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Work, Energy & Power

LECTURE 1
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Work, Energy & Power
LECTURE 1
Work, Power & Energy
Let’s Begin!
Introduction What’s the skier’s speed at the bottom ?
We can solve this problem by applying
Newton’s second law to find the skier’s
constant acceleration and the speed.

θ
Introduction
Now, Here the Slope is Continuously Changing and so the
Acceleration, So Solving for the details of the Skier’s
Motion is Comparatively Difficult.
H
Work - Work is said to be done by a force when the point of application of force is
displaced under the influence of the force.

Work Done by a Constant Force


A force is said to be constant when its
magnitude as well as direction is constant.
Let a constant force F, applied on the
body,produces a displacement S is inclined to
F at an angle θ.

θ
S
s
Work
Let us resolve force F along the displacement s and perpendicular to it. So,
work is the product of the component of force in the direction of
displacement and the magnitude of the displacement.

Hence work will be given by dot product of force & displacement vector.

F sin θ
F
W = (F cos θ ) S
→→ θ F cos θ
W= F.S
S
Work

Work is a scalar quantity


Units of Work

S.I. Units Newton metre (Nm) or Joule (J)

C.G.S Units dyne cm or erg

1J = 107 erg
another useful unit is electron volt (eV)
1 eV = 1.6 ×10–19 J
Path Independent Work done by Constant Force


A F
θ

B
Work done by a Constant Force is Path Independent
Let us Suppose that a Particle goes from Position A to Position B under the
action of a constant force F, then the work done by the constant force is


Y A F
θ

→ B
r1


r2
O X
In Cartesian Coordinate System
Illustrations On Work Done By A Constant Force
Example A box is moved on a horizontal surface by applying a force
60N at an angle θ = 600 to the horizontal. Find the work done
during the displacement of the box over a distance of 500m.
A. 15 kJ
B. 20 kJ 60N
C. 26 kJ
D. None of these

600
Example A box is moved on a horizontal surface by applying a force F
= 60N at an angle θ = 300 to the horizontal. What is the work
done during the displacement of the box over a distance of
0.5 km.
Solution: By definition
Work done W = F s cosθ
W = (60) (0.5 x 103) x cos 600
= 600 x 500 x 1/2
= 15000 J
= 15kJ
Example A Particle is moved by a Force F = 3i + 4j N, from a point (2,3)
m to (3,0) m in x-y plane. Find the work done by the force on
the particle.

A. 15 J
B. +9 J
C. -9 J
D. None of these
Example A Particle is Moved by a Force F=(3i + 4j) N, from a point (2,3)
m to (3,0) m in x-y plane. Find the work done by the force on
the particle.

Solution:
Example A man moves on a straight horizontal road with a block of
mass 2 kg in his hand. If he covers a distance of 40m with
an acceleration of 0.5 m/s2, find the Work Done by the man
on the block during the motion as observed from ground.
A. 40 J
B. 20 J
C. 40 J
D. None of these
Example A man moves on a straight horizontal road with a block of
mass 2 kg in his hand. If he covers a distance of 40m with an
acceleration of 0.5 m/s2, find the Work Done by the man on
the block during the motion as observed from ground.

Solution: force = (mass) × (acceleration)


F = 2 × (0.5)
= 1N

Work done = force × displacement


= 1 × (40)
= 40 J
Example A body is Subjected to a Constant Force given by F=-i+2j+3k N.
What is the work done by this force in moving the body
through a distance of 4m along the z-axis and then 3m along
the y-axis ?
A. 18 J
B. 35 J
C. 12 J
D. None of these
Example A body is Subjected to a Constant Force given by F=-i+2j+3k
N.What is the work done by this force in moving the body
through a distance of 4m along the z-axis and then 3m along
the y-axis ?

Solution:
Example A 6 Kg block by a distance of S = 12m along a horizontal surface at a
constant speed. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is μ = 0.2 and the
cord pulling the block is at an angle of 450 with the horizontal, then
calculate the work done by the person (take g = 10m/s2)

A. 60 J
B. 90 J
C. 120 J 45o
D. None of these
6 kg

μ = 0.2
Example A person pulls a 6 Kg block by a distance of S = 12m along a
horizontal surface at a constant speed. If the coefficient of
kinetic friction is μ = 0.2 and the cord pulling the block is at
an angle of 450 with the horizontal, then calculate the work
done by the person (take g = 10m/s2)
Fsinθ
N →
Solution: Kinetic friction opposes the F
relative motion of the block θ = 450
Fcosθ
For vertical equilibrium
N + F sin θ = mg ……(1) fk = μN →
S

For horizontal equilibrium mg


F cos θ = μN ……(2)
Solution: Fsinθ
N →
F
θ = 450
Fcosθ

fk = μN →
S
mg
Positive, Negative & ZERO Work Done
Positive Work
The Work is said to be Positive if the Angle between Force and Displacement
is Acute (θ <900) because cosθ=+ve Positive Work Speeds up the body.

S F

θ s
When a load is lifted up then the lifting force and displacement
act in the same direction So,
Work done by lifting force is Positive.
Negative Work
The work is said to be Negative if the angle between force and displacement is
obtuse (900 < θ ≤ 1800) because cosθ =–ve. Negative work slows down the
body.

F
motion
θ
s
Work done by man in opposing the sliding motion of car down
the incline is negative. When brakes are applied to a moving
vehicle, the work done by braking force is negative.

F
motion
θ
s
Zero Work
Work Done by a force is zero if the body is displaced in a direction
perpendicular to the direction of the force is (θ = 900)
N

mg
Zero Work
Work done by a force is ZERO if the body suffers no displacement on the
application of force i.e. S = 0
At every point on the circular path, the centripetal force and
displacement are mutually perpendicular. So, the work done
by the centripetal force is ZERO.

F s
Example Figure shows 4 situations in which a force acts on a box while the
box slides rightward a distance ‘d’ across a frictionless floor. The
magnitude of the forces are identical, their orientations are as shown.
Rank the situations according to the work done on the box during the
displacement, from most positive to most negative.
A. D,C,B,A
B. C,B,A,D
C. B,A,C,D A B
D. None of these

C D
Solution:
In (A) θ is obtuse ⇒ cosθ = –ve ⇒ W = –ve A. B.
In (B) θ = 900 ⇒ cosθ = 0 ⇒ W = 0
In (C) θ is acute ⇒ cosθ = +ve ⇒ W = +ve
In (D) θ = 00 ⇒ cosθ = +1 ⇒W = is maximum
C. D.
Ranking is D, C, B, A
Example A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined surface of
inclination θ fixed in an elevator. The elevator goes down with
a uniform velocity ‘v’ and the block does not slide on the
wedge. The work done by the force of friction on the block in
time t will be
A. Zero
B. mg vt sin2θ
C. -mg vt sin2θ
D. None of these
v

θ
Solution:
N fs
As block is at rest w.r.t. incline
Resolving forces along and perpendicular to incline
⇒ fs = mg sin θ θ mg
Also N = mg cos θ
In time t displacement s = vt
Vertically downwards fs

Work done by friction is


1800 – (900 – θ)

W = (fs) s cos (900+ θ) = (900 + θ)


= (mg sin θ) (vt) ( –sinθ) s

W = –mg (sin2 θ) vt

C. is correct
cos (900 + θ) = – sinθ
Work Done By Various Real Forces
➔ Gravity
➔ Normal reaction
➔ Tension
Work Done by Gravity
Work done by gravity can be positive, negative or ZERO.

A. When the object moves vertically downwards then work done by gravity
is +ve.

(w = +ve) s

mg
B. When the object moves vertically upwards then work done by
gravity is –ve.
s

(w = –ve)

mg

C. For horizontal displacement work done by gravity is zero.

s
(w = 0)

mg
+ve Work Done by Gravity increases KE
Note

Work done by gravity is Independent of Path, It depends on Initial and Final


Vertical Coordinates of the Object.

m
Example The mass of the particle is 2 kg. It is projected as shown in
four different ways with same speed of 10 m/s. Find out the
work done by gravity during the time the stone falls on
ground. 1
A. 2000J 2
B. -2000J
C. 1000J 3
D. None of these 100 m 4
Solution: 1

Work done by gravity is independent of path so 2


work done in each case is same given by 3
100 m 4
Work done by normal reaction
Note - Work done by normal reaction can be positive, negative or ZERO

v
Example Find work done by force F on A during 100m displacement.
A. 12000 J
B. 0J 100 m
C. 120 J
F = 120 N mA = 20kg
D. None of these m
mBB ==10kg
10kg
A B
Solution:

(Wf) on A = f Δs cosθ
mA = 20kg mA = 20kg
mB = 10kg F=120N mB = 10kg
A A
= 120 × 100 × cos 00 B B

= 12000 J
Example Find work done by force F on B during 100m displacement
A. 12000 J
B. 0J
C. 120 J 100 m
D. None of these F = 120 N mA = 20kg
mB = 10kg
A B
Solution:

(Wf) on B = 0 mA = 20kg mA = 20kg


A mB = 10kg F=120N A mB = 10kg

F does not act on B B B


Example Find work done by normal reaction on B and A during the
given displacement.
A. -4000 J , 4000 J 100 m
B. 4000 J , -4000 J
C. 0J,0J F = 120 N mA = 20kg
mB =
D. None of these A 10kg
B
Solution:
From the F.B.D. of system of blocks A and B
a = acceleration
F = 120 N mA = 20kg
mB =
A 10kg
B

F = ma ⇒ 120 = 30 a ⇒ a = 4m/s2
On block B

N
a
10 kg

N = ma
⇒ N = 10 x 4
⇒ N = 40 newton
Solution:
On block A (WN)A = N S cos 180° = – NS S S
= – 40 × (100) = –4000 J
f N
B
A
N
On block B (WN)B = N S cos 0° = N S × 1
=40 × 100 = 4000 J

Wnet = (WN)A + (WN)B = 0

i.e. net work done by internal normal reaction on


a rigid system is zero
Example A block of mass m is released from top of a smooth fixed
incline plane of inclination θ. Find out work done by normal
reaction & gravity during the time block comes to bottom
A. mgh, 0
B. 0, mgh
C. 0, -mgh
D. None of these
Solution:
N

ΔS


j

i

As gravity work depends upon initial and


final vertical coordinate
Work Done By Tension
Work Done By Tension
Work done by a tension force can be positive, negative or ZERO.To understand this
let us consider system of blocks as shown T T F
A B

s
System of blocks A and B connected by string gets displaced by s under external
force F

i. Work Done by tension T on A s


WA = + Ts T
ii. Work Done by tension T on B A
WA = - Ts
iii. NET work done by Tension on entire system is s
always zero as T F
WA + WB = Ts - Ts = 0 B
Note
Work done by internal tension i.e. (tension acting within system) on the
system is always zero if the length remains constant i.e.
Example A bob of pendulum is released at rest from extreme position
as shown in figure. Find work done by Tension from A to B, B
to C and C to A
A. Zero
B. mgl
C. mgl/2
D. None of these

A C
B
Example A bob of pendulum is released at rest from extreme position
as shown in figure. Find work done by Tension from A to B, B
to C and C to A

Solution:

At any instant bob moves on a circular arc. So at any


instant tension T is along radial direction and A C
displacement ds along tangential direction. B
→ →
T ⏊ ds at all positions

T . ds = 0 T3
T1
T2
Zero work done by tension at all points. d
s
d
d
s
s
Example The system is released from rest. When 10kg block reaches at
ground then find :
I. Work done by gravity on 10kg
and 5kg blocks

A. 200 J, –100 J
B. –100 J, 200 J
C. 200 J, 200 J
D. None of these 5 kg

10 kg
2m

ground
Example The system is released from rest. When 10kg block reaches at
ground then find :
II. Work done by tension on 10kg
and 5kg blocks
A. 200 J, –100 J
B. –100 J, 200 J
C. 200 J, 200 J
D. None of these 5 kg

10 kg
2m

ground
Solution:

i. 10kg block displaced 2m vertically downwards and 5kg upwards.

5 kg

10 kg
2m

ground
Solution:

On 10kg work done by gravity

10 kg

S = 2m
10 g

On 5kg work done by gravity

S = 2m

5g
Solution:

II. From F.B.D of system of blocks tension in the string is given by

T = 2m1m2
a • g
m1 + m 2
T =T=
a
5 kg
T =
5g
10 kg
=
10 g
Solution:
On 10 kg Block
Work done by Tension on 10kg T
T
W1 = T X S cos 1800 1800
10 kg

S = 2m S

Work done by Tension on 5kg block


W2 = T X S cos00
On 5 kg Block
T
T
S
5 kg S
Example The velocity of block A of the system shown in figure is V A at
any instant.
Calculate velocity of block B at that instant.
A. VB = VA /8
B. VB = VA /15
C. VB = VA /4
D. None of these

A
VA
B
Solution:

In a system of massless pulley and light string the tension in rope attached
to A is T then tension in each rope can be distributed as
16T

8T
8T
8
T
4 4T
T 4T

2T 2T
2T
T
T
8T 4T 2T T T
A
xA
xB
B
T
8T 4T 2T T A
xB

xA
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