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APA CITATION GUIDE HABIB UNIVERSITY

WRITING CENTER

Created by: Mo’awwiz Arshad Shaheen


YOUTUBE
IN TEXT

Replace Author with the YouTube Channel Name and disregard the Page Number.

DIRECT QUOTATIONS

Method A:
“Quote” (Channel Name, Year).

“No rocks from Mars have ever been brought back to Earth and no human has ever touched
anything on Mars” (Vsauce, 2016).

Method B:
Author (Year) said, “Quote.”
The period goes inside quotation marks if no
Vsauce (2016) said, “No rocks from Mars have ever been citations come at the end of the sentence.

brought back to Earth and no human has ever touched


anything on Mars.”

PARAPHRASING

Method A:
Paraphrased thoughts (Channel Name, Year).

Nothing from Mars has ever been touched by a human being (Vsauce, 2016).

Method B:
Channel Name said paraphrased thoughts.

Vsauce (2016) said nothing from Mars has ever been touched by a human being.

REFERENCE LIST

YouTube Channel Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Vsause. (2016, November 10). Is it okay to touch Mars? [Video file]. Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUddy8RGwns

Always type out the full form of the Months. Type


“November” instead of “Nov”.
Vlogs are not considered academic.
Refrain from using them in your essays.

VLOGS
IN TEXT

Replace Author with the YouTube Channel Name and disregard the Page Number.

DIRECT QUOTATIONS

Method A:

“Quote” (Channel Name, Year).

“Our first stop was in Spain, specifically Barcelona and I was super excited” (SuperwomanVlogs,
2015).

METHOD B:

Author (Year) said, “Quote.”

SuperwomanVlogs (2015) said, “Our first stop was in Spain, specifically Barcelona and I was
super excited.”

PARAPHRASING

Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Channel Name, Year).

Barcelona is home to some great examples of architecture (SuperwomanVlogs, 2015).

Method B:

Channel Name said paraphrased thoughts.

SuperwomanVlogs (2015) said that Barcelona was home to some great examples of architecture.

REFERENCE LIST

YouTube Channel Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

SuperwomanVlogs. (2015, February 4). Europe Road trip | Super Stamped (Pt. 1 Spain and
Franc [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wN0HxGVHUoQ

The title is not italicized in case of vlogs.


NEWSPAPERS - PRINT
IN TEXT

DIRECT QUOTING

Method A:

“Quote” (Author, Year, Page Number).

“Sale of Toyota Fortuner rose by more than 100 percent” (Khan, 2017, p. 10).

Method B:

Author (Year) said, “Quote” (Page Number).

Khan (2017) said, “Sale of Toyota Fortuner rose by more than 100 percent” (p. 10).

PARAPHRASING

Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author, Year, Page Number).

Toyota Fortuner saw an increase exceeding a 100 percent in its sales (Khan,2017, p. 10).

Method B:

Author (Year) said paraphrased thoughts (Page Number).

Khan (2017) said that Toyota Fortuner saw an increase exceeding a 100 percent in its sales (p.
10).

REFERENCE LIST

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Article name. Name of Newspaper, pp. xx, xx.

Khan, A. S. (2017, June 13). Car sales increase, pushing up imports of CKD kits. DAWN, pp. 10,
12.

 If the article is on multiple pages in continuation then you mention


the first and last page separated by a hyphen e.g., pp. 10-12.
 If the article is scattered across multiple pages not in continuation
then you mention each page separately e.g., pp. 10, 12, 14.
NEWSPAPERS - ONLINE
IN TEXT

Disregard the Page Number part in citation.

DIRECT QUOTING

Method A:

“Quote” (Author, Year).

“Sindh appeared to be the richest among the provinces in oil and gas reserves” (Kiani, 2017).
Method B:

Author (Year) said “Quote”.

Kiani (2017) said “Sindh appeared to be the richest among the provinces in oil and gas
reserves”.

PARAPHRASING

Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author, Year).

It seemed that Sindh was the more gifted in terms of oil and gas reserves when compared to
other provinces (Kiani, 2017).
Method B:

Author (Year) said paraphrased thoughts.

Kiani (2017) said it seemed that Sindh was the more gifted in terms of oil and gas reserves
when compared to other provinces.

REFERENCE LIST

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Article name. Name of Newspaper, Retrieved from URL

Kiani, K. (2017, June 13). Crisis in Gulf won’t affect LNG imports from Qatar. DAWN, Retrieved
from https://www.dawn.com/news/1339113/crisis-in-gulf-wont-affect-lng-imports-
from-qatar
NEWSPAPER - NO AUTHOR
In case of no Author being mentioned in the article then a shortened version (usually the first
few words) of the title is used in place of Author e.g., The title is written in quotation marks.

IN TEXT

“Sindh appeared to be the richest among the provinces in oil and gas reserves” (“Crisis in Gulf,”
2017).

The quotation marks close after the comma.

REFERENCE LIST

Title. (Year, Month Day) Name of Newspaper. Retrieved from URL

Crisis in Gulf won’t affect LNG imports from Qatar (2017, June 13). DAWN, Retrieved from
https://www.dawn.com/news/1339113/crisis-in-gulf-wont-affect-lng-imports-from-
qatar
COURSE PACK:
When you refer to something in your papers, it is recommended that you cite the
original source. Your course pack generally provides information of the original source on the
first page before the reading material begins. It contains all relevant information for citing such
as Author, Publication Date, URL, Publisher etc.

To cite something from the course pack/reader, determine whether the excerpt is from
a blog, an article, a book, or some journal. Once you have determined what sort of publication
it is, follow the proper citation method. Refer to the handouts on citations.

Drop by the Writing Center to cross reference your course pack citations.

EXAMPLE: See the BOOKS section.


BOOKS
IN TEXT

DIRECT QUOTING

Method A:

“Quote” (Author, Year, Page Number).

“On June 3, 1947, a partition of the Indian subcontinent was announced” (Zamindar, 2010, p.
1).

Method B:

Author (Year) said “Quote” (Page Number).

Zamindar (2010) said, “On June 3, 1947, a partition of the Indian subcontinent was announced”
(p. 1).

PARAPHRASING

Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author, Year, Page Number).

The partition of the Indian subcontinent was announced on the third of June, 1947
(Zamindar,2010, p. 1).

Method B:

Author (Year) said paraphrased thoughts.

Zamindar (2010) said that the partition of the Indian subcontinent was announced on the third
of June, 1947 (p. 1).
REFERENCE LIST

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Number of edition ed.). Location: Publisher.

Zamindar, V. (2010). The long partition and the making of modern South Asia (1st ed.). New
York: Columbia University Press.

 Only the first letter of the first word of the


Use the last name as Author. Follow up with initials. title is capitalized.
 Proper nouns in the title are also capitalized.
 The title is italicized.

If the edition is unavailable, omit it from your reference list. Number of edition in numbers, not in words.

GENERALLY REFERRING TO A BOOK

While generally referring to a book but neither quoting directly from it nor
paraphrasing, we follow this method.

METHOD

In Title of Book, by Author this happens.


EXAMPLE:

The protagonist’s struggle in The Reluctant Fundamentalist encapsulates the


struggle of every South Asian person living in the states during the 9/11 attacks.

You do not need to cite it if you only


mention it in passing.
MOVIE OR DOCUMENTARY

IN TEXT

Replace Author with Producer & Director. Also, disregard the Page Numbers.

(Producer & Director, Year)

DIRECT QUOTATION

Method A:

“Quote” (Producer & Director, Year).

One of the most famous dialogues in film history is “I’m gonna make him an offer he can’t
refuse” (Ruddy & Coppola, 1972).

Method B:

It is recommended you use Method A.

PARAPHRASING

It does not seem very productive or even possible to paraphrase a scene from a movie.
However, if you have no choice but to paraphrase, follow Method A.

Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Producer & Director, Year).

Method B:

It is recommended you use Method A.

REFERENCE LIST

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). TITLE OF PRODUCTION [Format].


Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Ruddy, A. S. (Producer), & Coppola F. F. (Director). (1972). The godfather [Motion picture].
United States: Paramount Pictures.

Format means whether the production is a Motion


Picture or a Documentary or from a DVD.
GENERALLY REFERRING TO A MOVIE

While generally referring to a movie but neither quoting directly from it nor paraphrasing, we
follow this method.

In Title of Movie this happens.

EXAMPLE:

The protagonist’s struggle in The Reluctant Fundamentalist encapsulates the struggle of every
South Asian person living in the states during the 9/11 attacks.

You do not need to cite it if you only


mention it in passing.
LECTURE NOTES
Notes you take during lecture are regarded as personal communication and are treated as such.

IN TEXT

DIRECT QUOTATION

Method A:

Add “personal communication” and Month Day after the Author and between the Year,
separating it from both by commas.

“Quote” (Author, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

“Many insects such as the Beer Bahooti have disappeared from Karachi as a result of the
Anthropocene” (Naqvi, personal communication, March 27, 2017).

Method B:

Author said “Quote” (personal communication, Month Day, Year).

Naqvi (personal communication, March 27, 2017) said “Many insects such as the Beer Bahooti
have disappeared from Karachi as a result of the Anthropocene.”

PARAPHRASING

Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

The Anthropocene is the cause of the decline in population of many insects, such as the Beer
Bahooti, from Karachi (Naqvi, personal communication, March 27, 2017).

Method B:

Author said paraphrased thoughts (personal communication, Month Day, Year).

Naqvi said that the Anthropocene is the cause of the decline in population of many insects,
such as the Beer Bahooti, from Karachi (personal communication, March 27, 2017).

REFERENCE LIST

Since personal communication is not accessible by other people, it is not added to the
reference list.
LECTURE SLIDES/ LMS
IN TEXT

DIRECT QUOTATION

Method A:

“Quote” (Author, Year).

“In China, the government produced news sheets called Dibao” (Heidingsfelder, 2016).
Method B:

Author (Year) said “Quote”.

Heidingsfelder (2016) states “In China, the government produced news sheets called Dibao”.

PARAPHRASING
Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author, Year).

The Chinese government used to manufacture Dibao- a form of news sheets (Heidingsfelder,
2016).
Method B:

Author (Year) said paraphrased thoughts.

Heidingsfelder (2016) states that the Chinese government used to manufacture Dibao- a form
of news sheets.

REFERENCE LIST

IF THE SOURCE IS NOT PASSWORD PROTECTED


Author. A. (Year). Title of Slides [Format of slides]. Retrieved from URL
Heidingsfelder. M. (2016). The rise of the newspaper [PDF Document]. Retrieved from
https://lms.habib.edu.pk/access/content/group/44894ca2-37b1-489d-a626-
87d0c24a6d9e/Shaping-Modernity_Newspaper.pdf

IF THE SOURCE IS PAS SWORD PROTECTED AS IN THE CASE OF LMS


Author. A. (Year). Title of Slides [Format of slides]. Retrieved from Institution Name. Website:
Basic URL
Heidingsfelder. M. (2016). The rise of the newspaper [PDF Document]. Retrieved from Habib
University. LMS: https://lms.habib.edu.pk/
WEBSITES
GENERALLY REFERRING TO A WEBSITE
When generally referring to a website you simply provide the URL at the end of the sentence in
parenthesis and do not include it in the reference list.

EXAMPLE:

Wikipedia is not an authentic source for scholarly referencing (https://www.wikipediA.org/).

WEB DOCUMENT/ARTICLE FROM A SPECIFIC PAGE OF A


WEBSITE
IN TEXT

Disregard the Page Number part of the citation.

DIRECT QUOTING
Method A:

“Quote” (Author OR Organization, Year).


Only one is used. Author OR
“Although a solar powered car isn't feasible, a practical, solar assisted EV is,
Organization. Not both.
even with current technology” (Lombardo, 2017).

Method B:

Author OR Organization (Year) said “Quote.”

Lombardo (2017) said “although a solar powered car isn't feasible, a practical, solar assisted EV
is, even with current technology.”

PARAPHRASING
Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author OR Organization, Year).

Keeping in view the current technological developments a completely solar powered car would
be impossible, whereas a solar assisted EV is a much more realistic approach (Lombardo, 2017).

Method B:

Author (Year) said paraphrased thoughts.


Lombardo (2017) said that keeping in view the current technological developments a
completely solar powered car would be impossible, whereas a solar assisted EV is a much more
realistic approach.

REFERENCE LIST

Author, A. OR Organization. (Year, Month Day). Title of Article. Retrieved from URL

Lombardo, T. (2017. March 5). Your next car will NOT be solar powered. Retrieved from
http://www.engineering.com/ElectronicsDesign/ElectronicsDesignArticles/ArticleID/144
33/Your-Next-Car-Will-NOT-Be-Solar-Powered.aspx
WEB ARTICLE - NO AUTHOR
In case of no Author being mentioned in the article, then a shortened version (usually the first
few words) of the Title is used in place of Author OR you may use the Title if it is short enough.

Using the same example if it did not have an Author.

IN TEXT

DIRECT QUOTATION
Method A:

“Although a solar powered car isn't feasible, a


practical, solar assisted EV is, even with current
technology” (“Your Next Car,” 2017).
In Method A, the comma separating the Author
Method B: and the Year comes under the quotation marks.

“Your Next Car” (2017) said “Although a solar powered


car isn't feasible, a practical, solar assisted EV is, even
with current technology.”

PARAPHRASING
Method A:

Keeping in view the current technological developments a completely solar powered car would
be impossible, whereas a solar assisted EV is a more realistic option (“Your Next Car,” 2017).

Method B:

“Your Next Car” (2017) points out that keeping in view the current technological developments
a completely solar powered car would be impossible, whereas a solar assisted EV is a realistic
option.

REFERENCE LIST

Title. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved from URL

Your next car will NOT be solar powered. (2017, March 5). Retrieved from
http://www.engineering.com/ElectronicsDesign/ElectronicsDesignArticles/ArticleID/144
33/Your-Next-Car-Will-NOT-Be-Solar-
Powered.aspx

Notice how the Title shifted to the Author position and is


not repeated.
WEBSITE - NO PUBLISHING DATE
Replace Day with (n.d.).

IN TEXT

DIRECT QUOTING
Method A:

“Quote” (Author OR Organization, n.d.).

“Although a solar powered car isn't feasible, a practical, solar assisted EV is, N.d. means no date.
even with current technology” (Lombardo, n.d.).

Method B:

Author OR Organization (n.d.) said “Quote.”

Lombardo (n.d.) said “Although a solar powered car isn't feasible, a practical, solar assisted EV
is, even with current technology.”

PARAPHRASING
Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author OR Organization, n.d.).

Keeping in view the current technological developments a completely solar powered car would
be impossible, whereas a solar assisted EV is a realistic option (Lombardo, n.d.).

Method B:

Author (n.d.) said paraphrased thoughts.

Lombardo (n.d.) said that keeping in view the current technological developments a completely
solar powered car would be impossible, whereas a solar assisted EV is a realistic option.

REFERENCE LIST

The above example would look like this.

Lombardo, T. (n.d.). Your next car will NOT be solar powered. Retrieved from
http://www.engineering.com/ElectronicsDesign/ElectronicsDesignArticles/ArticleID/144
33/Your-Next-Car-Will-NOT-Be-Solar-Powered.aspx
IMAGES, GRAPHS OR CHARTS
IN TEXT

The in text citation for images, graphs and charts is a bit different from other in text
citations. The in text citation is provided under the image. Number these in italics e.g., “Figure
1.” followed by a brief explanation of the image. After that, mention the source.

IMAGE FROM BOOK

Figure X. Description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Book Title (Page Number), by Author First
Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [Year] by the
Name of Copyright Holder.

0
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

Series 1 Series 2 Series 3

Figure 1. Graph of blue, orange and grey bars. Reprinted from Great Big Book of Bar
Graphs (p. 73), by S. A. Khurram, 2008, New York, NY: Mackerlin Press. Copyright 2008
by the Association for Research on Bars.
IMAGE FROM WEBSITE

Figure X. Description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Title of Website, by Author First Initial. Second
Initial. Surname, Year, Retrieved [Retrieval Date] from URL. Copyright [Year] by the Name of
Copyright Holder.

0
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

Series 1 Series 2 Series 3

Figure 1. Graph of blue, orange and grey bars. Reprinted from Basic Bar Association, by
S. A. Khurram, 2008, Retrieved June 28, 2017 from
www.imaginarybarwebsite.com/lahwCWqm. Copyright 2008 by the Association for
Research on Bars.
IMAGE FROM JOURNAL A RTICLE

Figure X. Description. Reprinted [or adapted] from “Title of Article,” by Author First Initial.
Second Initial. Surname, Year, Journal Title, Volume(issue), Page Number. Copyright [Year] by
the Name of Copyright Holder.

0
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

Series 1 Series 2 Series 3

Figure 1. Graph of blue, orange and grey bars. Reprinted from “Fundamental Research
in the Basics of Bar Graphs,” by S. A. Khurram, 2008, Bars, 7, p. 187. Copyright 2008 by
the Association for Research on Bars.

REFERENCE LIST

In the reference list follow the appropriate pattern for the source of the image. If it is
taken from a book, follow the reference list pattern for a book. Similarly, provide referencing
for a journal or website.
ACADEMIC JOURNAL ARTICLES OR JSTOR
IN TEXT

DIRECT QUOTING

Method A:

“Quote” (Author, Year, Page Number).

“Results were even stronger when exclusively applied exclusively to the HCI and LCI industries”
(Canto, 1987, p. 55).

Method B:

Author (Year) said “Quote” (Page Number).

Canto (1987) said “Results were even stronger when exclusively applied exclusively to the HCI
and LCI industries” (p. 55).

PARAPHRASING

Method A:

Paraphrased thoughts (Author, Year, Page Number).

When these methods were applied only to HCI and LCI industries, the results came back
stronger (Canto, 1987, p. 55).

Method B:

Author (Year) said paraphrased thoughts (Page Number).

Canto (1987) argued that when these methods were applied only to HCI and LCI industries, the
results came back stronger (p. 55).

REFERENCE LIST

JSTOR houses various kinds of articles; some periodicals, some online, some in volumes.
Each has a different way of referencing. It is not possible to give a one for all / universal solution
to cite JSTOR. It is recommended that you use the “Cite This Item” to generate citations for the
reference list and use those to create in text citations.
Canto, V. (1987). Fine-Tuning the CATS Meow. Financial Analysts Journal, 43(6), 56-66.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4479076