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Introduction to Functions

Table of Contents

Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 3

Test Your Prerequisite Skills ........................................................................................................ 4

Objectives ...................................................................................................................................... 4

Lesson 1: Functions, Function Notations, and Equations

- Warm Up! ........................................................................................................................... 5

- Learn about It! ................................................................................................................... 6

- Let’s Practice! ..................................................................................................................... 9

- Check Your Understanding! ............................................................................................ 12

Lesson 2: Functions vs. Relations

- Warm Up! ......................................................................................................................... 13

- Learn about It! ................................................................................................................. 13

- Let’s Practice! ................................................................................................................... 16

- Check Your Understanding! ............................................................................................ 19

Lesson 3: Evaluating and Graphing Functions

- Warm Up! ......................................................................................................................... 21

- Learn about It! ................................................................................................................. 22

- Let’s Practice! ................................................................................................................... 23

- Check Your Understanding! ............................................................................................ 28

Lesson 4: Domain and Range of Functions

- Warm Up! ......................................................................................................................... 30

- Learn about It! ................................................................................................................. 30

- Let’s Practice! ................................................................................................................... 35

- Check Your Understanding! ............................................................................................ 38

1

STUDY GUIDE

Performance Task ....................................................................................................................... 41

Wrap-up ....................................................................................................................................... 42

Key to Let’s Practice! .................................................................................................................... 43

References ................................................................................................................................... 45

STUDY GUIDE

Table of Contents

GRADE 11| GENERAL MATHEMATICS

UNIT 1

Introduction to Functions

You might come across one day when your mother

complains about the VAT or the Value Added Tax in your

electric and water bills. It might make her worry more the

fact that the VAT varies each month. You might find it

challenging to explain that the tax charged to consumers,

like your household, is a function of the amount of

consumption in a particular month.

another. For instance, the scores you get in your exams depend

on the amount of work you put in studying. If your parents are

keen on your school progress, your allowance might depend on

your academic performance. A wage-earner’s income depends on

the number of hours he worked.

Similarly, the interest of your savings depends on the amount you

deposited in a bank.

These are just some examples of the application of functions. In this unit, you will explore

various aspects of a function and its application to the real world.

STUDY GUIDE

Evaluating algebraic expressions

Before you get started, answer the following items on a separate sheet of paper. This will

help you assess your prior knowledge and practice some skills that you will need in

studying the lessons in this unit. Show your complete solution.

A. Plot the following set of ordered pairs in the Cartesian plane and connect all the dots.

1. (2,0) 5. (2,8) 9. (6,4)

2. (2,2) 6. (4,8) 10. (7,8)

3. (2,4) 7. (6,8)

4. (2,6) 8. (4,4)

1. at 4. at

2. at 5. at

3. at

Objectives

define functions and distinguish them from equations;

distinguish functions from relations;

evaluate functions;

represent real-life situations using functions, including piecewise functions; and

identify the domain and range of different types of functions.

4

STUDY GUIDE

Warm Up!

Rule Me Out!

Instructions:

1. This activity will be done by pair.

2. If the rule is given, complete the boxes with the correct numbers. Supply the

rule if it is missing.

RULE RULE

Add 6 to the input Subtract 10 from the input

I O I O

N U N U

P T P T

U P U P

T U T U

T T

RULE

I O

N U

P T

U P

T U

T

5

STUDY GUIDE

value of corresponds to a single value of . This is known as a function, where is a

function of . It is usually denoted by . Here, is the independent variable and is

the dependent variable.

The function can be thought of as a “machine” that accepts values of as input and

produces values of as output. These outputs are also known as values of . In Warm

Up!, the rule acts as the function while the values are the input and the output.

Say, if you feed a tree trunk into a woodcutting machine, it will produce pieces of chopped

wood.

The tree trunks are the input, the machine is the function, and the chopped logs are the

output. Let’s take a look at an example as follows:

STUDY GUIDE

this equation, is the input, is the function, and is the output.

is written as a function of , or .

The arrow is read as “is mapped to.”

This method also names the function

Here, the function is written as a set.

Take note that and may be replaced with any other letters to represent problems

better. Thus, for example, the function that defines the area of a circle in terms of its

radius may be represented by . Similarly, can be used to denote velocity as a

function of time.

Aside from the above methods of notation, some equations known as candidate

functions may also be used to represent functions. The equation , for

example, is a candidate function because we can substitute a value of to obtain a

corresponding value of . But how do we distinguish between functions and equations?

Equations denote equality between two expressions. On the other hand, functions

denote relationships between two variables. A function always involves a relation

between a set of inputs and a set of outputs.

Piecewise Functions

coordinate plane, we will generate the following graph, in which the line extends infinitely

for the values along the -axis.

STUDY GUIDE

Notice that the -axis can actually be divided into intervals. Also, we can sketch parts of

different functions along each interval. For example, the following figure shows the graph

of in the interval , and the graph of elsewhere.

functions for each interval.

STUDY GUIDE

Let’s Practice!

function, and the output?

Solution: Putting wet clothes in the dryer will cause the clothes to

dry. Hence, the wet clothes are the input, the drying

process is the function, and the results (the output) are

the dry clothes.

Try It Yourself!

a. Television set b. Paper shredder c. Electric fan

Example 2: Analyze the given chart below. Determine the input, the function, and the

output.

1 2 3 4 5

4 5 6 7 8

Solution: The input are the -values (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). The output are the -values (4, 5, 6, 7,

8). Notice that if the value of is 1, the value of is 4. If is 2, is 5, and so

on. By observing the pattern, note that each input increases by 3 after “going

through” the function. Hence, the function is .

STUDY GUIDE

Try It Yourself!

writing the inputs and outputs of the function.

Use integral values.

Input Output

a.

b.

c.

Which of the given equations is a function?

denotes a relationship between two variables and .

Try It Yourself!

a. b. c. d.

10

STUDY GUIDE

Real-World Problems

the number of balls you can successfully shoot in

one minute.

8-15 successful shots: ₱150

more than 15 successful shots: ₱200

Write a piecewise function that relates the prize money offered to the

number of successful shots you make.

Try It Yourself!

purchase of 1-10 pieces, 10% discount for 11-20 pieces,

and 15% discount for a purchase of 21 pieces and more.

Write a piecewise function that relates the discount to the

number of T-shirts purchased.

11

STUDY GUIDE

1. Put a check mark () on the blank if the item is considered a “function machine”. If

not, put a cross mark ().

___a. Meat grinder ___f. Sewing machine

___b. Chain saw ___g. Pencil sharpener

___c. Computer ___h. Refrigerator

___d. Bread toaster ___i. Paper cutter

___e. Vacuum cleaner ___j. Meat slicer

a. f.

b. g.

c. h.

d. i.

e. j.

3. Write T beside the statement if the statement is true. Otherwise, write F for false

statements.

a. In the function , is the dependent variable and is the

independent variable.

b. Functions can be modeled by the “input-process-output” machine.

c. can be considered a function.

d. All equations are functions.

e. All functions are equations.

a. Mang Ernesto works as a candle maker. He has to produce more than 200

pieces of candles to earn ₱2 per candle. If the number of candles produced is

from 100 to 200, he will earn ₱1.50 per candle. He will then get ₱1 per candle for

the number of candles produced less than 100.

12

STUDY GUIDE

Warm Up!

Instructions:

1. This activity should be done individually.

2. Refer to the columns below. On the left are animals’ names and on the right are the

names given to the animals’ young.

3. Draw an arrow to connect the name of an animal to its young.

Animal Young

Elephant Kitten

Cat

Penguin Calf

Giraffe

Camel Chick

Chicken

The activity in Warm Up! illustrates relations and functions. As you make progress in this

lesson, you will be able to identify the relation shown in the previous activity.

grouped with each other that may or may not

represent a pattern. It is simply a set of ordered pairs

that are arranged in an orderly manner.

13

STUDY GUIDE

There are four types of relations of ordered pairs. Study the following.

One-to-one correspondence

Examples:

Observe that each number in the -column is paired with a particular number in the -

column.

Many-to-one correspondence

Example:

In this case, the numbers 1, 2, 3 ( -values) are paired with the same -value (4).

One-to-many correspondence

14

STUDY GUIDE

Example:

Observe that the number 2 ( -value) is paired with different -values (2, 4, 6, 8).

Many-to-many correspondence

Some values of both and are associated with more than one value of their

counterpart.

Example:

no two distinct ordered pairs have the same first

element.

Since relations are composed of ordered pairs, we may plot the corresponding points on

the Cartesian plane. Similarly, a relation or function defined by an equation can be

represented by the graph of the said equation.

The vertical line test can be used to determine if a graph represents a function. If a

vertical line is drawn on any part of the graph of a function, the line will intersect one

point on the graph. On the other hand, if we can draw a vertical line that intersects a given

graph at more than one point, then that graph represents a relation that is not a function.

15

STUDY GUIDE

This is because there are points with the same -coordinate (one value of the

independent variable) but different -coordinates (multiple values of the dependent

variable). This is an example of a one-to-many relation.

Let’s Practice!

a. Students and their ID numbers

b. A family with 5 members living in the same house

c. A class adviser to her students

d. Students and classes

Solution:

a. In a school, a student owns exactly one ID. Thus, this is an example of one-to-

one correspondence.

b. This is a many-to-one relation where family members correspond to one

house.

c. One class adviser corresponds to many students in a class. So, this is a one-

to-many type of relation.

d. This is a many-to-many relation. Each student attends multiple classes. At the

same time, each class has many students.

Try It Yourself!

b. Countries and their national flags

c. Books and authors

d. Mothers and daughters/sons

16

STUDY GUIDE

Example 2: Write all the ordered pairs in the figure and determine

the type of relation depicted by the given figure.

is associated with multiple elements in set B (5 and 6). Similarly, an element

in set B, like 8, is associated with multiple elements in set A (2 and 3).

Try It Yourself!

List all the ordered pairs in the given figure and determine

the type of relation.

a b

17

STUDY GUIDE

Solution:

a. The graph represents a function because when a vertical line is drawn

anywhere on the graph, it will pass through the graph at exactly one point.

b. The graph does not represent a function. Note that a vertical line is already

drawn. Observe that the line crosses the graph at more than one point. Thus,

the graph failed the vertical line test.

Try It Yourself!

represents a function or a relation.

Real-World Problems

by their family pediatrician. She constructed a table of

the baby’s weight in kilograms with respect to the

baby’s age in weeks. Will the ordered pairs from the

pediatrician’s data represent a function or a relation?

Explain your answer.

Solution: The ordered pairs in the pediatrician’s data will form a function because

there will be a one-to-one or many-to-one correspondence in the baby’s

weight and the baby’s age. There will be a one-to-one correspondence if the

baby’s weight is unique each week the weight is recorded. On the other

hand, there will be a many-to-one correspondence if there are weeks when

the baby’s weights are the same. In any case, however, the data will

represent a function.

18

STUDY GUIDE

Math for four quarters of a school year. She then

constructs a table with two variables; the four

quarters of the school year and her son’s Math grade

for the specific quarter. Do the data represent a

function or a relation? Explain your answer.

(i.e., the grades each quarter is unique) or a many-to-one correspondence

(i.e., there are quarters where the grades are the same). In any case, the data

represent a function.

Try It Yourself!

Jaime is listed as author of different books. Does this show a

function or a relation? Explain your answer.

1. Draw a diagram of each set of ordered pairs and determine if each set represents a

one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, or many-to-many correspondence.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

19

STUDY GUIDE

2. Graph the following points on a coordinate plane and determine if each graph is a

function or a relation.

a.

6

3

0 2

1 2

2 6

b.

0 2

1 1

2 4

The head of the accounting department collects data of the employees’ salary and

the number of overtime hours they rendered. If the data are used as variables and

plotted in a chart, would the chart show a function or a relation? Explain your

answer.

20

STUDY GUIDE

Warm Up!

Instructions:

1. This activity will be done by pair.

2. The first player will introduce a subject and the second player will name as many

examples of the subject as he or she can.

Example: Country starting with the letter C (Canada, Costa Rica, China, ...)

3. The number of examples the first player was

able to name will then be plotted on a

graphing paper given on the right. This will be

Round 1 for player 1.

4. The second player will introduce another

subject while the first player will enumerate

examples. This will be Round 1 for player 2.

5. The result will also be plotted on the same

graph. Be sure to use a different color of pen

to distinguish one from the other.

6. The game can be played in minimum of five

rounds.

21

STUDY GUIDE

One of the most important processes involving functions is to evaluate them for given

values of the variables. Just like algebraic expressions, functions are evaluated by

substituting the given values of the variables and simplifying the resulting expression. If

we evaluate a function at a certain value, say , the resulting value of is

denoted by . Evaluating functions at given points is also a necessary skill in graphing

functions.

Graphing Functions

In Warm Up!, we have reviewed how to plot points in a Cartesian plane. The skill in

accurately plotting points in a coordinate plane is important in graphing functions.

You can graph any equation or function using a table of values. A table of values is a

graphic organizer or chart that helps you determine two or more points that can be used

to create your graph.

Suppose we want to sketch the graph of , we can follow the given steps.

Solution:

22

STUDY GUIDE

chosen values of .

Let’s Practice!

Solution:

a. Substitute and simplify.

23

STUDY GUIDE

Try It Yourself!

Solution:

a. Since , we use the first expression. Substitute 0 in the expression, then

simplify.

then simplify.

24

STUDY GUIDE

simplify.

Try It Yourself!

Solution:

1

0

0 1

1 4

2 9

chosen values of .

1

0

25

STUDY GUIDE

0 1

1 4

2 9

Try It Yourself!

Real-World Problems

top of his monthly salary, he also receives a

commission of ₱150 for every cellphone that costs

₱15,000 and above that he sells. How much will

Roberto receive in a month if he was able to sell 20

cell phones that cost ₱15,000 and above?

Solution: Let be the number of cellphones sold and be Roberto’s monthly salary.

26

STUDY GUIDE

cellphones that cost ₱15,000 and above.

is given (in pesos) by the function

. What is the cost of

producing 50 gadgets? 100 gadgets?

by substituting 50 in the function.

To find the cost of producing 100 gadgets, substitute 100 in the given

function.

producing 100 gadgets is ₱157,000.

27

STUDY GUIDE

Try It Yourself!

his car. The car burns 1 liter for every 12 kilometers. If the

amount of gasoline decreases linearly, write a linear

function to represent the number of liters left in the tank

after a journey of kilometers. How much gas is left after

traveling 132 km?

a. b.

i. i.

ii. ii.

iii. iii.

iv. iv.

v. v.

values.

a.

i.

ii.

iii.

28

STUDY GUIDE

b.

i.

ii.

iii.

a. .

b.

c.

A 100-liter tank full of oil is being drained at a constant rate of 5 liters per minute.

a. Assuming that the draining starts at time , write a linear function for the

number of liters in the tank after minutes.

b. How many liters are in the tank after 15 minutes?

29

STUDY GUIDE

Warm Up!

Instructions:

1. This activity should be done individually.

2. List all the provinces of Region VI – Western Visayas Region including the capital

cities.

3. Use the format below in listing:

The activity in Warm Up! illustrates two important properties of a function—the domain

and range. Note that we have restricted our activity to provinces in the Western Visayas

Region. In other words, the only input we can use in our function are Region VI provinces.

For instance, we do not expect to use La Union in the activity because it is not part of

Western Visayas. In this activity, we have set Region VI provinces as the domain of the

function. Observe also that when we set our domain to be these provinces, our capital

cities also became restricted. The only choices we have for capital cities are, of course,

cities that are within the provinces we have specified. These cities are the range of our

function. They are the only possible outputs.

30

STUDY GUIDE

It is often useful to determine the set of all possible values of and in a function.

These are known as the domain and the range of the function.

all values of the independent variable

that have corresponding values of

the dependent variable . It contains

all values that go into the function.

values of that can be obtained from

the possible values of . It contains all

possible values of the function.

Linear Function

If a function is defined in the form of a linear equation, it is called a linear function. It has a

degree of 1 and its graph is a straight line. The domain of any linear function is the set of

real numbers. No matter what real number we substitute to , the corresponding value of

is also a real number.

Similarly, the range of any linear function is also the set of real numbers. No matter what

value we choose for , there is always a value of that can be used to obtain the

chosen value of .

Quadratic Function

function. It has a degree of 2 and its graph is a parabola.

31

STUDY GUIDE

The domain of any quadratic function is the set of real numbers. In this case, all real

numbers can be squared, so all real numbers can be used as values of

To determine the range of the function, remember that the square of a real number is

always a nonnegative real number. For instance, and . Thus, the

range is the set of all nonnegative real numbers. Generally, the range of a quadratic

function always contains restrictions like this. If is a quadratic function, then its

range can be written in either of the forms or , where is a real number.

Polynomial Function

If a function is defined in the form of a polynomial equation whose degree is greater than

2, it is called a polynomial function.

If the degree of a polynomial function is odd, then its domain and range are both equal to

the set of real numbers.

32

STUDY GUIDE

Using a graph of a polynomial function above, if we draw a vertical line anywhere on this

Cartesian plane, it will always intersect the graph of the function. This means that all real

numbers are used as -coordinates of points on the graph. Hence, all real numbers are

part of the domain. Similarly, any horizontal line drawn on the Cartesian plane will always

intersect the graph of the function as well. This implies that all real numbers are also used

as -coordinates. Thus, all real numbers are part of the range.

Therefore, the domain of is and the range of is . This is the case for

every polynomial function whose degree is 3, 5, 7 or any other odd number.

Rational Function

is the ratio of two polynomials.

Let us take for example the function . Unlike the functions in the previous

example, the domain of a rational function has restrictions if the variable can be found

in the denominator because this can possibly result in a denominator of 0. This restriction

can be found by setting the denominator equal to 0 and solving for . In this case, we

have

Thus, the domain of is , because a denominator of zero will make the function

undefined.

To find the range, notice that the numerator of is nonzero and does not contain the

variable . Hence, no matter what value of we choose, we will never obtain This

is because there is no divisor that can divide 1 to produce a result of 0. This implies that

the range of is .

33

STUDY GUIDE

The graph of is shown above. Observe that it does not intersect the lines

and , which indicates that these are indeed restrictions in the domain and range of

the function.

called a radical function.

Let’s find the domain and range of . The general restriction for the domain of

a square root function stems from the fact that the square root of a negative number is

not a real number. Thus, to find the domain of , we assume that the radicand is

nonnegative (greater than or equal to zero) and solve for .

To find the range of , recall that the principal square root of a radical expression is

always nonnegative. Generally, the range of a radical function is because of the

definition of the principal square root. 34

STUDY GUIDE

In the above graph of , we can observe that the curve does not contain any

points to the left of or below , which indicates that our restrictions are correct.

Let’s Practice!

Solution: If a function is expressed as a set of ordered pairs, then its domain is the set

of all -coordinates while its range is the set of all -coordinates. In this case,

the domain of is and the range of is

Try It Yourself!

35

STUDY GUIDE

Solution: Since the function is a linear function, the domain is the set of real numbers.

Likewise, the range is also the set of real numbers. Therefore, the domain of

the function is and the range is .

Try It Yourself!

Solution: If we try to graph the function, it will look like the following graph.

Based on the graph, the line extends far up to the left and far up to the right.

Thus, the domain of the function is all real numbers and the range of the

function is .

36

STUDY GUIDE

Try It Yourself!

represented by the graph.

Real-World Problems

building at any time is given by

, where is time in seconds.

What are the domain and the range of this

function?

function to zero. Thus,

37

STUDY GUIDE

represents time and time should be a nonnegative number. Thus, the

domain of the given function is .

The range of the function is also a nonnegative number which cannot exceed

100. Therefore, the range of the function is .

Try It Yourself!

can be represented by , where is the time in hours. What are

the domain and range of the given function? Explain your answer.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

38

STUDY GUIDE

a. b.

c. d.

4. Find the domain and range of the function represented by the problem below.

is the missile’s altitude (in kilometres) and is the time elapsed (in minutes).

39

STUDY GUIDE

Challenge Yourself!

sqrt, and sin. Construct a table of values for each of these functions.

Arrange them in increasing order using the first element, then predict the most

likely ordered pairs whose first elements are 1, 3, 6, 7, and 9 based on the pattern

formed.

illustration to support your answer.

4. Choose one function. Represent this function using an equation, a table of values,

and a graph. Determine the domain and the range of the function.

5. Graph the equation . Does the graph represent a function? Explain your

answer.

40

STUDY GUIDE

Performance Task

You are an aspiring entrepreneur who wants to put up a T-shirt business. You are tasked

to make a proposal that contains the following, among others:

Determine the number of T-shirts where you will have a breakeven, a loss, and a

profit.

3. The initial capital you will be needing to start off the business

Criteria Expectation Improvement Performance Performance

(0–49%) (50–74%) (75–99%) (99+%)

The

The computations The computations The computations

computations are

are erroneous and are accurate and are accurate and

erroneous and

Accuracy do not show the show the use of show a wise use of

show some use

use of related related related

of related

mathematical mathematical mathematical

mathematical

concepts. concepts. concepts.

concepts.

There is no There is an There is a clear There is a clear and

explanation of the incomplete explanation and effective explanation

solution. The explanation; it is appropriate use of the solution. All

explanation not clearly of accurate steps are included

Delivery

cannot be represented. mathematical so the audience

understood, or is There is some representation. does not have to

unrelated to the use of There is effective infer how the task

task. There is no appropriate use of was completed.

41

STUDY GUIDE

inappropriate use representation terminology. representation is

of mathematical and terminology actively used as a

representation for the task. means of

and terminology communicating

for the task. ideas. Precise and

appropriate

mathematical

terminology is used.

It shows some It shows It shows in-depth

understanding of understanding of understanding of the

It shows no

the required required required

understanding of

mathematical mathematical mathematical

the problem, The

knowledge. The knowledge. The knowledge in

solution

Mathematical solution solution probability. The

addresses none of

Justification addresses some addresses most solution completely

the mathematical

of the of the addresses all

components

mathematical mathematical mathematical

required to solve

components components components

the task.

presented in the presented in the presented in the

task. task. task.

The proposal is

The proposal is The proposal is The proposal is

Submission submitted on or

submitted more submitted four to submitted two to

of Proposal before the target

than five days late. five days late. three days late.

date.

Wrap-up

Comparing functions vs.

Analyze input and output.

equations

Comparing functions vs. Check correspondence: One-to-one or many-to-one.

relations Use the Vertical Line test.

Evaluating functions Substitute the value of and simplify.

Solving word problems Construct a working function and solve for the unknown.

42

STUDY GUIDE

Key Terms/Formulas

Equation denotes equality between two expressions

complete set of all possible values of the

Domain of a function independent variable/input

a relation between a set of inputs that is related to

Function

exactly one output

Piece-wise function a function defined by multiple subfunctions

Range of a function set of values that are produced by that function

Relation any set of ordered pairs

Lesson 1

1. Paper shredder

2.

Input Output

0 2

1 3

2 4

3 5

3. a. function

b. function

c. not a function

d. function

4.

43

STUDY GUIDE

Lesson 2

1. a. One-to-one or many-to-one

b. One-to-one

c. Many-to-many

d. One-to-one or one-to-many

2. Many-to-many

3. Function

4. Relation

Lesson 3

1.

2. a. b. c.

3.

4. ; 39 liters

44

STUDY GUIDE

Lesson 4

1. Domain=

Range=

2. ,

3. ,

4. Domain: , range:

References

http://www.purplemath.com/ modules/fcns.htm

Khan Academy. “Linear Equations and Functions.” Accessed April 25, 2018.

https://www.khanacademy. org/math/cc-eighth-grade-math/cc-8th-linear-equations-

functions/

Eugene, Oregon 97401: Resource Publications, 2003

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