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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT iii
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xiii
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xviii

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 POWER QUALITY 1
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3
1.2.1 Compound Active Clamp Boost
Converter 3
1.2.2 Two Inductor Boost Converter 8
1.2.3 PWM AC Chopper 12
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS 19
1.4 ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS 21

2 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION COMPOUND


ACTIVE CLAMP BOOST CONVERTER 22
2.1 INTRODUCTION 22
2.2 COMPOUND ACTIVE CLAMP BOOST
CONVERTER 23
2.3 ANALYSIS OF THE COMPOUND ACTIVE
CLAMP BOOST CONVERTER 25
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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

2.4 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSED LOOP


COMPOUND ACTIVE CLAMP BOOST
CONVERTER (RESISTIVE LOAD) 29
2.4.1 Open Loop Compound Active Clamp
Boost Converter (Resistive load) 29
2.4.1.1 Results of Simulation 30
2.4.1.2 Experimental Results of Open
Loop Compound Active Clamp
Boost Converter 33
2.4.2 Closed Loop Compound Active Clamp
Boost Converter (Resistive load) 36
2.4.2.1 Results of Simulation 36
2.5 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSED LOOP
COMPOUND ACTIVE CLAMP BOOST
CONVERTER (MOTOR LOAD) 39
2.5.1 Open Loop Compound Active Clamp
Boost Converter (Motor load) 39
2.5.1.1 Results of Simulation 40
2.5.2 Closed Loop Compound Active Clamp
Boost Converter (Motor load) 42
2.5.2.1 Results of Simulation 43
2.6 CONCLUSION 44

3 TWO INDUCTOR BOOST CONVERTER


CIRCUIT 45
3.1 INTRODUCTION 45
3.2 TWO INDUCTOR BOOST CONVERTER 46
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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

3.3 ANALYSIS OF TWO INDUCTOR BOOST


CONVERTER 48
3.4 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSED LOOP TWO
INDUCTOR BOOST CONVERTER
(RESISTIVE LOAD) 51
3.4.1 Open Loop Two Inductor Boost
Converter (Resistive load) 52
3.4.1.1 Results of Simulation 53
3.4.1.2 Experimental Results of Open
Loop Two Inductor Boost
Converter 56
3.4.2 Closed Loop Two Inductor Boost
Converter (Resistive load) 58
3.4.2.1 Results of Simulation 59
3.5 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSED LOOP TWO
INDUCTOR BOOST CONVERTER
(MOTOR LOAD) 60
3.5.1 Open Loop Two Inductor Boost
Converter (Motor load) 61
3.5.1.1 Results of Simulation 62
3.5.2 Closed Loop Two Inductor Boost
Converter (Motor load) 63
3.5.2.1 Results of Simulation 64
3.6 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF
COMPOUND ACTIVE CLAMP BOOST
CONVERTER AND TWO INDUCTOR
BOOST CONVERTER 64
3.7 CONCLUSION 66
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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

4 HARMONIC ELIMINATION IN PWM AC


CHOPPER 68
4.1 INTRODUCTION 68
4.2 EVOLUTION OF AC CHOPPER 69
4.2.1 Advantages of AC Chopper over AC
Voltage Controller 70
4.2.2 Switching Pattern for PWM AC
Chopper 71
4.2.3 Advantages of PWM 72
4.3 PWM AC CHOPPER 72
4.3.1 Configuration of PWM AC Chopper 74
4.3.2 Analysis of PWM AC Chopper 75
4.4 HARDWARE MODULE 77
4.4.1 Pulse Generator 77
4.4.2 IGBT 78
4.4.3 DSP Processor 78
4.5 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSED LOOP PWM
AC CHOPPER 79
4.5.1 Open Loop PWM AC Chopper 79
4.5.1.1 Results of Simulation 79
4.5.1.2 Experimental Results 81
4.5.2 Closed Loop PWM AC Chopper 84
4.5.2.1 Results of Simulation 84
4.5.2.2 Experimental Results 86
4.5.3 Fast Fourier Transform 88
4.5.3.1 Implementation of FFT 88
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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

4.6 COMPARISION OF HARMONIC


CONTENT IN OPEN AND CLOSED
LOOP TECHNIQUE 90
4.7 OPTIMIZING THE PERFORMANCE OF
PWM AC CHOPPER 91
4.8 SIMULATION RESULTS FOR
DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION 95
4.8.1 Parameter Setting 95
4.9 CONCLUSION 99

5 CONCLUSION 100
5.1 GENERAL 100
5.2 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK 101

REFERENCES 102

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 109

CURRICULUM VITAE 110


xii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

2.1 Simulation circuit parameters for compound


active clamp boost converter (Resistive load) 30
2.2 Simulation circuit parameters for compound
active clamp boost converter (Motor load) 40
2.3 Simulation parameters for compound active
clamp boost converter (Motor load) 40
3.1 Simulation circuit parameters for two inductor
boost converter (Resistive load) 52
3.2 Simulation circuit parameters for two inductor
boost converter (Motor load) 61
3.3 Simulation parameters for two inductor boost
converter (Motor load) 62
3.4 Comparison of input voltage and output voltage 65
3.5 Comparison of input voltage and output power 66
4.1 Comparison of harmonic content in open loop
and closed loop PWM AC chopper 90
4.2 Comparison of number of generations and F( ) 97
4.3 Comparison of population size and F( ) 97
xiii

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

1.1 Block diagram of the work carried out in the


research 20
2.1 Conventional CAC boost converter 24
2.2 Compound active clamp waveforms 25
2.3 Open loop CAC boost converter simulation
circuit 29
2.4 Driving pulse waveform of switch S1 for open
loop CAC boost converter 31
2.5 Driving pulse waveform of switch S2 for open
loop CAC boost converter 31
2.6 Voltage waveform across switch S2 for open
loop CAC boost converter 32
2.7 Input voltage waveform of open loop CAC
boost converter 32
2.8 Output voltage waveform of open loop CAC
boost converter 32
2.9 Control circuit 33
2.10 Power circuit of open loop CAC boost
converter 34
2.11 Pulse waveforms of switch S1 and S2 for open
loop CAC boost converter (Hardware) 35
2.12 Capacitor voltage waveform at output for
open loop CAC boost converter (Hardware) 35
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FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

2.13 Output voltage waveform of open loop CAC


boost converter (Hardware) 36
2.14 Closed loop CAC boost converter simulation
circuit 37
2.15 Disturbance subsystem for CAC boost
converter 37
2.16 Output voltage waveform of close loop CAC
boost converter 38
2.17 Open loop CAC boost converter fed PMDC
motor simulation circuit 39
2.18 Torque waveform of open loop CAC boost
converter fed PMDC motor 41
2.19 Speed waveform of open loop CAC boost
converter fed PMDC motor 41
2.20 Closed loop CAC boost converter fed PMDC
motor simulation circuit 42
2.21 Torque waveform of closed loop CAC boost
converter fed PMDC motor 43
2.22 Speed waveform of closed loop CAC boost
converter fed PMDC motor 43
3.1 TIB converter circuit 47
3.2 Pulse and inductor current waveform of two
inductor boost converter 48
3.3 Voltage waveforms across capacitor and
output of two inductor boost converter 50
3.4 Open loop TIB converter simulation circuit 51
3.5 Disturbance subsystem for TIB converter 52
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FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

3.6 Input voltage waveform for TIB converter 53


3.7 Driving pulse waveform of switch S1 for TIB
converter 53
3.8 Driving pulse waveform of switch S2 for TIB
converter 54
3.9 Voltage waveform across switch S1 for TIB
converter 54
3.10 Voltage waveform across switch S2 for TIB
converter 55
3.11 Output voltage waveform of open loop TIB
converter 55
3.12 Power circuit 56
3.13 Inverter output voltage waveform of open
loop TIB converter (Hardware) 56
3.14 Pulse waveform across switch S1 for open
loop TIB converter (Hardware) 57
3.15 Pulse waveform across switch S2 for open
loop TIB converter (Hardware) 57
3.16 Output voltage waveform of open loop TIB
converter (Hardware) 58
3.17 Closed loop TIB converter simulation circuit 59
3.18 Inverter output voltage waveform of closed
loop TIB converter 59
3.19 Output voltage waveform of closed loop TIB
converter 60
3.20 Open loop TIB converter fed PMDC motor
simulation circuit 61
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FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

3.21 Speed waveform of open loop TIB converter


fed PMDC motor 62
3.22 Closed loop TIB converter fed PMDC motor
simulation circuit 63
3.23 Speed waveform of closed loop TIB
converter fed PMDC motor 64
3.24 Input voltage versus output voltage 65
3.25 Input voltage versus output power 66
4.1 Switching sequence of PWM AC chopper 71
4.2 PWM controlled AC chopper 74
4.3 Output voltage 74
4.4 Open loop simulation circuit of PWM AC
chopper 79
4.5 Voltage waveform of open loop PWM AC
chopper 80
4.6 Power spectral density waveform of open
loop PWM AC chopper 80
4.7 Top view of the hardware 81
4.8 Rear view of the hardware 81
4.9 Output from cathode ray oscilloscope 82
4.10 Output current waveform measured using
MSO for open loop PWM AC chopper 83
4.11 Output voltage waveform measured using
MSO for open loop PWM AC chopper 83
4.12 Closed loop PWM AC chopper simulation
circuit 84
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FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

4.13 Voltage waveform of closed loop PWM AC


chopper 85
4.14 Speed waveform of closed loop PWM AC
chopper 85
4.15 Power spectral density waveform of closed
loop PWM AC chopper 86
4.16 Block diagram representation of the
implementation of hardware 87
4.17 Output waveform measured using MSO for
closed loop PWM AC chopper 87
4.18 FFT analysis of closed loop output current in
PWM AC chopper 89
4.19 FFT calculation window of output current in
closed loop PWM AC chopper 89
4.20 Block diagram for implementing evolutionary
algorithm 91
4.21 Mutation operator 94
4.22 Crossover operator 94
4.23 Number of generations versus F ( ) 97
4.24 Population size versus F ( ) 98
4.25 Crossover constant versus F ( ) 98
xviii

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

SYMBOLS
S1, S2 - Switches
C0, C1, C2, CC - Capacitors
hc - Correction factor
IL1, IL2, IL, ICC - Currents
D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 - Diodes
VDS1 , VDS2 - Drain source voltage
D0, DT - Duty Cycle
er - Error signal
B1,B2,…Bn - Fourier coefficients
A1….An
VGS1 , VGS2 - Gate source voltage
L1, L2 - Inductors
R0 - Resistor
- Switching angle
t0,t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6 - Time period
Vi, Vo, VCC - Voltages

ABBREVIATIONS
ASD - Adjustable Speed Drive
AC - Alternating Current
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
ACO - Ant Colony Optimisation
APWM - Asymmetrical Pulse Width Modulation
xix

AASS - Auxiliary switch Assisted Soft Switcher


ATR - Auxiliary Transformer
BJT - Bipolar Junction Transistor
CAC - Compound Active Clamp
CCM - Continuous Conduction Mode
DE - Differential Evolution
DSP - Digital Signal Processor
DC - Direct Current
DCM - Discontinuous Conduction Mode
DFT - Discrete Fourier Transform
EMI - Electro Magnetic Interference
FFT - Fast Fourier Transform
GCT - Gate Controlled Thyristor
GTO - Gate Turn Off thyristor
GA - Genetic Algorithm
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
JEIDA - Japan Electronic Industry Development Association
MATLAB - Matrix Laboratory
MOSFET - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MSO - Mixed Signal Oscilloscope
NEC - National Electrical Code
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NLC - Non Linear Carrier
PSO - Particle Swarm Optimisation
PV - Photo Voltaic
PCC - Point of Common Coupling
PFC - Power Factor Correction
PI - Proportional Integral
xx

PWM - Pulse Width Modulation


RFI - Radio Frequency Interference
SHE - Selective Harmonic Elimination
SEPIC - Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter
THD - Total Harmonic Distortion
TIB - Two Inductor Boost
VFD - Variable Frequency Drive
ZCS - Zero Current Switching
ZVS - Zero Voltage Switching
ZVT - Zero Voltage Transition