 35-60 40-60

Floor 21-39 At least 20 30-50 15-35 20-40

Table 1.1 Recommended Reflectance (percent); Source: IES Handbook, 4th Ed.

The reflectance of the existing surface may be obtained by measurement

using a reflectometer or by comparing sample of known reflectance with the

given surface.

If the lighting units are to be suspended, enter the distance from the

fixtures to the floor. If the fixtures are to be recessed or surface mounted, the

mounting height will be the same as the ceiling height.

Figure 1.5 Room Nomenclatures; Source: Making Electrical Calculations, by: J.F. McPartlan
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Cavity Data

The effective reflectance of the ceiling and floor cavities takes into the

account on the effect of inter – reflection of light among the various room

surfaces. The effective reflectances of both ceiling and floor cavities are found in

Table 1.2.

For an 80% ceiling reflectance, 50% wall reflectances and a ceiling cavity

ratio of zero, the effective ceiling cavity reflectance from Table 1.2 is 80.

Ceiling Percent Ceiling or Floor Reflectance


or 90 80 70 50 30 10
Floor
Percent Wall Reflectance
Cavity
Ratio 70 50 30 70 50 30 70 50 30 70 50 30 50 30 10 50 30 10
Percent Effective Reflectance
0 90 90 90 80 80 80 70 70 70 50 50 50 30 30 30 10 10 10
0.2 88 86 85 78 77 76 68 67 66 49 48 47 29 29 28 10 10 9
0.4 86 83 81 76 74 72 67 65 63 48 46 45 29 27 26 11 10 9
0.6 84 80 76 75 71 68 65 62 59 47 45 43 28 26 25 11 10 9
0.8 82 77 73 73 69 65 64 60 56 47 43 41 27 25 23 11 10 8
1 80 74 69 71 66 61 63 58 53 46 42 39 27 24 22 11 9 8
1.2 78 72 65 70 64 58 61 56 50 45 41 37 26 23 20 12 9 7
1.4 77 69 62 68 62 55 60 54 48 45 40 35 26 22 19 12 9 7
1.6 75 66 59 67 60 53 59 52 45 44 39 33 25 21 18 12 9 7

Table 1.2 Percent Effective Ceiling or Floor Cavity Reflectance; Source: Making Electrical Calculations, by:
J.F. McPartland

For a 20% reflectance, a 50% wall reflectance and a floor cavity ratio of

1.0, the effective floor cavity reflectance will be 19 from Table 1.2. The value of

19 is obtained by mathematical interpolation, since Table 1.2 does not have the

column for floor reflectance of 20. Since 20% is midway between 10% and 30%,

we take the value between the two values given by the 10 and the 30 columns

at the 50 % wall reflectance and 1.0 floor cavity ratio.


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Luminaire Data

For presentation purposes it will be assumed that a 2-lamp fluorescent

troffer is to be used with high efficiency lamps rated 3250 lumens. Table 1.3

provided by the troffer manufacturer is used to find coefficient of utilization.

Percent Effective Ceiling Cavity Reflectance


Room 80 70 50 30 10 0
Cavity
Ratio Percent Wall Reflectance
50 30 10 50 30 10 50 30 10 50 30 10 50 30 10 0
Coefficient of Utilization for 20% Effective Floor Cavity Reflectance
1 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.49
2 0.53 0.50 0.47 0.52 0.49 0.47 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.47 0.45 0.44 0.43
3 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.47 0.43 0.40 0.45 0.42 0.40 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.42 0.40 0.39 0.38
4 0.43 0.39 0.36 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.41 0.38 0.35 0.40 0.37 0.35 0.39 0.36 0.34 0.33
5 0.39 0.34 0.31 0.38 0.34 0.31 0.37 0.33 0.31 0.36 0.33 0.30 0.35 0.32 0.30 0.29

Table 1.3 Coefficient of Utilization on 2-Lamp Troffer; Source: Making Electrical Calculations, by: J.F.
McPartland

For an 80% effective ceiling cavity reflectance, a 50% wall reflectances and a

cavity ratio of 3.0, Table 1.3 gives a coefficient of 0.48. However the given in the

table are for 20% effective floor cavity reflectance. For value of the effective of

an effective floor cavity reflectance other than 20%, the correction factors of

Table 1.4 are applied to the luminaire CU. It was found that correction factors for

reflectances above 20% were almost exact reciprocals of reflectance below 20%.

Table 1.4 shows that, for an 80% ceiling, 50% wall and 3.0 room cavity

ratio, correction factor is 1.05. This is to be applied to the tentative CU of 0.48.

For the hypothetical effective floor cavity reflectance of 17%, the instruction in

Table 1.4 requires interpolation between 1.00 to 1.05.


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Percent Effective Ceiling Cavity Reflectance


Room 80 70 50 10
Cavity
Ratio Percent Wall Reflectance
50 30 10 50 30 10 50 30 10 50 30 10
Coefficient of Utilization for 20% Effective Floor Cavity Reflectance
1 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.06 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.04 1.01 1.01 1.01
2 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.01 1.01 1.01
3 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01
4 1.05 1.03 1.02 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.00
5 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
6 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
7 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
8 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
9 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
10 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00

Table 1.4 Correction Factors for Effective Floor Cavity Reflectances than 20%; Source: Making
Electrical Calculations, by: J.F. McPartland

Illumination and Number of Fixtures

There are two (2) general applications of the Zonal Cavity Method. This is

to determine how many fixtures or luminaires are required to produce a lighting

level in a footcandles and to determine what lighting level will be produced by

the given luminaire

The Zonal Cavity Method is an extension of the Lumen Method of making

lighting calculations, provides greater flexibility with increased accuracy. While

the explanation given here may seem lengthy, the steps involved are few in

number rather than simple.


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Data Gathering Procedure

Interviews were conducted with selected respondents to supplement

information from the actual field survey. Observation also helped describe,

validate the data and questionnaire returns.

The researcher himself also took pictures of the identified electrical

components as observation and for validation to its corresponding standards.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The following statistical tool(s) were utilized in processing the data.

Scatter Plot - reveals the relationship of associations between two numerical

variables. It is a plot of the values of y versus the corresponding values of x.

where: y= (vertical axis) response variable

x = (horizontal axis) some variables related to response variable

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following words and phrases shall have the meaning set forth below:

Ballast Factor – compares the ratio of light output of a lamp working by specific

ballast to the light output of the same lamp working by standard

reference ballast. The BF = is given in the ballast manufacturer

data.

Ceiling Cavity – is a distance from lighting fixtures plane to the ceiling.


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Demand – Peak electrical load.

Energy – The integral of power with respect to time, measured in watt – hour or

multiples thereof.

Feeder – Electrical distribution supply circuit that originates at the substation and

extends to the location of the customers.

Floor Cavity – is a distance from workplane to the floor.

Footcandle – (sometimes foot candle; abbreviated fc, lm/ft², or sometimes ft-c)

is a non-SI unit of illuminance or light intensity widely used

in photography, film, television, conservation lighting, and

the lighting industry. The name "footcandle" conveys "the

illuminance cast on a surface by a one-candela source one foot

away.

Hot spot – refers to the hot portion of the system or of an object.

Illumination – is the deliberate application of light to achieve some practical or

aesthetic effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light

sources such as lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural

illumination by capturing daylight.

Light Loss Factors (LLF) – are factors that need to be considered when

calculating the Zonal Cavity Method.

Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD) – are values reflecting the overall performance

of the lamp over its life. Those values can be found from the lamp

manufacturer’s data.
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Luminaire – is an electrical devices used to create artificial light by the used of

electrical lamp.

Lux – is a unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, a luminous flux per unit

area.

Load – An entity or electrical equipment that consumes electrical energy.

Illuminance – is a measure of how much luminous flux is spread over given area.

Infrared – it is the energy that is emitted from all objects.

National Electrical Code (NEC) – standards for electrical installation in the United

States of America

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) – a leader in providing electrical and

safety codes in the United States of America

Room Surface Dirt Depreciation (RSDD) – are values accounts for dirt or dust

that accumulates on the entire room surface especially on the

upper walls and ceiling.

Philippine Electrical Code (PEC) – standards for electrical installations in the

Philippines

PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) – referred as the Shewhart cycle or the Deming

wheel. The circular nature of cycle shows the continuous

improvement in a never-ending process.

Phase – One of three timing schedules followed by voltage or current on a three-

phase circuit.

Power Factor – Real power divided by apparent power.


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Power – Rate of production, transmission or used of energy.

Real Power – Electrical power that is available for conversion to heat or other

electrical power forms.

Reactive Power - Pseudo electrical power involved in magnetizing some types

of loads but not convertible to useful power.

Regulator – Device that automatically adjust circuit voltage by using

autotransformer principles.

System – A group of components connected or associated in fixed.

THHN – is an acronym for thermoplastic high heat resistant, nylon jacketed

insulation; one of the most commonly used insulation of wires.

Transformer – Transformer located near the consumer’s premises that

steps primary voltage down to customer’s utilization voltage.

Thermography – is the science of infrared imaging using thermal cameras.

Thermal Cameras – are instruments that create pictures of heat rather than light.

Utilization Voltage – Voltage that equipment operates.


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Chapter 2

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents PDCA cycle approach that uses three (3) of four (4)

cycles; these are plan, check and act. Act phase is presented in the next

chapters. The PDCA approach emphasizing that cycle repeats over and over

again and provides a means of never – ending improvement.

Part I (PLAN), this is the project identification to solve the identified

problem in the problem statement.

Part II (DO) these include verification of the project need, document the

process, plan for data collection, validate the measurement used and measure

the baseline performance.

Part III (CHECK) this phase collects and analyses data to determine the

critical variables. These are plan for data collection, collect and analyze the data

and test the cause and effect relationship.

Part IV (ACT) this phase presents design proposal to correct and rectify

defect based from the findings under this study.

PRESENT CONDITION OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF CTU – HITACHI

ROBOTICS & METROLOGY LABORATORY

Cebu Technological University – Hitachi Robotics & Metrology Laboratory

is sub-divided into four rooms, these are Mechtronics Laboratory No. 4,


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Mechatronics Laboratory No. 3, Lapping Area and Office of the Dean.

Mechatronics Laboratory No. 4 has a total area of 72.6 square meters,

Mechatronics Laboratory No. 3 with total area of 43.45 square meters, Lapping

Area with100.04 square meters and Office of the Dean with total area of 15.82

square meters. Finished floor level to ceiling has a total height of 3.70 meters

while work plane to ceiling has a total height of 2.90 meters (measured from top

of the laboratory table to ceiling reinforced concrete slab).

Illumination

Nine (9) identified location were tested using Illumination meter to test

current illumination each room at CTU – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology

Laboratory, for the data collection. Figure 2.1 shows an estimated location where

the test conducted, the position of the instrument is above the work plane. Work

plane is an estimated distance from finished floor level to the table tap where

most of the equipment are positioned and of the same level. Table 2.1 shows the

tabulated result taken at selected significant location/room in comparison to

Occupational Health and Safety Standard as amended by the Department of

Labor and Employment which states that: “A minimum of 300 lux (30 foot

candles) shall be provided where close discrimination of details is essential”.


31

Figure 2.1 Measured Illuminatio


Illumination Taken at Different Point at CTU – Hitachi
Robotics & Metrology Laboratory.

Mechatronics Laboratory # 3
Measured Illumination
Point(s)/Location Standard Illumination (Lux)
(Lux)
1 112 300
2 134 300
3 225 300
4 60 300
5 86 300
6 45 300
7 90 300
8 48 300
9 114 300
Mechatronics Laboratory # 4
1 56 300
2 237 300
3 40 300
4 95 300
5 61 300
6 59 300
7 207 300
8 194 300
9 30 300
Office/Lapping Area
1 134 300
2 60 300
3 103 300
4 98 300
5 227 300
6 23 300
7 285 300
8 226 300
9 178 300

Table 2.1 Tabular Illumination in Lux Using Illumination Mete


Meter
32

Scatter graph shows that there is a strong positive relationship between at

Mechatronics Laboratory No. 4 and of the Lapping/Office area in relation to the

standard illumination for laboratories. These are indicated with red and green

regression line going up while strong negative relationship for data measured at

the Mechatronics Laboratory No. 3 in relation to standard illumination for

laboratories as indicated by black regression line going down. Data also show

that no single point of reference in the three rooms being measured meet the

300 lux (30 foot candles) illumination requirement based on standard.

Present Illumination of CTU - Hitachi Robotics & Hitachi Laboratory


Variable
300 Measured Value Lab 3 (Lux)
Measured at Lab. 4 (Lux)
Measured at Lapping Area (Lux)
250 Standard Value (Lux)
Illumination (Lux)

200

150

100

50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Point/Location

Table 2.2 Scatter Plot Result on Measured Illumination vs. Standard Data
Illumination for Hitachi Robotics & Metrology Laboratory.
33

Electrical System Overview

Single Line Diagram

Figure 2.3 Single Line Diagram for CTU – Hitachi Robotics & Metrology Laboratory
34

CTU Main Transformers

Cebu Technological University main transformers are oil – immersed transformer

located on the front of the building mounted in a transformer pad. The total

installed capacity is 750 kVA, composed of 3 – 250 kVA individual transformers

interconnected together in a wye - delta configuration. The primary voltage

rating is 23,000 volts (23kV) and the secondary is 240 volts in a line to line

configuration.

The transformer location is too close to a building without space

separation. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 70 also known as

National Electrical Code Handbook, 2002 Edition under article 450.27 requires

that combustible materials, combustible buildings and parts of the buildings shall

be safeguarded from fires originating in an oil – immersed transformer installed

to or adjacent to a building. In case the transformer installation presents a fire

hazard, one or more of the following safeguard shall be applied according to the

degree of hazard involved. These are space separation, fire resistant barriers,

automatic fire suppression system or an enclosure.

Figure 2.4 shows the thermal scanning images using Fluxe Ti25 Thermal

Imager. A temperature reading has an average of 40.2 degrees Celsius with the

maximum of 45.5 degrees Celsius which appears to be normal. Object distance is

1.5 meters from the equipment taken 2:20 in the afternoon; weather is dry with

an ambient temperature of 29 to 30 degree Celsius.


35

Figure 2.4 Thermal Scanning Images of CTU 3 x 250k


250kVA Transformer

Wires/Cables & Bus Bars


ars

Four cables per phase of 250 square millimet


millimeters, THHN used as main conductors

from transformer to main distribution panel. It was also observed that there are

splices in between transformer and 1800 amperes main circuit breakers line side

of the main
ain distribution panel. The live bus bars in the panel board are exposed

and with dust accumulation. Figure 2.5 shows splices between two terminals.
36

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 70 also known as National

Electrical Code Handbook, 2002 Edition under article 300.13(A) states that

splices or taps are prohibited within raceways unless the raceway are equipped

with hinged or removable cover.

Figure 2.5 Cable Splices From Transformer Towards MDP

Panel Boards & Feeders/Sub – Feeders

The main distribution panel is located inside the building with 1800

amperes, three phase, and 240 volts as main with four branches, these are 600

amperes, three phase, 2 by 100 square millimeters in diameter THHN cable for

College of Education; 400 amperes, three phase, 2 by 100 square millimeters in

diameter THHN cable for Administration Building; 400 amperes, three phase, 1

by 100 square millimeters in diameter THHN cable for College of Technology

Building and 125 amperes, three phase intended as spare. It was observed that

the bus bars of the main distribution panel are exposed and the entrance door
37

has no restriction. Hotspot also found on load and line side of the breakers and a

potential sign of loose connection.

Figure 2.4 shows the therm


thermal scanning images using
g Fluxe Ti25 Thermal

Imager. Temperature reading has a maximum of 85


85.8 degrees Celsius; object

distance is 1.5 meters from the equipment taken 2:30 in the afternoon, weather

is dry with an ambient temperature of 29 to 30 degree Celsi


Celsius.
us. Results show that

there is t hot spot in the component and a sign of loose contact.

Figure 2.6 Hot Spot at 400 Amperes S


Supplying College of Technology
38

Sub - feeder or the equipment distribution panels located at the Hitachi Robotics

and Metrology Laboratory are enclosed with plywood which is a highly

combustible material.

Over Current Protection Devices

Breakers used as over current protection devices for laboratory equipments do

not conform to the interrupting current capacity requirement of the equipment.

EXTENT OF CONFORMITY TO STANDARDS

Table 2.3 presents the current condition of electrical components and the extent

of conformance of illumination/lighting, transformers, wires/cables, bus bars,

panel boards, feeders/sub-feeders and over current protection devices to

Philippine Electrical Code (PEC), National Electrical Code (NEC) and Occupational

Safety and Health Standard by the Department of Labor and Employment

(DOLE) and what are the components that contributes technical losses.

Conformance (NEC, PEC,


Electrical Occupational Safety &
No. Present Condition(s)
Component(s) Health Standard by
DOLE)
Occupational Safety and
Health Standard by DOLE
Room illumination did not under Article 1075:04 no. 6
meet the 300 lux minimum states that, a minimum of
Lightings
1 requirements by the 300 lux (30 foot candles)
(Illumination)
Occupational Health and shall be provided where
Safety Standard by DOLE close discrimination of
details is essential similar to
laboratories.
39

Conformance (NEC, PEC,


Electrical
No. Present Condition(s) Occupational Safety &
Component(s)
Health Standard by DOLE)
The National Fire Protection
Association 70 (NFPA 70) also
known as National Electrical
Code Handbook, 200 Edition
under Article 450.27 requires
Transformer is too close to
3 x 250 KVA that combustible materials,
2 the building without space
Transformers combustible buildings and part
separation.
of the buildings shall be
safeguard from fires
originating in an oil -
immersed transformer installed
to or adjacent to a building.
The National Fire Protection
Association 70 (NFPA 70) also
known as National Electrical
Code Handbook, 200 Edition
Wires/Cables & Bus Splices & taps are not under Article 300.13 (a) states
3
bars enclosed or exposed. that splices or taps are
prohibited within raceways
unless the raceways are
equipped with hinged or
removable cover.
Philippine Electrical Code
(PEC), under Article 3.0.1.4
Panel Boards, Exposed panel boards,
requires all electrical
4 Feeders & Sub- without panel board
conductors where subject to
feeders covers.
physical damage, conductors
shall be protected.
Under size ampere
Over - Current interrupting capacity for Did not conform to equipment
5
Protection Devices most of the equipment specifications.
OCPD's.

Table 2.3 List of electrical components non-conformance to standards

Room illumination did not meet the 300 lux minimum requirements by the

Occupational Health and Safety Standard by DOLE, Occupational Safety and

Health Standard by DOLE under Article 1075:04 no. 6 states that, a minimum of

300 lux (30 foot candles) shall be provided where close discrimination of details
40

is essential similar to laboratories. Transformer is too close to the building

without space separation, the National Fire Protection Association 70 (NFPA 70)

also known as National Electrical Code Handbook, 200 Edition under Article

450.27 requires that combustible materials, combustible buildings and part of the

buildings shall be safeguard from fires originating in an oil - immersed

transformer installed to or adjacent to a building. Splices & taps are not enclosed

or exposed, the National Fire Protection Association 70 (NFPA 70) also known as

National Electrical Code Handbook, 200 Edition under Article 300.13 (a) states

that splices or taps are prohibited within raceways unless the raceways are

equipped with hinged or removable cover. Exposed panel boards, without panel

board covers, Philippine Electrical Code (PEC), under Article 3.0.1.4 requires all

electrical conductors where subject to physical damage, conductors shall be

protected. Under size ampere interrupting capacity for most of the equipment

OCPD's, and these did not conform to equipment specifications.


41

Chapter 3

SUMMARY, FINDINDS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Presented in this chapter are the summary, findings, conclusion and

recommendations of the study.

SUMMARY

This study assessed the electrical system of Cebu Technological University –

Hitachi Robotics and Metrology Laboratory during the academic year 2012 -2013

as basis for the proposed rehabilitation plan.

FINDINGS

Based from the results of the study, it was found out that there is hot spot

in the main distribution panel which is an indication of loose contact and

overload system. Hot spot contributes technical systems loss. There were no

available barriers between transformer and the main building. Unenclosed

multiple cable splices going to the main distribution panel which is a violation of

the electrical code. Present illumination did not meet the Occupational Safety and

Health Standard by DOLE which requires a minimum of 300 lux for laboratory

application. There are also exposed/unsecured live bus bars at the main

distribution panel. Distribution panel/feeder located at the Hitachi Robotics and

Metrology Laboratory is enclosed with ply board, a highly combustible material.


42

Without permanent power source tapping point of the most of the laboratory

equipments and no available 208Vac, 3P for two laboratory equipments located

at Mechatronics Laboratory No. 3. Lastly, breakers used as over current

protection devices for laboratory equipments did not meet the ampere –

interrupting requirements as per equipment manufacturer specifications.

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher made the following

conclusion that the preset electrical system is of CTU – Hitachi Robotics and

Metrology Laboratory has a high risk of catastrophic outage and vulnerable to

source of fire.

RECOMMENDATION

Based on the findings and conclusions, it is hereby recommended that the

proposed rehabilitation plan will be considered, this can be implemented in phase

by phase to avoid onetime cost impact and after the implementation the

management would implement and in place check points on the system in order

to monitor and maintain reliability.


43

Chapter 4

PROPOSED REHABILITATION PLAN

In designing a power system that is reliable and economical requires that

the power system engineer plan the power distribution on an overall inclusive

basis. As a start, a single line diagram must be developed. This is a drawing that

shows the entirety of the power system. It shows what service reliability will be

and how the components of the system are connected together to serve the

loads reliably, safely, and economically.

It is the responsibility for the power system engineer to keep the electrical

system as safe as possible. Three fundamental ideas help to build safe power

systems. Enclose all live conductors in grounded metal. Protective equipment and

switching devices must have adequate interrupting rating. Design the system so

that working on energized conductors is not necessary.

Economics is a very important factor in power system designing. It is

opposed by safety and reliability. Economics is not evaluated merely on a per

equipment basis but rather the whole power system installation should be

evaluated as a whole.

Always provide an extra power system capacity to allow the connection of

future plant expansion. Important items to consider for future growth are;

reserve
44

in substation kVA size over predicted present loads, margin in interrupting rating

of switching devices, and proper selection of voltage level.

Design the system as simple as possible. Most shutdowns are associated

with the complexity of electrical system in relation to the experience of the

maintenance personnel. The difficulty in getting adequately trained personnel

makes a simple power system more desirable.

The electrical system must be capable of being expanded without

requiring major changes in the power distribution. The use of load-center type

system with small substations that can be added in small units is one basic

consideration in plant flexibility

Electric power reliability is directly proportional to production. An hour loss

of electric power supply may mean great loss in operation. It could mean also

the loss of life in health care facilities. High service reliability can be obtained in

two ways. One is by providing duplicate power supply; the other is by installing

only the high quality of electric equipment and using the best installation

method.

Select the best equipment available. Ratings must be adequate in every

aspect; proper voltage level, current, interrupting rating proper protection.

The power system designer can aid in this problem by designing systems

that provide alternate supply, to permit one to be taken out for maintenance

without dropping essential loads. Use draw-out equipment wherever possible to

enable maintenance on circuit breaker elements (B.S Jimenez, 2004).


45

Proposed Rehabilitation Plan for


Cebu Technological University – Hitachi
Robotics & Metrology Laboratoty Electrical System

Prepared By:

Engr. Edgar P. Cortes, REE


46

Control – Impact Analysis

Control – impact analysis is use as a brainstorming template to identify

solution prioritization. Controllability of implementation is categorized as low,

medium and high. Low is defined as other people do it for you; medium is also

defined as the need of other person through close coordination and high is when

you or your team implements the solution.

Impact to the problem is also categorized as low, medium and high. Low

impact means very minimal or without significant effect to the resolution of the

problem. Medium is when the proposed solution is not a hundred percent

solution of the problem. High is when the root cause is address or the exact

solution to the root cause.

Tables 2.2 are the summary of tabulated control – impact analysis with

five identified problem under this study. Table 2.3, control – impact matrix shows

that impact and control of the five identified problems falls to medium to high

category which are considered top priority in order to resolve the identified

problems.

Idea
No. Problem Proposed Solution Impact Control
Type
Install additional lightings
Insufficient Quick
1. to meet desired standard High High
Illumination Win
illumination
Without space
separation of
the 3x 250 kVA
Construction of 3 x 250 Long
2. transformer High Medium/High
kVA transformer enclosure Term
from Admin
Building
47

Idea
No. Problem Proposed Solution Impact Control
Type
Multiple cable
splices from
Replace cable and cable
transformer to Long
3. tray High High
main Term
enhancement/modification
distribution
panel
Expose live bus
Rehabilitation of the main Quick
4. bars at the main Medium Medium
panel board Win
panel board
Substandard Quick
5. Breaker replacement High High
breakers Win

Table 4.1 Control - Impact Analysis Based from the Identified Problem

Table 4.2 Control – Impact Matrix Based from the Identified Problem

Cost – Benefit Analysis

Cost – benefit analysis is a financial exercise on how much the Cebu

Technological University – Hitachi Robotics and Metrology Laboratory need to

pay for the resolution of the identified problems. Project cost and benefit is
48

categorized as low, medium or high. Proposed solution(s) low to medium cost

with medium to high impact is recommended for immediate implementation.

Idea type are also categorized into two (2): quick win which is easy to

implement and usually due to minimal cost involve and long term which is a

project based solution with high cost involvement.

Idea
No. Problem Proposed Solution Cost Benefit
Type
Install additional lightings
Insufficient Quick
1. to meet desired standard Low High
Illumination Win
illumination
Without space
separation of the
Construction of 3 x 250 Long
2. 3x 250 kVA Medium High
kVA transformer enclosure Term
transformer from
Admin Building
Multiple cable
splices from Replace cable and cable
Long
3. transformer to tray High High
Term
main distribution enhancement/modification
panel
Expose live bus
Rehabilitation of the main Quick
4. bars at the main Medium High
panel board Win
panel board
Substandard Quick
5. Breaker replacement Medium High
breakers Win

Table 4.3 Costs – Benefit Analysis Based from the Identified Problem
49

Table 4.4 Cost –Benefit Matrix Based from the Identified Problem

PROPOSED ELECTRICAL DESIGN CALCULATION

A. Summary of Equipments

Power
S/ Voltage Frequency
Equipment Name Location Rating Phase
N (V) (Hz)
(W)
Hitachi Crest Ultra
1. Lapping Area 240 5000 3 50/60
Sonic
2. 3D Printer Lapping Area 240 1200 1 50/60
Veeco Surface Profile Mechatronics Lab #
3. 90 - 250 1500 1 50/60
Tester Machine # 1 4
Veeco Surface Profile Mechatronics Lab #
4. 90 - 250 1500 1 50/60
Tester Machine # 2 4
Veeco Surface Profile Mechatronics Lab #
5. 90 - 250 1500 1 50/60
Tester Machine # 3 4
Veeco Surface Profile Mechatronics Lab #
6. 90 - 250 1500 1 50/60
Tester Machine # 4 4
Mechatronics Lab #
7. LEICA Microscope # 1 90 - 250 180 1 50/60
4
50

Mechatronics Lab #
8. LEICA Microscope # 2 90 - 250 180 1 50/60
4
Mechatronics Lab #
9. LEICA Microscope # 3 90 - 250 180 1 50/60
4
Mechatronics Lab #
10. LEICA Microscope # 4 90 - 250 180 1 50/60
4
Mechatronics Lab #
11. LEICA Microscope # 5 90 - 250 180 1 50/60
4
Mechatronics Lab #
12. HYPREZ Texturing 200 2000 1 50/60
4
Verical Lap 808 Mechatronics Lab #
13. 120 744 1 50/60
Machine 4
Mirreon Transfer Mechatronics Lab #
14. 208 10807 3 50/60
Palletized Robot 3
Mechatronics Lab #
15. Anorad 208 10807 3 50/60
3

Table 4.5 Summary of Equipments

Branch Circuit Design Calculations

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.1 HITACHI CREST ULTRASONIC MACHINE ; LOCATION: LAPPING AREA

1 5000 Watts at 240Vac, 3-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 12.02Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 12.08A = 15.03Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 15.03 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 15.03 A = 37.57 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 40 AT, 3P, 240 V
Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


51

established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 3 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (3 x 23ft x 0.20 x 12.02)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.16V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length.

9b % VD = (0.16V x 100) / 240 = 0.07% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.2 3D PRINTER, LOCATION: LAPPING AREA

1 1200 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 5 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 5A = 6.25Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 6.25 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 5 A = 12.5 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 15 AT, 1P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations
52

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 27ft x 0.20 x 5)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.54V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.54V x 100) / 240 = 0.22% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.3 VEECO SURFACE PROFILE TESTER MACHINE # 1; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 1500 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 6.25 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 6.25A= 7.81Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 7.81 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 6.25 A = 15.62 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)
53

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 26ft x 0.20 x 7.81)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.08V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.08 x 100) / 240 = 0.03 % at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.4 VEECO SURFACE PROFILE TESTER MACHINE # 2; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 1500 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 6.25 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 6.25A= 7.81Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 7.81 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 6.25 A = 15.62 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4
54

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 32 ft x 0.20 x 6.25)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.08V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.08V x 100) / 240 = 0.03 % at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.5 VEECO SURFACE PROFILE TESTER MACHINE # 3; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 1500 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 6.25 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 6.25A= 7.81Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 7.81 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 6.25 A = 15.62 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


55

Volts Drop = (2 x 32 ft x 0.20 x 6.25)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table


Voltage Drop = 0.08V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.08 x 100) / 240 = 0.03 % at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.6 VEECO SURFACE PROFILE TESTER MACHINE # 4; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 1500 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 6.25 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 6.25A= 7.81Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 7.81 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 6.25 A = 15.62 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 36 ft x 0.20 x 6.25)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
56

Voltage Drop = 0.09V 9.1.1.8


0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.09x 100) / 240= 0.03 % at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.7 LEICA MICROSCOPE # 1; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 180 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 0.75 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 0.75A= 0.93Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 0.93 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 0.93 A = 2.34 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 34 ft x 0.20 x 0.75)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.01V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
57

3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft


length

9b % VD = (0.01V x 100) / 240 = 0.004% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.8 LEICA MICROSCOPE # 2; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 180 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 0.75 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 0.75A= 0.93Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 0.93 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 0.93 A = 2.34 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 33 ft x 0.20 x 0.75)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.009V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
58

length

9b % VD = (0.009V x 100) / 240 = 0.004% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.9 LEICA MICROSCOPE # 3; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 180 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 0.75 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 0.75A= 0.93Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 0.93 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 0.93 A = 2.34 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 34ft x 0.20 x 0.75)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.01V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length
59

9b % VD = (0.01V x 100) / 240 = 0.004% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.10 LEICA MICROSCOPE # 4; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

2 Full Load Amperes = 0.75 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 0.75A= 0.93Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 0.93 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 0.93 A = 2.34 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 36 ft x 0.20 x 0.75)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.01V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.01V x 100) / 460 = 0.004% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4
60

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.11 LEICA MICROSCOPE # 5; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 180 Watts at 240Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 0.75 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 0.75A= 0.93Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 0.93 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 0.93 A = 2.34 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 38 ft x 0.20 x 0.75)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.01V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.01V x 100) / 240 = 0.004% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4
61

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.12 HYPREZ TEXTURING; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 2000 Watts at 200Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 10.Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 10A= 12.5Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 12.5 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 10A = 25Amperes PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


(maximum), USE: 30 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 39 ft x 0.20 x 10)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.15V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.15V x 100) / 240 = 0.06% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4
62

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.11 VERTICAL LAP 808; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 4

1 744 Watts at 120 Vac, 1-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 6.2 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 6.2A= 7.7Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 7.7 Amperes: Use 3.5 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 25A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 7.7 A = 19.3 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 20 AT, 3P, 240 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 15 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 2 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (2 x 45 ft x 0.20 x 6.2)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.18V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.11V x 100) / 120 = 0.09% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4
63

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.13 MIRREON TRANSFER PALLETIZER ROBOT ; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 3

1 10807 Watts at 208Vac, 3-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 30 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 30A= 37.5Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 37.5 Amperes: Use 8.0 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 40A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 37.5A = 93.7 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 100AT, 3P, 208 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 40 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 3 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (3 x 20 ft x 0.20 x 30)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.36V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.36V x 100) / 208 = 0.17% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4
64

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

B.11 ANORAD; LOCATION: MECHATRONICS LAB # 3

1 10807 Watts at 208Vac, 3-phase, 50 – 60 Hz Original Specification

2 Full Load Amperes = 30 Amperes PEC Table 4.30.14.4


(mandatory)

3 Branch Circuit Conductors PEC Art. 2.10.1.1/4.30.2.2 (a)


125% x 30A= 37.5Ampres (mandatory)

4 Wire Size at 37.5 Amperes: Use 8.0 mm sq. THW, PEC Table 3.10.1.16
75 deg C (Ampacity: 40A)

5 Branch Circuit Breaker: 250% x 37.5A = 93.7 PEC Art. 4.30.4.2 /


Amperes (maximum), USE: 100AT, 3P, 208 V Table 4.30.14.6

6 Branch Circuit Breaker Frame: To be must be Refer short circuit calculation


established in separate calculations

7 Conduit for Equipment Conductors: 40 mm dia. PEC Appendix C Table C1


RSC (mandatory)

8 Check Voltage Drop, that is 3% for power loads PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

9a Volts Drop =( 3 x L x R x I)/1000 L = length in meter, R =


Volts Drop = (3 x 25ft x 0.20 x 30)/1000 resistance per M, PEC Table
Voltage Drop = 0.45V 9.1.1.8
0.20 ohms is the voltage drop of
3.5 mm. dia. Cu wire per 1000ft
length

9b % VD = (0.45V x 100) / 208 = 0.21% at normal Below the 3% requirement


power factor under PEC 2.10.2.1, FPN No.4

Table 4.6 Branch Circuit Design Calculation Per Equipment


65

Mechatronics Lab # 3 Sub – Feeder Design Calculations, 208V, 3P

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

FEEDER SIZE:
1 Motor/Equipment Ratings:

a. Vertical Lap 808, 744W 6.20A


b. Mirreon Transfer Palletizer Original Specifications
Robot, 10,807W,3P 30.0A
Nameplate Ratings
c. Anorad, 10.807W,3P 30.0A
d. Future: 5 KW 13.8A
TOTAL 80.0A
2 Biggest Motor: 10,807W, 30A, Controller: 3P OEM Supplied
Sum of Currents of the Rest of the Motors: (80 -30) Computed
60A Trade Practice
DF = 85% (All Motors Running but at 85% Load
Only)

3 Feeder Cable Size: 125% x 30A + (60A x 0.85) = (PEC 4.30.2.4)


88.50 Amps (PEC Table 3.10.1.16)
Cable Size at 88.50A: USE: 38mm2, Ampacity: 110 A

4 Feeder Cableway: Ladder Type Cable Tray with Trade Practice


cover

5 MCC Mains Bus: 88.50A x 150% = 132.75A Raw Ampacity of Cu Bus:


Use: 7 mm x 20 mm Copper Bus (Raw Ampacity = 1.55A/mm2. Bus Derating
217A) Factor = 67%
Effective Ampacity (Derated) = 217 x 0.67 = 145.39
A

FEEDER PROTECTION:

6 MCC Mains CB Size: 200% x 30 + (60 x 0.85) = 111 200% of FLA of largest
A motor/equipment; AF is for
USE: 125 AT, 3P, 250V separate computation.

7 Mains Breaker: 125AT, 15KAIC, Mains Feeder: 38 (PEC Table 3.10.1.16)


66

mm2 THW with Neutral (Ampacity: 125 A), Bus


Effective Ampacity: 103.85A

8. LV – LV Transformer: Primary Voltage = 240V, 3P, (PEC Table 4.50.1.3b)


3w+grnd; Secondary Voltage = 208V, 3P,
4w+grnd.; minimum of K13
Over Current Protection: 38 mm2 THW (Ampacity:
100 A)

Table 4.7 Sub – Feeder Design Calculation

Laboratory Feeder Design Calculations, 240V, 3P

Item CALCULATIONS REMARKS

FEEDER SIZE:
1 Motor/Equipment Ratings:

e. Hitachi Crest Ultra Sonic, 12.02A


5000W Original Specifications
f. 3D Printer; 1200W 5.00 A
Nameplate Ratings
g. Veeco Surface Profile Tester #
1 ;1500W 6.25A
h. Veeco Surface Profile Tester #
2 ;1500W 6.25 A
i. Veeco Surface Profile Tester #
3 ;1500W 6.25A
j. Veeco Surface Profile Tester
# 4 ;1500W 6.25A
k. Lieca Microscope # 1; 180W 0.75A
l. Lieca Microscope # 2; 180W 0.75A
m. Lieca Microscope # 3; 180W 0.75A
n. Lieca Microscope # 4; 180W 0.75A
o. Lieca Microscope # 5; 180W 0.75A
p. Sub – feeder # 1, ( LV –LV 80.0A
Transformer)
q. Future: 5 KW 20.8A
TOTAL 146.57A
67

2 Biggest Motor: 5000W, 12.2A, Controller: 3P OEM Supplied


Sum of Currents of the Rest of the Motors: (146.57 - Computed
12.2) 134.37A Trade Practice
DF = 85% (All Motors Running but at 85% Load
Only)

3 Feeder Cable Size: 125% x 12.2A + (134.37A x (PEC 4.30.2.4)


0.85) = 129.46 Amps (PEC Table 3.10.1.16)
Cable Size at 129.46A: USE: 60mm2, Ampacity: 160
A

4 Feeder Cableway: Ladder Type Cable Tray with Trade Practice


cover

5 MCC Mains Bus: 146.57A x 150% = 219.85A Raw Ampacity of Cu Bus:


Use: 12 mm x 20 mm Copper Bus (Raw Ampacity = 1.55A/mm2. Bus Derating
372A) Factor = 67%
Effective Ampacity (Derated) = 372 x 0.67 = 249.24
A

FEEDER PROTECTION:

6 MCC Mains CB Size: 200% x 12.2 + (129.46 x 0.85) 200% of FLA of largest
= 134.44 A motor/equipment; AF is for
USE: 160 AT, 3P, 250V separate computation.

7 Mains Breaker: 160AT 15KAIC, Mains Feeder: 60 The feeder cable not
mm2 THW (Ampacity: 160 A), Bus Effective matched
Ampacity: 249.24A w/ CB as to PEC
requirements

Table 4.8 Feeder Design Calculation


68

Fault Calculation General Discussion

According to Benigno S. Jimenez, PEE in his technical paper entitled

Short Circuit Analyses, he pointed out the in designing an electrical system

is easy and simple if only the normal operation of the network is taken

into consideration. However, abnormal conditions which are likely to

occur anytime must be foreseen and should be taken seriously during the

design stage. A good design must not only be made simple but most

importantly, safe and reliable. An electrical system must operate

continuously during normal and healthy overload situations; it must also

trip expeditiously to isolate the affected parts of the system during fault

conditions.

Short-Circuit Study is very important. Short-Circuit levels in the

electrical system will be determined through the study. Only when it is

done, that is the time that the ratings, sizes, types etc. of the equipments

and protective devices can be specified.

Short-Circuit current should be calculated at every bus and points

where relay or any short-circuit protective device are installed in order to

determine the duty rating of protective devices and busses, determine the

proper size of the cables, determine the settings of the relays, properly

coordinate the protective devices and to determine whether the short-

circuit MVA is sufficient to start large motors/loads


69

THW CABLE R X Z

325 mm 2 THW (650 MCM) 1.97 3.98 4.44


250 mm 2 THW (500 MCM) 2.44 3.96 4.65
200 mm 2 THW (400 MCM) 2.97 4.04 5.01
150 mm 2 THW (300 MCM) 3.85 4.14 5.65
125 mm 2 THW (250 MCM) 4.57 4.23 6.23
100 mm 2 THW (200 MCM) 5.00 4.30 6.59
80 mm 2 THW (4/0 AWG) 6.68 4.22 7.90
60 mm 2 THW (2/0 AWG) 8.35 4.35 9.42
50 mm 2 THW (1/0 AWG) 10.40 4.46 11.31

Table 4.9 60 HZ Resistances, Reactance & Impedances of cables in a metallic raceway(milliohm per 100 ft)

When Fault Occurs at Point A

Figure 4.1 Single Line Representations When Fault Occurs at Point “A”
70

KVABase 750 KVA


PU Zs = = = 0.00075PU
KVASCUtility 1,000, 000 KVA
%impedance 6.1
PU ZT = = = 0.61
100 100
E VAbase
I sc ( symetrical ) = x
Z 240V ( 3)
1.0 750,000VA
I sc ( symetrical ) = x = 25,748.81 Amps
(0.601 + 0.00907) 240Vx 3

Breaker rating should not be less than 30,000 AIC or 30kAIC Interrupting

capacity for the 1200Amps main circuit breaker of the main distribution panel

(MDP) which is existing.

When Fault Occurs at Point B.

Figure 4.2 Single Line Representations When Fault Occurs at Point “B”
71

Figure 4.3 Impedance Single Line Representations

KVABase 750 KVA


PU ( Zs ) = = = 0.00075PU
KVAutility SC 1,000,000 KVA
PU ZT = Z ( x ' former +Cu ) + Z ( motor +Cu ) = 0.07007 + 0.06546 = 0.13553

E VA(base)
Isc( symetrical ) = x
Z BaseVoltage( 3)
1.0 750, 000VA
Isc( symetrical ) = x = 13, 312.32 Amps ( RM S )
0.13553 240V ( 3)

Breaker rating should not be less than 15,000 AIC or 15KAIC Interrupting

capacity for the proposed feeder located at Hitachi Robotics and Metrology

Laboratory.
72

Proposed Single Line Diagram

Figure 4.4 Proposed Single Line Diagram


73
74
75
76

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. Books

Booth, et. al., Rural Electric Research, National Rural Electric Cooperative

Association, 1990

Fink, Donald, G. Beaty, H. Wayne, Standard Handbook for Electrical

Engineers, Boston: McGraw Hill, 2000, 14th Edition

J.F. McPartland, Making Electrical Calculations

Joseph A. DeFeo, et. al., Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th Edition

2007

Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers, Philippine Electrical Code

Part 1, Volume 1, 2009

Locke, A.M., Book, H. W., Economic Loading of Transformers, Electric Light

and Power, April 1978, pp. 54-56

Mark M. Earley, National Electrical Code Handbook, 10th Edition, 2005

NRECA Research Project 90-7, Distribution System Loss Management

Manual, 1990

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Abdelatia, B., Daylighting Strategy for Sustainability Schools: Case Study of

Phototype Classroom in Libya, September 2010


77

Boyden S. Biological Determinants of Optimal Health, A Proceeding of

Human Biology of Environmental Change Conference, 1971

C.P. Fernandez, Jr., Power System Design for a 2000 MTPD Cement

Finishing Plant, 2005

Del Carmen, J., Effective Methods/ Techniques in Checking Pilferages and

Reducing Line Losses, International Convention on Rural Electrification, July

1992

Globe Telecom, Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Training Manual, 2012

Feilding R., Learning, Lighting and Color; Lighting Design for School and

Universities in 21st Century., 2006

Hassler, S, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer (IEEE)

Spectrum, July 2003

Hago E. & Tanner K., Influence of the School facility on Student

Achievements, 1999

Hazan, E., System Economic Benefits from Loss Reduction Measures on

Transmission and Distribution, July 1982

Harriss, D.W., Line Loss and Its Reduction, New Zealand Energy, August

1977

Henri Juslin, School Lighting and Efficient Way to Improve Out Children’s

Educational and Well Being, 2005


78

John McCreery & Timothy Hill, Illuminating Classroom Environment, 2005

John, M. & Timothy E.H., Illuminating the Classroom Environment School

Planning and Management, 2005

Knez, I. & Kers, C. Effects of Indoor Lighting Gender, Age, Mood, Cognitive

Performance, 2000

Robert Scott McGowen, The Impact of School Facilities on Student

Achievement, Attendance, Behavior, Completion Rate and Teacher Turnover

Rate in Selected Texas High School, December 2007

Rahmatullah, B. D., Effective Methods/ Techniques in Checking Pilferages

and Reducing Line Losses, International Convention on Rural

Electrification, July 1992

Sanaz A. Samani, The Influence of Light on Student’s Learning Performance

in Learning Environments; A Knowledge Internalization Perspective, 2011

Zorpette, G. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer (IEEE)

Spectrum, January 2004

C. Article

Baylor, J. S., Gustafson, M. N., Power-System Loss Calculation Updated,

Transmission and Distribution, November 1989

The Freeman, November 22, 2009

Occupational Safety & Health Council; A Simple Guide to Health Risk

Assessment, 2003
79

D. Internet

http://www.hicoamirica.com/contact.shtml

http://www.metering.com/archive/991/341.htm

http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWEB

http://www.coe.uga.edu

www.google.com

www.wikipedia.org

www.yahoo.com

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/light-level-rooms-d_708.html

E. Laws

Republic Act 9136 “Electrical Power Reform Industry Act”

Republic Act 6038 “National Electrification Act”