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Social media is the collective of online communications channels dedicated to community-based

input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration. Websites and applications dedicated
to forums, microblogging, social networking, social bookmarking, social curation, and wikis are
among the different types of social media.

Social media refers to websites and applications that are designed to allow people to share
content quickly, efficiently, and in real-time. Many people define social media as apps on their
smartphone or tablet, but the truth is, this communication tool started with computers. This
misconception stems from the fact that most social media users access their tools via apps.

The ability to share photos, opinions, events, etc in real-time has transformed the way we live
and, also, the way we do business. Retailers who use social media as an integral part of their
marketing strategy usually see measurable results. But the key to successful social media is to
not treat it as an extra appendage but to treat it with the same care, respect, and attention you do
all of your marketing efforts.

Here are some prominent examples of social media:

 Facebook is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to
create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends,
family and colleagues.

 Twitter is a free microblogging service that allows registered members to broadcast

short posts called tweets. Twitter members can broadcast tweets and follow other users'
tweets by using multiple platforms and devices.

 Google+ (pronounced Google plus) was Google's social networking project, designed to
replicate the way people interact offline more closely than is the case in other social

networking services. This website is no longer offered to new users and plans to shut
down remaining accounts in 2019.

 Wikipedia is a free, open content online encyclopedia created through the collaborative
effort of a community of users known as Wikipedians. Anyone registered on the site can
create an article for publication; however, registration is not required to edit articles.
Wikipedia was founded in January of 2001.

 LinkedIn is a social networking site designed specifically for the business community.
The goal of the site is to allow registered members to establish and document networks
of people they know and trust professionally.

 Reddit is a social news website and forum where stories are socially curated and
promoted by site members. The site is composed of hundreds of sub-communities,
known as "subreddits." Each subreddit has a specific topic such as technology, politics or
music. Reddit site members, also known as, "redditors," submit content which is then
voted upon by other members. The goal is to send well-regarded stories to the top of the
site's main thread page.

 Pinterest is a social curation website for sharing and categorizing images found online.
Pinterest requires brief descriptions but the main focus of the site is visual. Clicking on
an image will take you to the original source. For example, clicking on a picture of a pair
of shoes might redirect users to a purchasing site and an image of blueberry pancakes
might redirect to the recipe.

Business applications of social media

Social media is becoming an integral part of life online as social websites and applications
proliferate. Most traditional online media platforms include social components, such as comment
fields for users. In business, social media is used to market products, promote brands, connect to
current customers and foster new business.

 Social media analytics is the practice of gathering data from blogs and social media websites
and analyzing that data to make business decisions. The most common use of social media
analytics is to mine customer sentiment to support marketing and customer service activities.

 Social media marketing (SMM) takes advantage of social networking to help a company
increase brand exposure and broaden customer reach. The goal is usually to create content
compelling enough that users will share it with their social networks. One of the key
components of SMM is social media optimization (SMO). Like search engine optimization
(SEO), SMO is a strategy for drawing new and unique visitors to a website. SMO can be
done two ways: by adding social media links to content such as RSS feeds and sharing
buttons, or by promoting activity through social media via status updates, tweets,
or blog posts.

 Social CRM (customer relationship marketing) can be a very powerful business tool. For
example, establishing a Facebook page allows people who like your brand and the way you
conduct business to like your page, which creates a venue for communication, marketing
and networking. Through social media sites, you can follow conversations about your brand
for real-time market data and feedback.

 In terms of customer feedback, social media makes it easy to tell a company and everyone
else about their experiences with that company, whether those experiences are good or bad.
The business can also respond very quickly to both positive and negative feedback, attend to
customer problems and maintain, regain or rebuild customer confidence.

 Enterprise social networking allows a company to connect individuals who share similar
business interests or activities. Internally, social tools can help employees access
information and resources they need to work together effectively and solve business
problems. Externally, public social media platforms help an organization stay close to their
customers and make it easier to conduct research that they can use to improve business
processes and operations.

 Social media is also often used for crowdsourcing. Customers can use social networking
sites to offer ideas for future products or tweaks to current ones. In IT projects,
crowdsourcing usually involves engaging and blending business and IT services from a mix
of internal and external providers, sometimes with input from customers and/or the general

On the other hand, the integration of social media in the business world can also pose
challenges. Social media policies are designed to set expectations for appropriate behavior and
ensure that an employee's posts will not expose the company to legal problems or public
embarrassment. Such policies include directives for when an employee should identify himself
as a representative of the company on a social networking website, as well as rules for what
types of information can be shared.


Social media may have roots in the 1840s introduction of the telegraph, which connected the
United States. The PLATO system launched in 1960, which was developed at the University of
Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early
forms of social media features with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-
forum application; TERM-talk, its instant-messaging feature; Talkomatic, perhaps the first online
chat room; News Report, a crowd-sourced online newspaper and blog; and Access Lists,
enabling the owner of a note file or other application to limit access to a certain set of users, for
example, only friends, classmates, or co-workers.

ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural
exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network
etiquette (or "netiquette") described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory.[8] ARPANET evolved into the Internet following the publication of the
first TCP specification, RFC 675 (Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program),
written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in 1974. This became the foundation
of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill and Duke University, and established in 1980.

A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system (BBS), known as Community Memory, had
already appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer
Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on February 16, 1978. Before long,
most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM
PC, Commodore 64, Sinclair, and similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in
1981, and subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s.
Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to
be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS
companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and
the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone.[10] Message
forums (a specific structure of social media) arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout the
1980s and early 1990s. When the Internet proliferated with the World Wide Web (WWW) in the
mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums, primarily due to cheaper
per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people simultaneously than telco
modem banks.

An important feature of social media is digital media data compression, due to the impractically
high memory and bandwidth requirements of uncompressed media.[13] The most important
compression algorithm is the discrete cosine transform (DCT), a lossy compression technique
that was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972.[15] DCT-based compression standards include
the H.26x and MPEG video coding standards introduced from 1988 onwards, and
the JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1992.[16][11] JPEG was largely responsible
for the proliferation of digital images and digital photos which lie at the heart of social media and
the MPEG standards did the same for digital video content on social media. The JPEG image
format is used more than a billion times on social networks every day, as of 2014.

GeoCities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in November
1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995 and Six Degrees in May 1997. According to
CBS news, Six Degrees is "widely considered to be the very first social networking site", as it
included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered
users.[19] Open Diary was launched in October 1998; LiveJournal in April 1999; Ryze in October
2001; Friendster in March 2002; the corporate and job-oriented site LinkedIn in May
2003; hi5 in June 2003; MySpace in August 2003; Orkut in January 2004; Facebook in February
2004; Yahoo! 360° in March 2005; Bebo in July 2005; the text-based service Twitter, in which
posts, called "tweets", were limited to 140 characters, in July 2006; Tumblr in February 2007;
and Google+ in July 2011.

Definition and classification

The variety of evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services makes it challenging to
define them.[2] However, marketing and social media experts broadly agree that social media
includes the following 13 types of social media:

 blogs,
 business networks,
 collaborative projects,
 enterprise social networks,
 forums,
 microblogs,
 photo sharing,
 products/services review,
 social bookmarking,
 social gaming,
 social networks,
 video sharing, and
 virtual worlds.

The idea that social media are defined simply by their ability to bring people together has been
seen as too broad, as this would suggest that fundamentally different technologies like
the telegraph and telephone are also social media. The terminology is unclear, with some early
researchers referring to social media as social networks or social networking services in the mid
2000s.[4] A more recent paper from 2015 reviewed the prominent literature in the area and
identified four common features unique to then-current social media services:

1. Social media are Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.

2. User-generated content (UGC) is the lifeblood of the social media organism.
3. Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained
by the social media organization.
4. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's
profile with those of other individuals or groups.

In 2019, Merriam-Webster defined "social media" as "forms of electronic communication (such
as websites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online
communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos)
The development of social media started off with simple platforms such as
Unlike instant messaging clients, such as ICQ and AOL's AIM, or chat clients like IRC, iChat or
Chat Television, was the first online business that was created for real people,
using their real names. The first social networks were short-lived, however, because their users
lost interest. The Social Network Revolution has led to the rise of networking sites.
Research[27] shows that the audience spends 22% of their time on social networks, thus proving
how popular social media platforms have become. This increase is because of the widespread
daily use of smartphones. Social media are used to document memories, learn about and explore
things, advertise oneself and form friendships as well as the growth of ideas from the creation of
blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites. Networked individuals create, edit, and manage
content in collaboration with other networked individuals. This way they contribute to expanding
knowledge. Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation.


Viral content

Some social media sites have potential for content posted there to spread virally over social
networks. The term is an analogy to the concept of viral infections, which can spread rapidly
from person to person. In a social media context, content or websites that are "viral" (or which
"go viral") are those with a greater likelihood that users will reshare content posted (by another
user) to their social network, leading to further sharing. In some cases, posts containing popular
content or fast-breaking news have been rapidly shared and reshared by a huge number of users.
Many social media sites provide specific functionality to help users reshare content, such
as Twitter's retweet button, Pinterest's pin function, Facebook's share option or Tumblr's reblog
function. Businesses have a particular interest in viral marketing tactics because a viral campaign
can achieve widespread advertising coverage (particularly if the viral reposting itself makes the
news) for a fraction of the cost of a traditional marketing campaign, which typically uses printed
materials, like newspapers, magazines, mailings, and billboards, and television and radio
commercials. Nonprofit organizations and activists may have similar interests in posting content
on social media sites with the aim of it going viral. A popular component and feature of Twitter
are retweeting. Twitter allows other people to keep up with important events, stay connected
with their peers, and can contribute in various ways throughout social media.[31] When certain
posts become popular, they start to get retweeted over and over again, becoming viral. Hashtags
can be used in tweets, and can also be used to take count of how many people have used that


Social media can enable companies to get in the form of greater market share and increased
audiences. Internet bots have been developed which facilitate social media marketing. Bots are
automated programs that run over the Internet. Chatbots and social bots are programmed
to mimic natural human interactions such as liking, commenting, following, and unfollowing on
social media platforms.[34] A new industry of bot providers has been created.] Social bots and
chatbots have created an analytical crisis in the marketing industry as they make it difficult to
differentiate between human interactions and automated bot interactions. Some bots are
negatively affecting their marketing data causing a "digital cannibalism" in social media
marketing. Additionally, some bots violate the terms of use on many social mediums such as
Instagram, which can result in profiles being taken down and banned.
"Cyborgs", a combination of a human and a bot, are used to spread fake news or create a
marketing "buzz". Cyborgs can be bot-assisted humans or human-assisted bots. An example is a
human who registers an account for which they set automated programs to post, for instance,
tweets, during their absence.<, From time to time, the human participates to tweet and interact
with friends. Cyborgs make it easier to spread fake news, as it blends automated activity with
human input. When the automated accounts are publicly identified, the human part of the cyborg
is able to take over and could protest that the account has been used manually all along. Such
accounts try to pose as real people; in particular, the number of their friends or followers should
be resembling that of a real person.

Most popular social networks

The following list of the leading social networks shows the number of active users as of July

Number of Users
# Network Name
(in millions)

1 Facebook 2,375

2 YouTube 2,000

3 WhatsApp 1,600

4 Facebook Messenger 1,300

5 WeChat 1,112

6 Instagram 1,000

7 QQ 823

8 QZone 572

9 Tik Tok 500

10 Sina Weibo 465

11 Twitter 330

12 Reddit 330

Number of Users
# Network Name
(in millions)

13 Baidu Tieba 320

14 LinkedIn 310

15 Snapchat 294

16 Pinterest 265

17 Viber 260

18 Discord 250

Social media marketing

Social media marketing has increased due to the growing active user rates on social
media sites. For example, Facebook currently has 2.2 billion users, Twitter has 330
million active users and Instagram has 800 million users.[82] One of the main uses
is to interact with audiences to create awareness of their brand or service, with the
main idea of creating a two-way communication system where the audience and/or
customers can interact back; providing feedback as just one example.[83] Social
media can be used to advertise; placing an advert on Facebook's Newsfeed, for
example, can allow a vast number of people to see it or targeting specific audiences
from their usage to encourage awareness of the product or brand. Users of social
media are then able to like, share and comment on the advert, becoming message
senders as they can keep passing the advert's message on to their friends and
onwards.[84] The use of new media put consumers on the position of spreading
opinions, sharing experience, and has shift power from organization to consumers
for it allows transparency and different opinions to be heard.[85] media marketing
has to keep up with all the different platforms. They also have to keep up with the
ongoing trends that are set by big influencers and draw many peoples attention.
The type of audience a business is going for will determine the social media site
they use.
Social media personalities have been employed by marketers to promote products
online. Research shows that digital endorsements seem to be successfully targeting
social media users,[86] especially younger consumers who have grown up in the
digital age.[87] Celebrities with large social media followings, such as Kylie Jenner,
regularly endorse products to their followers on their social media pages.[88] In
2013, the United Kingdom Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) began to advise
celebrities and sports stars to make it clear if they had been paid to tweet about a
product or service by using the hashtag #spon or #ad within tweets containing
endorsements. The practice of harnessing social media personalities to market or
promote a product or service to their following is commonly referred to

as Influencer Marketing. The Cambridge Dictionary defines an "influencer" as any
person (personality, blogger, journalist, celebrity) who has the ability to affect the
opinions, behaviors, or purchases of others through the use of social media.[89]
Companies such as fast food franchise Wendy's have used humor to advertise their
products by poking fun at competitors such as McDonald's and Burger
King.[90] Other companies such as Juul have used hashtags to promote themselves
and their products.[91]
On social media, consumers are exposed to the purchasing practices of peers
through messages from a peer's account, which may be peer-written. Such
messages may be part of an interactive marketing strategy involving modeling,
reinforcement, and social interaction mechanisms.[92] A 2011 study focusing on
peer communication through social media described how communication between
peers through social media can affect purchase intentions: a direct impact through
conformity, and an indirect impact by stressing product engagement.[92] The study
indicated that social media communication between peers about a product had a
positive relationship with product engagement.[92]

Use in science
Signals from social media are used to assess academic publications,[93] as well as
for evaluation of the quality of the Wikipedia articles and their sources.[94] Data
from social media can be also used for different scientific approaches. One of the
studies examined how millions of users interact with socially shared news and
show that individuals’ choices played a stronger role in limiting exposure to cross-
cutting content.[95] Another study found that most of the health science students
acquiring academic materials from others through social media.[96] Massive
amounts of data from social platforms allows scientists and machine
learning researchers to extract insights and build product features.[97] Using social
media can help to shape patterns of deception in resumes.[98]


Social networking sites and legal issues are a continuously evolving area of the
law. The Legal Technology Center details a wide variety of legal issues involving
social networks, as millions of people connect and interact online.

About Social Networking Sites and Legal Issues

Basic laws governing social networks include protecting the legal liabilities of the
site and the site users, particularly with regard to content that users can upload. The
Legal Technology Center cites two federal statutes governing social networking
sites and legal issues in 2009.

Section 512(c) of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act

Websites that allow users to post their own content would be subject to copyright
infringement if not for this section of the Copyright Act. Members of social
networking sites can post personalized content and materials via their blogs, links
and document uploads. The social networking sites are protected from any liability
associated with featuring any copyrighted materials, provided they do not profit
from it and if they provide their members with a mechanism for removing the
content when and if they terminate their own accounts.
According to the Legal Technology Center, YouTube cites this section of the law
to protect itself from copyright infringement lawsuits because the users post the
content, not YouTube staff. If YouTube were to profit from an advertising
program, this section would no longer provide the same level of legal protection.

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act

Communications decency covers legal issues such as defamation and illegal
content. Ideally, a content provider should not report false or defamatory news. But
users of social networking sites can and often do post anything they want,
including rumors and blatant lies. This section the communications decency act
doesn't protect those users so much as it protects the social networking service

itself from being served in a liability or defamation lawsuit. While the courts will
ultimately decide whether social networks will be held liable, Internet law
continues to grow with regard to privacy, copyright and commercial protections or
liabilities. Several states enforce local legislation with regard to Internet issues, but
these laws are applicable only in those states. Most social networking sites cross
state and national borders, which makes writing and enforcing those laws very

Interpreting the Law

Users agree to standard terms of use when they create an account on a social
networking site. According to the terms governing Facebook for example, users
grant the site limited license to display their copyrighted materials. They also agree
to a code of behavior on the site and in their interactions with other members.
Failure to obey these terms may result in the user being banned and their account
Facebook's terms of use are similar to other sites including MySpace and LinkedIn.
If the site suspects illegal behavior (sexual predators for example), they are under
obligation to report those suspicions to the authorities. However, if a user is not
violating terms of use, or a complaint is not filed by another user, the terms are
more for legal coverage for the social networking site rather than for the
independent user.

A good rule of thumb when it comes to posting on a social networking site and
legal issues is that once something is posted in one place, there is no guarantee it
will ever be removed from the growing body of Internet content. So if you don't
want it online forever, don't post it.

Security Issues with Social Networking Sites

Social media is possibly the most vital sector of the Internet, but, being open and social creates legitimate
concerns about privacy and safety. Headlines warning of online security breaches are just one reminder of
the vulnerability of all websites, including social media outlets.

Six Common Security Problems

Despite these justifiable security concerns about the Web, some of the reasons a person's social
media account is compromised are self-induced. Five common mistakes that can expose an
account include:
1. Forgetting to Log Out
Increase the security of your social media account by always logging out when you step away
from your laptop or computer. It's best to go one step further and close down the browser you
were using to view your account. If you leave your account logged in, you set yourself up to be
hacked because anyone who can get to your computer can access your account, change the
password or even post items and communicate with your friends as if they are you. Logging out
and shutting down the browser is even more important if you use a public computer.

2. Clicking on Enticing Ads
Viruses and malware often find their way onto your computer through those annoying, but
sometimes enticing ads. However, on the Web, just like in real life, if an offer seems to good to
be true, then it probably is. Save yourself a potential security headache - don't click.
3. Connecting With Strangers
Be careful of who you accept invitations from when building your online network. Connecting
and sharing information with people you don't know can be dangerous. If you receive friend
requests from strangers, it's best to stay away.
Further, if you receive friend requests from people you do know, but are already connected with
via the same site, it's possible that someone has set up a fake account. Avoid accepting duplicate
requests, instead checking in with the 'real' person to see if the request is legitimate.
You should also be careful when connecting with a celebrity's account, as scammers sometimes
pose as famous people. Make sure it is their official, legitimate account and not a stranger
pretending to be them before you accept their 'friend' invitation.
4. Using Third Party Apps
Part of the appeal of social media sites are all the various games and apps. Even though a
significant number of them are safe, you do grant the app a certain level of permission
concerning your information. Make sure you know what the app is viewing and sharing before
agreeing to the terms.
4. Exposing Too Much Information
Make sure you understand the level of privacy - or lack of privacy - you are agreeing to when
volunteering personal information. Do you really want an app badly enough to allow it to
announce where you are?
Also, participating in seemingly innocent games, like posting answers to a list of 20 questions,
may actual also allow cyber-criminals gather important personal information. For example, the
question, "What is your most embarrassing moment?" is probably fine to answer, but answering
questions like, "What is your pet's name?" or "Where did you and your significant other meet?"
may expose answers you gave to security questions for legitimate sites like Amazon or your
5. Failing to Utilize Security Settings
Social media sites provide you with the ability to restrict who has access to your information. For
example, Facebook (like others) lets you decide who your friends are and what content they can
view. One practice to increase your account's security is to disable most of the options and then
re-open them once you understand what the settings specifically mean to your account.
In reality, you probably want different types of content to be displayed to different people, with
the most being available to known friends and the least to acquaintances.

Three Major Security Events
Each year, it seems, another significant security breach is announced. Major companies
like CNN and Burger King have had social media accounts hacked. Most of these breaches mean
passwords have been swiped and sometimes even banking and credit card information is
compromised. Each of the major social networking sites have dealt with one or more security
breach. Three well-known breaches are:
1. Heartbleed Bug
Possibly the most invasive security problem the Internet has faced and experts advise people to
simply presume they have been affected by the bug. This is because it's not just an issue of your
phone or computer being infected, the bug impacted software that powers many of the services
you use. Compromised by the bug was OpenSSL -- the most widely used open
source cryptographic programming module -- and TLS (transport layer security) implementation,
the component used to encrypt traffic on the Web.
2. Zendesk, Facebook and More
Although no passwords were obtained when Zendesk, a customer service provider for Pinterest,
Tumblr and Twitter, was hacked, the breach did impact thousands of users emails. The Zendesk
hack came just months after the November, 2013 security breach where hackers stole usernames
and passwords for nearly 2 million accounts at Facebook, Google, Yahoo, LinkedIn, Twitter and
93,000 other websites. The breach occurred when malware installed on user computers lifted
log-in credentials for thousands of sites for more than a month.
3. Syrian Electronic Army
In early 2014, the Syrian Electronic Army briefly took over at least two of Skype's social media
accounts: Twitter and Facebook. The group has also successfully hacked the New York Times
and hijacked the Associated Press' Twitter account releasing a tweet stating the White House had
been attacked which briefly impacted the stock market.
These social media attacks were in addition to online security breaches that affected major store
chains like Target.

What to Do if Your Account Is Hacked

Regardless whether your account is compromised because the social networking site was hacked
or just your individual account was infected, you need to take several steps to resolve the issue.
Clean Your Device
The aforementioned hack that compromised Facebook and Google was caused by malware on
users machines. In cases like this, use well-known quality malware removal software to scan
your machine. The software will contain and/or destroy known and suspicious files. You may
even consider reformatting your computer.
Once your machine is clean, the best way to prevent it from becoming infected again is to keep
your antivirus software and browsers current. Set them to automatically install updates.

Change Your Passwords
Once an account has been compromised, it is best to presume all your passwords are
compromised. Some security experts advise using a different, strong password for each site.
Get a Password Manager
Since security is dependent on multiple strong passwords, it can become difficult to remember
them all -- although there are tricks to make it possible. Consider using a password manager to
reduce your vulnerability. You can use the program's password generator to create strong, hard-
to-break passwords and you only need to remember one password to access the manager.
Report It
Make sure you report the situation to the social network site. This is especially true if you have
been locked out of your account. If this happens, you may have to prove to the social networking
site the account belongs to you, but be persistent and follow through. If you don't, someone could
potentially post information as if they are you - which, at the very least, can damage your online
If a crime has been committed, such as banking information stolen, also report the incident to
local authorities and appropriate federal law enforcement agencies.
Use Two-Step Verification
If the social media site offers a two-step verification process, use it. The added layer of security
makes it much harder for a would-be hacker to access your account. The extra log-in steps will
save you time and headaches in the long run.

Staying Safe on Social Media Sites
Each social media site offers tips on how to use their service and still maintain a high level of
security. Read their policies, follow their security guidelines and adopt their best practices.
 Facebook: There is a comprehensive help page on Facebook where you can find details on
protecting your account against hacking and other security threats. Check it frequently to
make sure your practices and settings are up to date. CNET also offers practical advice such
as being sure to block your ex and carefully manage who has viewing access.
 Foursquare: For a better understanding of who can see information associated with your
Foursquare account, visit the Help Center. This page explains methods for creating security
settings for every account scenario. Ensure your check-ins are safe and secure by utilizing
these five tips from CIO.
 Instagram: If you have an Instagram account, read their official page for ways to keep your
account safe.
 LinkedIn: Visit LinkedIn's Help Center for a wide range of account security articles. A few
of the topics covered on the page include methods for protecting your privacy, your identity
and your account. They also offer tips for dealing with phishing, spam and malware. If your
LinkedIn account is associated with a business, How Not to Have Your Account
Hacked provides ways to keep passwords safe even if several people have access to the
 Pinterest: To keep your Pinterest account secure, you will need to access two main sections
on the site: privacy settings and account security. If your account has been hacked or placed
in a Safe mode by Pinterest, you will use the account security section to resolve the issue.
However, most likely you will only need to use the the privacy settings section. This is
where you control what others can view and the degree of personalization
desired. Scams are one issue the site has dealt with in the past.
 Tumblr: If you use Tumblr, one of the best ways to improve security is to utilize the
recently implemented two-factor authentication. For all your settings, though, access the
site's security settings page. Here you can learn how to revoke third-party application
permissions as well as how to remove spam from your blog. For increased security,
according to Entrepreneur magazine, you may want to refrain from using free themes.
 Twitter: Visit Twitter's Help Center to learn best practices for your Tweets or if you want
to know how to connect with or revoke third-party applications. Also visit this page to
discover methods for controlling account settings so you can get the level of security you
 YouTube/Google+: If you have a YouTube and/or Google+ account, bookmark
Google's Keeping Your Account Secure page. This page is great source to learn about their
two-step verification process, malware and virus issues, general information about your
account settings and best practices for protecting your privacy and identity.
One situation people sometimes overlook is what to do if they want to close a social media
account. Should the account be deactivated or deleted? According to the Center for Internet

Security, you need to take several steps before for your account is deleted from the social media

It's All Public Information

Although technically you can post both public and private information on many of the social
media sites, due to the onslaught of security breaches in recent years, it is in your best interest to
presume anything you post is available for public consumption. Reduce privacy and security
risks by only posting information that you would be okay with everyone knowing.

Which Is Safer: MySpace or Facebook

If you are new to the social networking world and want to get online fast, you may want to ask
yourself: "Which is safer: MySpace or Facebook?" You really need to look at both websites, read
up on the various news reports and studies, and even talk to others you know who have profiles
up and running. Only then will you be able to make an informed decision.

Social Networks: Are They Really Safe?

What it all comes down to when determining which social network is the safest is understanding
how private your personal information really is. Sure, you can sign up and adjust your account
settings to hide your profile, but is it really private? To the normal Internet user, yes, it is. But to
Internet hackers, a private profile just means a little leg work needs to be done to find security
holes. Profile breaches have happened and will continue to occur no matter what measures social
networks take.

MySpace Security Issues

Since its inception, MySpace has been criticized for not keeping its users safe from predators,
stalkers, bullies, hackers, etc. The following a small list of some of the safety and security
concerns with the website:

 In an August 2008 report by CNET stated that a glitch in MySpace's mobile security system
allowed private messages to be publicly viewed. Another recent security hole allowed users
to delete bulletins from group in which they didn't belong and to post messages in group
from which they were banned.
 In January 2008, a file with millions of images from private profiles was lifted from
MySpace and uploaded to Bit Torrent, a large, public file-sharing site.
 In 2007, there was a MySpace hoax in which a 13-year-old girl committed suicide after a
fake user named "Josh" befriended her and then abruptly ended their relationship. "Josh"
turned out to be members of a neighborhood family out to get the young teen. The fake
profile was created by an adult.

Facebook Security Issues
While Facebook has been deemed "safer" than MySpace, it too has not been without security

 In August 2008, a third-party application was found that allowed people to read comments
on others' pages, even if they aren't friends.
 In March 2008, a security breach allowed individuals to view private photographs of many
users, including those of celebrity Paris Hilton.
 More than 80 million users who opted not to have their personal information made public
had just that happen during a test run of site's new beta format in July 2008.
 In August 2007, Facebook's source code for the main home page was leaked. This could
cause problems for the social network as other security holes could be found and exploited.
 In 2007, an undercover investigation found that teenagers received sexual advances from
others within days of setting up their accounts. In one instance, a law enforcement agent,
posing as a 14-year-old girl, received sexually explicit messages from a 24-year-old male. A
month after the event happened, Facebook had not removed the comments.

Which Is Safer? MySpace or Facebook

Despite all of the security problems MySpace and Facebook have had, site owners have made
some strides to keep their users safe. And determining which site is the safest depends on what
security measures you expect in a social network:

 In May 2008, an agreement was made between Facebook and the attorney general offices in
most of the states in the U.S to monitor younger users more carefully and to establish age
verification technology that would notify Facebook officials when an under-age user sends
messages to an unknown adult.
 MySpace has a similar plan in place and has agreed to make all profiles of 14- and 15-year-
olds private (and they won't be able to make them public). Profiles of 16- and 17- year-olds
will also automatically be set to private, but they will have the option of making them
 Today's MySpace privacy settings include giving you control over who can see you online,
who can view your profile and photos, who knows your birthday and how to block users.
 On Facebook, its privacy policy states that registered users choose their profile information,
including "contact and personal information, pictures, interests and groups." Users also
control how that information is shared with others.

Safe Alternatives to MySpace or Facebook

If you aren't convinced that MySpace or Facebook is safe, then consider these alternative social

 imbee
 Whyville
 MyPraize

Stay Safe, No Matter What

It doesn't matter which social network you register with, being safe online should be a priority.
Experienced hackers can easily break into your profiles and steal whatever information you have
posted. Also, if someone seems too good to be true, they usually are. It is very easy to fake your
life on the Internet. To keep yourself and your family secure, heed the following:

 Never give out personal information such as:

 Full name
 Address
 Phone number
 Credit cards or social security numbers
 Place of employment
 Name of school
 Passwords to online accounts
 Do not post questionable or inappropriate pictures of yourself, your family or your friends.
They can be copied, altered and used in inappropriate ways all over the Internet.
 Don't agree to meet someone in person whom you've never met before unless a friend
(preferably an adult) goes with you and you meet in a public place. Always tell someone
(again a parent or other adult) who you are meeting and give him or her information about
that individual.
 Don't add anyone as a friend or accept their messages if you don't know them.
 Report any and all suspicious behavior to an adult.

Use Your Best Judgment

It all comes down to using your best judgment when picking a social network. If something
doesn't feel right about it, then don't join it. If you are asked for some information you aren't
comfortable sharing, then don't share it. Social networks, even MySpace and Facebook, can be
fun and enjoyable places if you know how to play it safe.

Review Of Literature

To a very large degree, people experience and interact with their surroundings from a visual
perspective. An often-cited advantage of mail- and Internet-based surveys over telephone
surveys is the ability to present information (such as concepts, scales, and question wording) in a
visual manner, easing the cognitive burden on respondents and allowing for richer, more
meaningful responses.

Yet all surveys inherently contain a potentially deadly flaw—the act of completing a survey does
not mimic the true decision-making process utilized by consumers.

The use of SOCIAL MEDIA helps to mitigate this limitation of surveys, giving respondents a
more realistic decision-making context. This article will demonstrate one animation model and
will discuss the incorporation of animation into most choice-modeling research tasks.

An empirical study was conducted to compare the use of a traditional grid-based choice-
modeling approach social media choice-modeling approach. The sample consisted of over 600
nationally representative adults in the United States. The respondents were randomly assigned to
one of the two modeling approaches.

Analysis of the data shows encouraging support that the use of animation in choice-modeling
projects can result in a more accurate estimate of future purchases as compared to traditional
text-based choice modeling methodologies. The respondents tend to be more engaged in the
research and tend to report higher levels of satisfaction with the media approach. Respondent
cognitive stress is reduced, and the level of frustration with the repetitive choice-modeling task is
reduced. Finally, the use of animation reduces the price elasticities of the stimulus product.

Though the animation methodology was utilized in this experiment with a single consumer
packaged good category, it is expected that the methodology could be similarly utilized in a wide
variety of choice-modeling situations, where store-shelf comparisons are used by consumers to
make purchase decisions. The animation lends an increasing amount of realism to the consumer
decision-making process that is lacking in the traditional text-based, choice-modeling

It's not always easy to choose one software package over another. From user-friendliness to
functionality, price to package features and extras, there are quite a few influencing factors in the
decision of just which computer animation software to try out.For ex-
CN / [adult swim] Apparel Update
written by: Aaron H. Bynum published: November 18th, 2011
Cartoon Network Enterprises apparel licensing updates. New this season are agreements for boys
apparel ('Redakai: Conquer the Kairu'), general tops and thermals ('Regular Show'), and skater
gear, for Adult Swim in general, through the etnies group. The 'Regular Show' and Adult Swim
gear is already on sale. The 'Redakai' apparel is scheduled for next spring.


TARGET AUDIENCE: The first step in developing any sample design is to clearly define the
target group of audience on whom the research would be conducted.

In this research, people falling under the age group of 14-50 years of age are the target group.

SAMPLE UNIT: Sample unit may be geographical one such as state, district, and villages.My
sample unit is the news channels that is count New Delhi region.

SIZE OF SAMPLE: This refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to
constitute a sample. My sample was neither larger nor too small, it was 40.

TIME: It refers to the time taken by the researchers to do the research.

It took me 15-20 days to complete my research work.

TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION: This says the way of data is collected and the response
calculated by it to sum up the public views. In this research, I observed mainly through the
questionnaires and self view points of the people about animation in news channel.


All researchers begin with the preparation of a research design. To design means to plan. A
research design is the overall plan or program of research. It is the conceptual framework or
structure within which the research is conducted. It is described as a “blue print for the
collection, measurement and analysis of data”. Research design is needed because it facilitates
the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as
possible yielding maximal information with minimum expenditure of effort, time and money.

Research design, in fact has a great bearing on the reliability of the result arrived at and such
constitutes the firm foundation of the entire edifice of the research work.

The research design used in this research is “Descriptive Research Design”. Descriptive studies
are those studies, which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular
individual or of a group. Descriptive and explanation are its two main aims. Descriptive studies
are concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning
individuals, group or situation. Most of the social research comes under this category. In the
descriptive study the first step is to specify the objective with sufficient precision to ensure that
the data collected are relevant. If this is not done carefully the study may not provide the desired

A sample design is defined as a plan for obtaining a sample from a given universe. It refers to a
technique or a procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. Sample
design is selected before data is collected. There are many sample designs from which a
researcher can choose. Some designs are relatively more precise and easier to apply than others.

Researchers must select a sample design, which should be reliable and appropriate for his/her
research study.

In this research non-probability sampling is use. Non-probability is that sampling procedure,

which doesn’t afford and basis for estimating the probability that each and basis for population
has of being included in sample. It is a “non-random” sampling. In other words, the researchers
choose any units of the universe for constituting a sample.

“Convenient sampling” is the method used for carrying on this particular research. It falls under
the category of non-probability sampling methods. In this method the researcher selects those
units of the population in the sample, which appear convenient to him/her for conducting
research. It is very simple to draw. It is less costly and involves less field work since those units
will be selected which are closer to each other.


The first step in developing any sample design is to clearly define the set of objects, technically
called the universe to be studied. Universe is a collection of elements within which we carry our
research. It is a widely framework and limiteboour research. It is a wide framework and limits to
certain boundaries. The universe can be finite or infinite. In finite universe the number of items is
certain, but in case of infinite the number of items is infinite, i.e., we cannot have any idea about
the total number of items. It is a target group, which the researcher wants to know about by
studying a population must be explicitly defined in terms of elements, sampling units, extent and

The universe chosen for this is the: National Capital Region: Delhi

An inescapable step in a sample study is to determine the study of the sample. Size of the sample
refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute sample. This is the
major problem before the research; the size of the sample should neither be excessively large nor
too small. It should be optimum. An optimum sample is one, which fulfills the requirement of
efficiency, representatives, reliability and flexibility. The size of the population must be kept in
view fronts also limits the sample size. The parameters of interest in a research study must be
kept in view, while deciding the size of sample. Cost to dedicate the size of sample that we can
draw. As such, budgetary constraints must invariable to be taken into consideration when we
decide the sample size.

This involves both the statistical and non-statistical considerations. The sampling units selected
are often dependent on the sampling frame. If a relatively complete and accurate listing of
elements is available, one must well to sample them directly. If no such listing is available one
may need to sample bigger units as the sampling units are the basic unit containing the elements
of the population to be sampled. It may be the element itself, i.e., the objects on which
measurement are taken.

The sample size chosen for the research here is 100, i.e., forms the whole universe “Delhi”, 2009
respondents have to be chosen as sample size. This sample size is representative of the universe
and possesses the same characteristics as that of universe


Social media is a really convenient and important communicate network for all the people
nowadays. We can use it to know friends and keep contact with friends that came from different
countries. We can also share our ideas so quickly so that all the things could develop so fast
because people could tell us their ideas and we could improve it immediately. We could also
learn new things on social media by watching or reading the things that people shared onto the
social media. People could also sell things on social media freely which could reduce the
expenditure of advertisements.

There are more advantages for using social media, however, there is always advantages and
disadvantages for a thing. As social media is too convenient for people, almost most of them
don't even have to 'speak out' to communicate with people. No longer, people will lost their
communication skills. The more serious problem is many people utilised the power of social
media and used it to bully someone. The power of social media is also same as the one in real
life. A little of them used social media to do things that against the law, which is a fool

Social media changed our life so much. Our life became more convenient because social media
is a very useful tool for us in 21st century, it could help us to improve our life. However, we
have to aware of how we use them. If we could use the social media smartly, having social media
will become a good change for us.

It would be wise not to underestimate the costs associated with marketing on social
media. Though the potential to reach a wide audience is both immediate and as
simple as opening a Facebook account it should not be undertaken lightly.
A serious point to be remembered is the potential for damage to the brand going
viral across the internet. Repairing this damage could cost considerable money and
Sufficiently qualified staff would need to be hired plus the costs associated with
training other staff using the company accounts would need to be factored in. These
costs are beyond the purview of this report and further research in this area is highly

A very minimum interaction that Hotels should consider is to treat TripAdvisor and as an influential means of reputation management. At present
reviews whether they are bad or good, are left unanswered.
It is suggested that offline and online marketing strategies be brought into alignment
to prevent mixed messages and to promote the availability of the online forums for
interaction. Offline advertising should be used to complement the online media.
Adding “visit us on Facebook” and other such texts to promotional material will
help to raise awareness.

The social networking strategy should sufficiently flexible to allow it to adapt to

new developments and to determine what works and what does not work.
A dedicated social media co-ordinator is recommended to monitor the impact of any
changes implemented. A dedicated co-ordinator would also allow for consistency in
communication. At the very least a profession agency experienced in social media
marketing should be consulted at from the earliest planning stages.
The reviews and complaints raised by the customers on the SNS should be
effectively managed and proper actions should be taken by the hotels management
and the action taken should also be communicated to the customer.
The promotional offers during season on should be displayed on the SNS on regular
basis, so that large number of customers is captured