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- Forces at an Angle
- Work Energy Understanding
- Assignment Work Power Energy
- Physics I Problems (54).pdf
- Midterm Exam
- 1 a Particle P is Projected Vertically Upwards With Speed 11ms
- Untitled 11
- maths paper
- Lecture 20
- dynamics quion-cruz.pptx
- sg06 workenergypower
- sg06 workenergypower
- sg06 workenergypower
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LECTURE 1

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Work, Energy & Power

LECTURE 1

Work, Power & Energy

Let’s Begin!

Introduction What’s the skier’s speed at the bottom ?

We can solve this problem by applying

Newton’s second law to find the skier’s

constant acceleration and the speed.

θ

Introduction

Now, Here the Slope is Continuously Changing and so the

Acceleration, So Solving for the details of the Skier’s

Motion is Comparatively Difficult.

H

Work - Work is said to be done by a force when the point of application of force is

displaced under the influence of the force.

A force is said to be constant when its

magnitude as well as direction is constant.

Let a constant force F, applied on the

body,produces a displacement S is inclined to

F at an angle θ.

θ

S

s

Work

Let us resolve force F along the displacement s and perpendicular to it. So,

work is the product of the component of force in the direction of

displacement and the magnitude of the displacement.

Hence work will be given by dot product of force & displacement vector.

F sin θ

F

W = (F cos θ ) S

→→ θ F cos θ

W= F.S

S

Work

Units of Work

1J = 107 erg

another useful unit is electron volt (eV)

1 eV = 1.6 ×10–19 J

Path Independent Work done by Constant Force

→

A F

θ

B

Work done by a Constant Force is Path Independent

Let us Suppose that a Particle goes from Position A to Position B under the

action of a constant force F, then the work done by the constant force is

→

Y A F

θ

→ B

r1

→

r2

O X

In Cartesian Coordinate System

Illustrations On Work Done By A Constant Force

Example A box is moved on a horizontal surface by applying a force

60N at an angle θ = 600 to the horizontal. Find the work done

during the displacement of the box over a distance of 500m.

A. 15 kJ

B. 20 kJ 60N

C. 26 kJ

D. None of these

600

Example A box is moved on a horizontal surface by applying a force F

= 60N at an angle θ = 300 to the horizontal. What is the work

done during the displacement of the box over a distance of

0.5 km.

Solution: By definition

Work done W = F s cosθ

W = (60) (0.5 x 103) x cos 600

= 600 x 500 x 1/2

= 15000 J

= 15kJ

Example A Particle is moved by a Force F = 3i + 4j N, from a point (2,3)

m to (3,0) m in x-y plane. Find the work done by the force on

the particle.

A. 15 J

B. +9 J

C. -9 J

D. None of these

Example A Particle is Moved by a Force F=(3i + 4j) N, from a point (2,3)

m to (3,0) m in x-y plane. Find the work done by the force on

the particle.

Solution:

Example A man moves on a straight horizontal road with a block of

mass 2 kg in his hand. If he covers a distance of 40m with

an acceleration of 0.5 m/s2, find the Work Done by the man

on the block during the motion as observed from ground.

A. 40 J

B. 20 J

C. 40 J

D. None of these

Example A man moves on a straight horizontal road with a block of

mass 2 kg in his hand. If he covers a distance of 40m with an

acceleration of 0.5 m/s2, find the Work Done by the man on

the block during the motion as observed from ground.

F = 2 × (0.5)

= 1N

= 1 × (40)

= 40 J

Example A body is Subjected to a Constant Force given by F=-i+2j+3k N.

What is the work done by this force in moving the body

through a distance of 4m along the z-axis and then 3m along

the y-axis ?

A. 18 J

B. 35 J

C. 12 J

D. None of these

Example A body is Subjected to a Constant Force given by F=-i+2j+3k

N.What is the work done by this force in moving the body

through a distance of 4m along the z-axis and then 3m along

the y-axis ?

Solution:

Example A 6 Kg block by a distance of S = 12m along a horizontal surface at a

constant speed. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is μ = 0.2 and the

cord pulling the block is at an angle of 450 with the horizontal, then

calculate the work done by the person (take g = 10m/s2)

A. 60 J

B. 90 J

C. 120 J 45o

D. None of these

6 kg

μ = 0.2

Example A person pulls a 6 Kg block by a distance of S = 12m along a

horizontal surface at a constant speed. If the coefficient of

kinetic friction is μ = 0.2 and the cord pulling the block is at

an angle of 450 with the horizontal, then calculate the work

done by the person (take g = 10m/s2)

Fsinθ

N →

Solution: Kinetic friction opposes the F

relative motion of the block θ = 450

Fcosθ

For vertical equilibrium

N + F sin θ = mg ……(1) fk = μN →

S

F cos θ = μN ……(2)

Solution: Fsinθ

N →

F

θ = 450

Fcosθ

fk = μN →

S

mg

Positive, Negative & ZERO Work Done

Positive Work

The Work is said to be Positive if the Angle between Force and Displacement

is Acute (θ <900) because cosθ=+ve Positive Work Speeds up the body.

S F

θ s

When a load is lifted up then the lifting force and displacement

act in the same direction So,

Work done by lifting force is Positive.

Negative Work

The work is said to be Negative if the angle between force and displacement is

obtuse (900 < θ ≤ 1800) because cosθ =–ve. Negative work slows down the

body.

F

motion

θ

s

Work done by man in opposing the sliding motion of car down

the incline is negative. When brakes are applied to a moving

vehicle, the work done by braking force is negative.

F

motion

θ

s

Zero Work

Work Done by a force is zero if the body is displaced in a direction

perpendicular to the direction of the force is (θ = 900)

N

mg

Zero Work

Work done by a force is ZERO if the body suffers no displacement on the

application of force i.e. S = 0

At every point on the circular path, the centripetal force and

displacement are mutually perpendicular. So, the work done

by the centripetal force is ZERO.

F s

Example Figure shows 4 situations in which a force acts on a box while the

box slides rightward a distance ‘d’ across a frictionless floor. The

magnitude of the forces are identical, their orientations are as shown.

Rank the situations according to the work done on the box during the

displacement, from most positive to most negative.

A. D,C,B,A

B. C,B,A,D

C. B,A,C,D A B

D. None of these

C D

Solution:

In (A) θ is obtuse ⇒ cosθ = –ve ⇒ W = –ve A. B.

In (B) θ = 900 ⇒ cosθ = 0 ⇒ W = 0

In (C) θ is acute ⇒ cosθ = +ve ⇒ W = +ve

In (D) θ = 00 ⇒ cosθ = +1 ⇒W = is maximum

C. D.

Ranking is D, C, B, A

Example A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined surface of

inclination θ fixed in an elevator. The elevator goes down with

a uniform velocity ‘v’ and the block does not slide on the

wedge. The work done by the force of friction on the block in

time t will be

A. Zero

B. mg vt sin2θ

C. -mg vt sin2θ

D. None of these

v

θ

Solution:

N fs

As block is at rest w.r.t. incline

Resolving forces along and perpendicular to incline

⇒ fs = mg sin θ θ mg

Also N = mg cos θ

In time t displacement s = vt

Vertically downwards fs

1800 – (900 – θ)

= (mg sin θ) (vt) ( –sinθ) s

W = –mg (sin2 θ) vt

C. is correct

cos (900 + θ) = – sinθ

Work Done By Various Real Forces

➔ Gravity

➔ Normal reaction

➔ Tension

Work Done by Gravity

Work done by gravity can be positive, negative or ZERO.

A. When the object moves vertically downwards then work done by gravity

is +ve.

(w = +ve) s

mg

B. When the object moves vertically upwards then work done by

gravity is –ve.

s

(w = –ve)

mg

s

(w = 0)

mg

+ve Work Done by Gravity increases KE

Note

Vertical Coordinates of the Object.

m

Example The mass of the particle is 2 kg. It is projected as shown in

four different ways with same speed of 10 m/s. Find out the

work done by gravity during the time the stone falls on

ground. 1

A. 2000J 2

B. -2000J

C. 1000J 3

D. None of these 100 m 4

Solution: 1

work done in each case is same given by 3

100 m 4

Work done by normal reaction

Note - Work done by normal reaction can be positive, negative or ZERO

v

Example Find work done by force F on A during 100m displacement.

A. 12000 J

B. 0J 100 m

C. 120 J

F = 120 N mA = 20kg

D. None of these m

mBB ==10kg

10kg

A B

Solution:

(Wf) on A = f Δs cosθ

mA = 20kg mA = 20kg

mB = 10kg F=120N mB = 10kg

A A

= 120 × 100 × cos 00 B B

= 12000 J

Example Find work done by force F on B during 100m displacement

A. 12000 J

B. 0J

C. 120 J 100 m

D. None of these F = 120 N mA = 20kg

mB = 10kg

A B

Solution:

A mB = 10kg F=120N A mB = 10kg

Example Find work done by normal reaction on B and A during the

given displacement.

A. -4000 J , 4000 J 100 m

B. 4000 J , -4000 J

C. 0J,0J F = 120 N mA = 20kg

mB =

D. None of these A 10kg

B

Solution:

From the F.B.D. of system of blocks A and B

a = acceleration

F = 120 N mA = 20kg

mB =

A 10kg

B

F = ma ⇒ 120 = 30 a ⇒ a = 4m/s2

On block B

N

a

10 kg

N = ma

⇒ N = 10 x 4

⇒ N = 40 newton

Solution:

On block A (WN)A = N S cos 180° = – NS S S

= – 40 × (100) = –4000 J

f N

B

A

N

On block B (WN)B = N S cos 0° = N S × 1

=40 × 100 = 4000 J

a rigid system is zero

Example A block of mass m is released from top of a smooth fixed

incline plane of inclination θ. Find out work done by normal

reaction & gravity during the time block comes to bottom

A. mgh, 0

B. 0, mgh

C. 0, -mgh

D. None of these

Solution:

N

ΔS

∧

j

∧

i

final vertical coordinate

Work Done By Tension

Work Done By Tension

Work done by a tension force can be positive, negative or ZERO.To understand this

let us consider system of blocks as shown T T F

A B

s

System of blocks A and B connected by string gets displaced by s under external

force F

WA = + Ts T

ii. Work Done by tension T on B A

WA = - Ts

iii. NET work done by Tension on entire system is s

always zero as T F

WA + WB = Ts - Ts = 0 B

Note

Work done by internal tension i.e. (tension acting within system) on the

system is always zero if the length remains constant i.e.

Example A bob of pendulum is released at rest from extreme position

as shown in figure. Find work done by Tension from A to B, B

to C and C to A

A. Zero

B. mgl

C. mgl/2

D. None of these

A C

B

Example A bob of pendulum is released at rest from extreme position

as shown in figure. Find work done by Tension from A to B, B

to C and C to A

Solution:

instant tension T is along radial direction and A C

displacement ds along tangential direction. B

→ →

T ⏊ ds at all positions

T . ds = 0 T3

T1

T2

Zero work done by tension at all points. d

s

d

d

s

s

Example The system is released from rest. When 10kg block reaches at

ground then find :

I. Work done by gravity on 10kg

and 5kg blocks

A. 200 J, –100 J

B. –100 J, 200 J

C. 200 J, 200 J

D. None of these 5 kg

10 kg

2m

ground

Example The system is released from rest. When 10kg block reaches at

ground then find :

II. Work done by tension on 10kg

and 5kg blocks

A. 200 J, –100 J

B. –100 J, 200 J

C. 200 J, 200 J

D. None of these 5 kg

10 kg

2m

ground

Solution:

5 kg

10 kg

2m

ground

Solution:

10 kg

S = 2m

10 g

S = 2m

5g

Solution:

T = 2m1m2

a • g

m1 + m 2

T =T=

a

5 kg

T =

5g

10 kg

=

10 g

Solution:

On 10 kg Block

Work done by Tension on 10kg T

T

W1 = T X S cos 1800 1800

10 kg

S = 2m S

W2 = T X S cos00

On 5 kg Block

T

T

S

5 kg S

Example The velocity of block A of the system shown in figure is V A at

any instant.

Calculate velocity of block B at that instant.

A. VB = VA /8

B. VB = VA /15

C. VB = VA /4

D. None of these

A

VA

B

Solution:

In a system of massless pulley and light string the tension in rope attached

to A is T then tension in each rope can be distributed as

16T

8T

8T

8

T

4 4T

T 4T

2T 2T

2T

T

T

8T 4T 2T T T

A

xA

xB

B

T

8T 4T 2T T A

xB

xA

11th Grade

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Subjects Timings

Physics 7 PM

Chemistry 8 PM

Mathematics 9 PM

12th Grade

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Subjects Timings

Physics 7 PM

Chemistry 8 PM

Mathematics 9 PM

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