Anda di halaman 1dari 7

c 

 

›  
 

c 

?

TOPIC-TSUNAMI

d  d 


  d 
? PRASHANT 

?  

? 

? 

6 dd 
d





d    


NTRODUCTON:-

The word µTsunami¶ is of Japanese origin, which means, ³harbour wave´. Tsunami are large
waves that are generated when the see floor is deformed by seismic activity, vertically displacing
the overlying water in the ocean. The quake occurred at a place where several massive geological
plates push against each other with massive force. Tsunami has very low height while traveling
over deep ocean. High waves occur only when it reaches the shallow waters, typically near the
coast. The mega thrust earthquake-measuring 9.0 at Richter scale, off the western coast of
northern Sumatra (Banda Ache), ndonesia was the largest of its type since the 9.2 magnitude
Good Friday earthquake off Alaska in 1964. The deadliest natural disaster caused by the tsunami
generated from an undersea earthquake on 26 December 2004 in the ndian Ocean has shaken up
the world. The 2004 tsunami generated waves of up to 15 meters in height and even hit Somalia
at a distance of about 4500 km west of the epicenter. The tsunami traveled slowly and took seven
hours to hit the farthest coast at the west. Because of the 1200 kilometer of the fault line affected
by the seaquake was in a nearly north-south orientation, the greatest strength of the tsunami
waves was in the east-west direction.

The 2004 ndian Ocean earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC
(07:58:53 local time) on December 26, 2004. The earthquake originated in the ndian Ocean just
north of Simeulue island, off the western coast of northern Sumatra, ndonesia. The resulting
tsunamis devastated the shores of ndonesia, Sri Lanka, ndia, Thailand, and other countries with
waves of up to 15 m (50 feet) high, even reaching the east coast of Africa, 4500 km (2,800 miles)
west of the epicenter.TheUnieted States Geological Survey recoreded the magnitude of the
earthquake of Sumatra at 8.9 with the epicenter lying 10km below the seabed. Aftershocks struck
in the magnitude 7 range. The quake occurred at a place where several massive geological plates
push against each other with massive force. The survey said, a 1000 ± kilometer section along
the boundry of the plate shifted, a motion that triggered the sudden displacement of a huge
volume of water. An interesting phenomenon of the seismic tidal waves in the different part of
the world was that people saw sea water disappearing away from the beaches in the minutes
before the giant wave lashed back with infernal fury devouring whatever come on the way of
their lethal onslaught. Scientists say the effect is caused by tidal waves shocking shallow coastal
waters out to see before returning them as a massive wall of water.
The titanic tsunami that wrought unprecedented death and destruction in South and South-East
Asia will go down in history as one of the greatest natural calamities of the modern times. The
great disaster caught the people and the government off guard and in a matter of minutes, snuffed
out more than 2,00,000 lives. Across the more than twelve countries. The number of people
rendered homeless might run into millions, as no estimate is immediately available as to how
many children have become orphans, how many women become widows and how many families
have been wiped out in a single sweep.

 PACT OF TSUNA  N NDA

Almost all the countries situated around the Bay of Bengal were affected by the tsunami waves
in the morning hours of 26 December 2004 (between 0900 ± 1030 hrs ST). The killer waves
were triggered by an earthquake measuring 8.9 on the Richter scale that had an epicenter near the
west coast of Sumatra in ndonesia. The first recorded tsunami in ndia dates back to 31
December 1881. An earthquake of magnitude 7.5 on the Richter scale, with its epicenter believed
to have been under the sea off the coast of Car Nicobar sland, caused the tsunami. The last
recorded tsunami in ndia occurred on 26 June 1941, caused by an earthquake with magnitude
exceeding 8.5. This caused extensive damage to the Andaman slands. There are no other well-
documented records of Tsunami in ndia.

t was all quiet on the waterfront on the Sunday morning after Christmas in 2004 at
Kanyakumari, the famous arina Beach in Chennai and elsewhere on the Kerala coast and
Andaman Nicober slands. There was the excitement of a holyday with an offbeat mood with
swarms of people on the sea front: children playing cricket and man and women on their
morning work at the arina. Elsewhere, fishermen were putting out to sea for the day¶s catch.
Then all on a sudden, a curious thing happened. The holidaymakers at Kanyakumari were
awestruck when the sea receded from the shores.

n the present tsunami, ndia was the third country severely battered after ndonesia and Srilanka.
n ndia the State severely affected by tsunami are Tamilnadu, Pondicheri, Andhra Pradesh,
Kerala and Andaman and Nicober sland. The following Table.1 shows the average scenario of
tsunami devastation in the respective areas. The data relating to the Andaman and Nicober are
yet to be assessed, for which it does appear in the e Table

?
?
?
       

NATURE'S fury has left behind an trail of death and destruction.

What should assume priority now is to bring back to normal the survivors and those who have
suffered economic loss. State governments have initiated measures to provide relief to the
victims in the affected areas. Being a national calamity, efforts by the government alone would
not be adequate. Affluent sections, besides financial institutions, banks and insurance companies,
have a social and moral role to play, apart from contractual obligations. The task for all would be
to mitigate the sufferings of victims and focus on efforts aimed at recovery, rehabilitation and
restoration of normal life.

n this effort, it is necessary to guide the victims to recover their economic losses from life and
general insurance companies. n the case of life insurance, the sum assured is payable on death,
while for general insurance such as marine insurance of hull and cargo, the actual loss is payable
on the occurrence of a marine peril; in fire insurance of properties on the occurrence of fire,
earthquake, and flood. n accident insurance, the loss is payable when the accident occurs.

A policy of insurance is not encashable like a cheque or a demand draft but the owner of the
insured property is entitled to recover the amount of loss once it is ascertained. There are two
important requirements for entitlement of an insurance claim ² the cause of loss and proof of
loss.

t is important for the claimants ² survivors of the victims of tsunami, in this instance ² to
understand the requirements under different types of insurance policies for recovery of loss, as
this would be the first step in the direction for a return to the pre-tsunami standard of life.

   !   

The basic requirement for recovery of a claim under life insurance policy is proof of death in the
form of a death certificate and production of the life insurance policy to the insurer. A word of
appreciation for Life nsurance Corporation of ndia in the matter of treatment of
tsunami/earthquake affected claimants is the special concessions it has announced dispensing
with investigation of a claim, introduction of simplified claim form and acceptance of a death
certificate issued by any government authority or certificate from select group of agents.

LC has gone a step further in the matter of waiver of production of original life insurance
policy, which might have been washed away or destroyed by sea water or tidal waves and a
special help desk at divisional branch offices in the affected areas will assist the claimants. t is
possible for the State government to come to the rescue of the claimants and facilitate recovery
of life insurance claims by delegating powers to the lowest authority in the Revenue Department
or the municipal administration in the affected areas to issue death certificates.
Anyway officials handling the relief work have completed enumeration of people who have lost
their lives. t is easy for the survivors to process their claims with a death certificate obtained
from these officials so long as they have knowledge of life insurance policy, if any, taken by the
deceased. t is certain that private life insurers would follow the LC example.

G   

 
   è

This covers accident to the person, resulting in bodily injury or death. Tsunamis that cause death
due to asphyxia and drowning is an accident coming within the purview of this policy. As cover
against death is also included in this policy, the claim procedure closely follows the requirements
for life insurance policies. t must, however, be noted that settlement of a death claim under a life
insurance policy does not deprive the legal heirs/nominee of the insured to recover additionally
the claim for death under personal accident insurance policy.

Life and personal accident insurance policies are not contributory but complimentary. Death
claims under Janata Personal Accident nsurance policies covering the weaker sections are also
enforceable. n cases a tsunami-deceased policy-holder has held more than one personal accident
insurance policy, each policy would individually pay and meet the death claim.

Few insurance companies operating in Tamil Nadu have issued personal accident policies
covering above 500 fishermen each, for a capital sum of Rs 1 lakh. The legal heirs/nominees of
any deceased fisherman in the tsunami/flood accident can recover a claim for death from the
general insurance company.

*  

t is seen from press reports that buildings, hotels and resorts have been affected by flood
waters. A standard fire and special perils policy insuring such properties covers loss, destruction
or damage caused by flood and inundation. The direct and proximate cause of loss is flood and
inundation and a policy-holder is entitled to recover the actual loss incurred subject to the
adequacy of the insured value of the affected property.

The value of the property at the time of loss should be equivalent to the insured value failing
which the principle of average will apply. The procedure to be followed would include reporting
the loss to the insurer, arrange for an insurance survey and submit the claim with estimates of
repairs and renewals for the affected property.

  

Ô   : Ships, trawlers, fishing vessels, sailing vessels and mechanised boats are insured
under a hull insurance policy. Ships are generally registered with the ndian Register of Shipping
and in the case of all other vessels with the aritime Board or the Port Authority closest to the
place where the boat normally plies. According to media reports, a provisional estimate of a
number of trawlers, fishing boats, mechanised vessels lost or damaged severely is reported to be
more than 1,500 in Cuddalore/Nagapattinam area and an equal number in other coastal areas of
Tamil Nadu.

To speed up settlement of insurance claims under this category, the State government should
authorise the officer-in-charge of minor ports or other appropriate authority to issue a causality
report where the vessel is a total loss and, in other cases, the details of damage suffered by each
vessel with registration particulars. The Director of Fisheries should co-ordinate with the port
authorities to ensure that these certificates are issued without loss of time. ost trawlers and
fishing vessels are acquired with bank/institutional finance and it will be in the common interests
of these financial institutions to co-ordinate with the government agencies and the insurance
companies for an early survey, assessment and settlement of the loss.

6
  : nsurance of goods in transit in port areas, wharfs, godowns and warehouses,
awaiting transportation either to an inland destination or for export, would be covered under a
marine cargo policy. Tsunamis and tidal waves are called perils of the seas and a cargo insurance
policy covers loss or damage caused by such causes.

To facilitate quick settlement of damaged cargo at port, the port trust concerned may arrange for
an independent survey of such items and make the same available to the owner of the cargo and,
if necessary, collect from him a share of survey fee expenses which will be ultimately
reimbursed by the insurance company.

  

The tsunami washed away many motor vehicles. The resultant loss is covered under a motor
vehicle package policy (comprehensive policy). As a measure of precaution, the vehicle owner
should report the incident to the nearest police station, file an FR and also inform the bank or
finance company if a loan has been taken. f the motor vehicle is a total loss, the insurance
company will settle the same for the insured's declared value stated in the policy without any
deduction.

For partial damage claims, an estimate of repairs from the authorised dealer should be submitted
along with the claim form. Where a motor vehicle was stationery at the relevant point of time of
accident, it is not necessary to produce a driving licence.

The need of the hour is to help tsunami victims and this can be done if the general insurers
follow the footsteps of LC of ndia in simplifying claim forms, arranging for a quick survey of
damaged property where the extent of loss is more than Rs 20,000 and insisting upon the
surveyors appointed for this purpose to submit their reports within seven days of entrusting the
assignment.

Documentation requirements should be simplified and in the case of partial compliance of


documents, the insurance company should admit liability and make on account payments,
pending final settlement of the claim. The insurers have re-insurance arrangement for catastrophe
risks and this will adequately reimburse the settlements effected depending on the extent of re-
insurance arranged.

Settlement of insurance claims and reinstatement of damaged properties is part of rebuilding the
nation and it is hoped that general insurance companies will be generous in their endeavour
while settling tsunami claims.

d  d 
 dd
d
› ??? 
?   ??? 
?
?? 
?? 
??
?? ?
? ?
? ??

? 
? ??
????

? ???? ?
? ??
 ?
 ? 
? ? ??  ? ???

 ? ??
?


? ??

?

? ?
 ?
?  
? ? 
?
 ?? ? ? ? ?
??
??
 ? 
?  ??
 ?
? ?
 ?? ??  ??? ? ?!? ?
?
?
6 "   " #"

   
  
d   
  
! 
"##$"$% " 
# &" 
! 
 "!  $%&'
?
??

 ? ? ? ?


?? ?  ???
?
'  (%' )"$*'+%","# $% #$"$ +" 
" +* ",# "+,*+'#"$"% %* ) &)!, "
-. """$ #/,""!)* + #% $ ##$"+
 (! ", ((""*'" $#0'%$$%*%" * (* " " ,%"

%'  "! '# $   '"$%, " (('$   #  $ *'$" # " ! "  '
+ "$% "'+$+##$",  ,$"(