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3-d textiles are those materials which have a system or systems in all the three axes of plane.
These fabrics offer particular properties, such as interlaminar shearing force, and mechanical and
thermal stability along all three axes of space, which are not achievable with other

Three-dimensional (3-D)    fabrics hold a promising future. The demand for these types of
fabrics is expected in to increase, especially in the area of high performance composites in
housing, automobile industry, construction and   materials.

However, the reduction in the cost of manufacturing and raw materials has to be brought about in
order to make these goods competitive in the current & future markets. In this context
nonwovens, which are a major constituent of this class of textiles are becoming important
because of their ease of manufacture and low production cost.

Introduction: Why are 3-D    technologies applied to     materials?

- Manufacturing costs

- The problem in the thickness direction

- Examples of application

- Conclusions

3-D    reinforcements in     materials

- Structural geometry of 3-D textiles

- Modelling of 3-D    composites

- Application of the FGM

3-D    reinforced composites for the transportation industry

- The mechanical performance of conventional and 3-D reinforced composites

- Manufacturing    structural composites

- 3-D composites in aerospace structures

- c   structural composites in automotive structures

Mechanical modelling of solid fabric composites

- Review on solid woven fabric composites

- Elastic model: the complementary energy model

- Strength model

Macromechanical analysis of 3-D    reinforced composites

- Determination of the stiffness and strength properties of 3-D    reinforced    


- Application of the macromechanical analysis to the design of an energy absorber type 3P


Manufacture and design of     grids

- Grid description

- Manufacturing processes

- Mechanical properties of grids

- Failure envelopes of grids

- Grids with skins

- Flexural rigidity of isogrids

- Coefficients of thermal expansion

Knitted fabric composites

- Analysis of 3-D elastic properties

Braided structures

- 2-D braiding

- 3-D braiding

3-D forming of continuous fibre reinforcements for composites

- Forming of continuous fibre reinforced polymers

- Finite element simulation

Resin impregnation and prediction of fabric properties

- Hand impregnation

- Matched-die moulding

- Degassing

- Preimpregnation

- Vacuum bagging

- Autoclave

- Liquid moulding with vacuum assistance

- Resin film infusion

- Pultrusion

- Prediction of fabric properties.