0 Suka0 Tidak suka

0 tayangan5 halamanSTABILITY

Oct 01, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

STABILITY

© All Rights Reserved

0 tayangan

STABILITY

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

Anda di halaman 1dari 5

and Design K-factor in stability design.

By Clifford Schwinger, P.E.

ods of design for stability: the direct analysis method, the effec-

tive length method and the first-order analysis method. While

they are all based on the same fundamental principles, it is im-

portant to understand their individual characteristics.

So what are the factors that affect stability? Section C1 of

the Specification requires designers to consider each of the fol-

lowing when investigating stability, regardless of which stability

design method is used:

➤ First-order effects

➤ Second-order effects

➤ Geometric imperfections

➤ Residual stresses

➤ Uncertainty in stiffness and strength

The above items are considered in each of the three stability

design procedures. The means by which they are considered var- First-order Moment Second-order Moments

ies, but in all cases they are accounted for either in the second-or-

Figure 1. Illustration of first-order and second-order moments in a

➤

cantilevered column.

First-order effects. First-order effects are the moments,

shears, axial loads and deformations resulting from externally

applied forces such as gravity, wind and seismic forces and from consequence. Today’s use of higher-strength steel, open floor

initial imperfections in the structure. plans, lighter-weight materials and refined design practices have

Second-order effects. Second-order effects are the addi- allowed for the design of lighter, more highly stressed, slender

tional moments, shears, axial forces and deformations that oc- and flexible structures for which second-order effects may be of

cur as a result of first-order deformations. greater consequence. Façade systems and other non-structural

There are two types of second-order effects: P-Δ and P-δ components may likewise be sensitive to additional lateral drift

effects. P-Δ effects are those occurring due to relative deforma- due to second-order effects. Accordingly, the Specification re-

tions between the ends of columns, and P-δ effects are those quires mandatory consideration of second-order effects for all

occurring due to deformations within the column length. In structures.

most cases P-Δ effects are the result of lateral loads acting on Geometric imperfections. Geometric imperfections can

the structure and P-δ effects are the result of column moments exist in structures due to sweep or camber in steel shapes

due to gravity loads (see Figure 1). along their length, imperfections in cross-section geometry

Steel-framed structures have historically possessed sufficient and fabrication and erection tolerances, resulting in columns

inherent stiffness such that second-order effects were of little being out-of-plumb. These imperfections can adversely affect

stability.

Permissible fabrication tolerances are specified in the 2010

Clifford Schwinger is vice president AISC Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges

of The Harman Group, Inc., in King Section 6.4; erection tolerances are specified in Section 7.13.

of Prussia, Pa. You can reach him at Columns are permitted to be out-of-plumb by as much as

cschwinger@harmangroup.com. L/500 (subject to an upper limit). The effects of column out-of-

plumbness imperfections are quantified by applying fictitious

notional lateral loads to replicate the destabilizing effects oc-

curring from out-of-plumb columns (see Figure 2).

The direct analysis method permits designers the option of

directly modeling initial imperfections as an alternative to us-

ing notional loads.

Residual stresses. Uneven cooling, which occurs during the

manufacture of hot-rolled steel shapes, creates internal residual

MODERN STEEL CONSTRUCTION april 2013

As compression stresses increase due to applied loads, yield-

ing will first occur where residual compression stresses are

highest—generally near the tips of column flanges. Accord-

ingly, premature yielding where compressive residual stresses

are high results in loss of column stiffness (see Figure 5). This

loss of stiffness reduces both column strength and flexural stiff-

ness, thus adversely affecting stability by reducing the stiffness

of moment frames.

Shaded area indicates zone of lost

stiffness due to yielding resulting

from applied loads plus residual

compressive stresses. (simplified

illustration).

Figure 2. Notional loads are used to model destabilizing effects

➤

resulting from of out-of-plumb columns. residual stresses.

tension and compression stresses within the shapes. The distri- Loss of stiffness reduces the effective cross-section, which

bution of residual stresses varies depending on geometry, rolling increases column slenderness and reduces column strength.

temperature, rate of cooling and yield strength. The tips of W- The effects of residual stresses on column strength are account-

shape column flanges are typically in compression (see Figure 3). ed for in the Chapter E column strength equations E3-2 and

Residual stresses affect both global stability and column strength. E3-3 and can be seen when the column strength equations are

Figure 4 shows a typical stress-strain curve for structural plotted with the Euler column strength equation (see Figure 6).

steel. When stresses reach Fy, E=0 and the steel loses all stiffness.

flange initial out-of-straightness

stresses and residual stresses.

tension Reduction due to phi factor,

(usable column initial out-of-straightness.

strength) Euler curve

web

stresses

Inelastic buckling Elastic buckling

Eqn. E3-2 Eqn. E3-3

E

4.71

KL Fy

Slenderness r

➤

➤

Uncertainty in strength and stiffness. Uncertainty in

strength and stiffness must be considered in order to provide

a margin of safety due to variability in material properties, di-

mensional tolerances, camber, sweep and other variables. This

zone of plasticity uncertainty is accounted for in the member strength equations

E=0 and safety factors.

Fy

Second-Order Analysis Procedures

Section C2.1 of the Specification requires that P-Δ and P-δ

No stiffness in second-order effects always be considered. P-Δ effects are usu-

Stress

this region ally the result of lateral loads acting on the structure; P-δ effects

are usually the result of column moments due to gravity loads.

When moments from lateral loads are significantly larger than

those from gravity loads, P-Δ effects will be usually be signifi-

cantly greater than P-δ effects.

Strain Section C2.1(2) permits P-δ effects to be ignored when all

of the following conditions occur:

➤

april 2013 MODERN STEEL CONSTRUCTION

conference

preview

a) Columns are vertical Geometric imperfections and residual stresses have adverse

b) Ratio of second-order to first-order drift is < 1.7 effects on global stability. If a second-order stability analysis

c) No more than one-third of the total gravity load is sup- considers geometric imperfections and residual stresses, then

ported on moment frame columns the effective length factor can be ignored. The direct analysis

Section C2.1 requires that second-order effects be com- method considers geometric imperfections and residual stress-

puted either by performing a rigorous computer analysis or es in the second-order stability analysis, thus K=1 when the di-

by using an approximate method. One approximate method rect analysis method is used.

for computing second-order effects is provided in Appendix 8. When the effective length method is used, destabilizing

That method involves computing moment magnification fac- effects of residual stresses are not accounted for in the sec-

tors B1 and B2 to account for P-δ and P-Δ effects respectively. ond-order stability analysis. The destabilizing effects of re-

sidual stresses global stability are accounted for in the column

The Role of the K-Factor strength equations by computing column strength based on the

The effective length factor, “K,” is a modification factor ap- effective length, KL (see Figure 7).

plied to the length of columns with defined restraint conditions When the direct analysis method is used, destabilizing ef-

at each end that is used to determine the lengths of pinned- fects of residual stresses are accounted for by using reduced

pinned columns with equivalent flexural buckling strength. column stiffnesses in the second-order stability analysis. Com-

The Euler equation defines the theoretical elastic buckling putation of the effective length factors to capture the adverse

capacity, Pe of perfectly straight columns, with no imperfections effects of residual stresses on global stability within the column

and no residual stresses—unrealistic assumptions for columns strength equations is not required.

in buildings. The Euler equation defining elastic flexural buck-

ling stress is provided in the AISC Specification as follows:

π2 E

Fe =

( )

KL 2

r

(E3-4)

Over the years various column strength curves have been de-

veloped based on load tests. Specification Equations E3-2 and E3-3

(see Figure 6) are the equations used today to predict the flexural

buckling strength of steel columns. Equation E3-2 defines flexural

buckling capacity for stocky columns in the inelastic zone where

yielding occurs within the cross section prior to buckling:

Fy

where buckling occurs prior to yielding within the cross-section:

Figure 7. The effective length method accounts for the adverse

➤

Fcr = 0.877 Fe (E3-3) effect of residual stresses on global stability by using the effec-

tive column length, KL, when computing column strength.

Equations E3-2 and E3-3 (which are based on the Euler

equation) were developed to “best fit” the results of load tests

on columns with residual stresses and imperfections. Accord- The Effective Length Method

ingly, equations E3-2 and E3-3 capture the adverse effects of A procedure similar to the effective length method was used

residual stresses and geometric imperfections (P-δ effects) for by practicing engineers for many years prior to development of

steel columns that are out-of-straight by up to L/1000. the direct analysis method. The current effective length meth-

Understanding the basis of equations E3-2 and E3-3 helps od (delineated in Appendix 7) is much more comprehensive and

designers understand the relationship between column K- specific than that earlier procedure.

factors and second-order stability analysis, as well as why K=1 Of the three stability design methods, the effective length

when stability design is performed using the direct analysis method is by far the one for which the stability analysis and the

method and why K>1 when the effective length method is used member strength equations play equal roles in investigation of

in moment frame structures. global stability.

conference

preview

First-order effects, second-order effects and initial column out- c. Moment frame structures where the ratio of second-

of-plumbness are considered in the second-order stability analysis. order drift to first-order drift >1.1, K>1.

Adverse effects of residual stresses are not considered in the 4. Compute strength of columns providing lateral stability

second-order analysis. They are instead accounted for in the to the structure using the Chapter “E” strength equations

column strength equations using a column length, KL. Verifica- and using effective lengths, KL.

tion of stability is a two-step process. First, the effects of ap- 5. Verify that the available column strengths (step #4) are

plied loads and out-of-plumb columns on global stability are greater than the required strengths (step #2)

analyzed through a second-order stability analysis to determine Disadvantages of the effective length method:

required member strengths. Second, the effects of residual 1. Cannot be used for stability-sensitive structures

stresses, geometric imperfections and uncertainty in strength 2. Requires determination of column K-factors

and stiffness on stability are quantified by computing the avail- (tedious and time-consuming)

able column strength with the Chapter E strength equations 3. Not as direct and intuitive as the direct analysis method

using column lengths, KL.

The use of the effective length method is not permitted for First-Order Analysis Method

stability-sensitive structures—i.e., structures where the ratio of The first-order analysis method is a variation of the direct

second-order to first-order effects are greater than 1.5. The up- analysis method. This method is not permitted to be used for

per limit is mandated in part because the adverse effects of re- stability-sensitive structures. The ratio of second-order drift to

sidual stresses on stability are not accounted for in the second- first-order drift must be < 1.5.

order analysis. While relying on the column strength equations A second-order analysis is not required. Second-order

to account for the adverse effects of geometric imperfections effects are approximated through use of notional loads, the

and residual stresses on global stability is not as exact as con- magnitudes of which are proportional to the first-order

sidering them directly in the second-order stability analysis, the drift. The notional loads are larger than the ones used in

margin of error is acceptably small for structures that are not the direct analysis and effective length methods, and they

stability-sensitive. must be included in all load combinations, including those

Determination of accurate K-factors is required. K-factors de- with other lateral loads. The magnitude of the notional

termined from the nomographs in Appendix 7 must be adjusted to loads depends on the magnitude of the first-order drift.

account for actual conditions, which often differ from the idealized Since first-order drift depends on the notional load and the

conditions upon which the nomographs were developed. notional load depend on the drift, the easiest way to avoid

When structures are stiff enough such that the ratio of an iterative procedure is to first establish the maximum

second-order drift to first-order drift is less than 1.1, then the permissible drift that can be tolerated (drift under strength

columns in moment frames may be designed using K=1. The level loading), compute the corresponding notional load,

rationale for using K=1 for stiff structures is that the adverse ef- perform the first-order analysis and verify that the drift is

fects of geometric imperfections and residual stresses on global less than the limit established.

stability will be sufficiently small when sway frames are very All issues related residual stresses are eliminated by requir-

stiff. The use of K=1 for stiff structures essentially modifies ing that axial load stresses in sway columns be sufficiently small

the effective length method to a “quasi direct analysis method,” so that residual stresses will not adversely affect column stiffness.

where if geometric imperfections and residual stresses were to Limitations of the first-order analysis method are the same

be considered in the second-order stability analysis, then their as those listed above for the effective length method.

effect on stability would be likewise negligible. The procedure for the first-order analysis method is as follows:

There are two limitations to the effective length method. 1. Perform the analysis at strength level loading (7.3.1(2))

Gravity loads must be supported by vertical columns and the 2. Size columns in moment frames to limit axial stress, αPr

ratio of second-order to first-order effects must be < 1.5 < 0.5 × Py (A-7-1)

The effective length method procedure is as follows: 3. Add an additional notional load to all load combinations,

1. Perform the analysis at strength level loading (7.2.1(2)) Ni = 2.1α(Δ/L)Yi ≥ 0.0042 Yi (A-7-2)

2. Perform second-order analyses (considering both 4. Perform a first-order analysis to determine required strengths.

P-Δ and P-δ effects) to determine required member 5. Compute column strengths using the Chapter “E”

strengths: strength equations

a. Gravity loads + lateral loads 6. Verify that the available column strengths (step #5) is

b. Gravity loads + notional loads (Ni) greater than the required strength (step #4)

3. Compute K-factors for columns providing lateral Disadvantages of the first-order analysis method:

stability to the structure 1. It cannot be used for stability-sensitive structures

a. Braced frame structures, K=1 2. Limits on column axial stress may require columns larger

b. Moment frame structures where the ratio of second- than with the direct analysis method.

order drift to first-order drift <1.1, K=1 3. It is not as direct and intuitive as the direct analysis method

conference

preview

Direct Analysis Method b. Reduce flexural stiffness of members contributing to the

The direct analysis method offers advantages over both the stability of the structure by an additional factor, τb. This

effective length and first-order analysis methods. factor accounts for additional loss of stiffness due to

The direct analysis method is easy-to-understand, intuitive residual stresses when compression stresses in columns

and versatile. There are no limitations on its use because all is- are high. (C2.3(2))

sues affecting global stability are fully considered and account- i. τb = 1 when Pu/Py ≤ 0.5

ed for in the second-order stability analysis. ii. τb = 4 [(Pu/Py) × (1-(Pu/Py))] when Pu/Py > 0.5

This method eliminates the need to consider effective iii. alternatively, when Pu/Py > 0.5, use τb = 1 and apply

length factors and unlike the effective length and the first- an additional notional load 0.001αYi at each floor

order analysis methods, there is no upper limit on the ratio per Section C2.3(3)

of second-order to first-order drift. However the Commen- The provision to permit the use of τb = 1.0 when Pu/Py

tary recommends that the ratio of second-order to first-or- > 0.5 allows the adverse effects of residual stresses to be

der drift not exceed 2.5. Structures where the ratio is exceeds conservatively accounted for by increasing second-order

2.5 can be extremely sensitive to small increases in load or P-Δ effects through the use of higher notional loads

small changes in stiffness. Limiting the ratio to 2.5 ensures rather than reducing column stiffness further.

that structures will have a sufficient stiffness to prevent run- 4. Perform a second-order analysis for all load combina-

away instability in the event that there are unanticipated ad- tions using the reduced stiffnesses and notional loads.

ditional loads or minor reductions in member stiffness. The second-order analysis provides the required design

The procedure for direct analysis method is as follows: strengths for the members in the lateral load resisting

1. Perform the analysis at strength level loading (C2.1(4)) system. Consider both P-Δ and P-δ effects. (C2.1(2)).

2. Apply notional loads, Ni=0.002 αYi at each floor 5. Determine the available strength of all members in the

(C2.2b). Apply notional loads for all load com- per Chapters C through K

binations, except that they need only be included 6. Verify that the available column strengths (step #5) are

in gravity-only load combinations when ratio of greater than the required strengths (step #4)

second-order to first-order drift is < 1.7.

3. Modify stiffness of all members contributing to the This article serves as a preview of Session N3 at NASCC: The Steel

lateral stability of the structure Conference, taking place April 17-19 in St. Louis. Learn more about

a. Reduce axial and flexural stiffness of members contributing the conference at www.aisc.org/nascc.

to the stability of the structure by a factor of 0.80. (C2.3(1))

- Design Aid for Triangular Bracket Plates Using AISC Specifications[1][1]Diunggah olehmaroco1098
- Column Buckling PDFDiunggah olehMario
- IS800-2007.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous dSFbLxc9
- radial recheck1.pdfDiunggah olehRupesh Dangol
- Biaxial_Bending_EC2Diunggah olehkissistvan
- 1-s2.0-S002076830800228X-mainDiunggah olehnjalalianm
- Gusset PlatesDiunggah olehJoseph Cristhian Lipa Flores
- Exp. Perspective of Press VesselsDiunggah olehsyampnaidu
- A Second-Order Inelastic Model for Steel Frames of Tapered Members With Slender WebDiunggah olehMahmoud Ali
- Mat Chapter 25Diunggah olehhemant_durgawale
- 546d918a0cf26e95bc3cb6ecDiunggah olehkhudhayer1970
- Release Note Gen 2017 (v1.1)Diunggah olehalex bendita
- Bocketal.2018-Flexural Resistance and bearing strength of soldier beams used in temporary worksDiunggah olehMarina Bock Montero
- BridgeDiunggah olehOsmanKatli
- Cone-Shaped Socket Connections for Cylindrical MembersDiunggah olehclearcasting
- Fire Resistance of Columns in Steel FramesDiunggah olehYi Zhuang
- Concrete Filled With High Strength Steel Box Column for Tall Building-behavior & DesignDiunggah olehtaosye
- WCEE2012_1745Diunggah olehSaurabh Pednekar
- Tower DesignDiunggah olehJhomar A Español
- SFD-AISC-360-05Diunggah olehAnacarina Mago
- Slender columnDiunggah olehAhmed Nasrat
- Analysis of Buckling Strength of Inner WindingsDiunggah olehalex696
- Stiffness and Strength Suspension SummaryDiunggah olehMahesh Challa
- Theory of concrete material 1.pdfDiunggah olehNam Vo
- appendix dDiunggah olehapi-287564533
- Rumus.pdfDiunggah olehAri Wibowo Nugroho
- 08 Chapter 8Diunggah olehKuan Tek Seang
- 10.1007%2Fs00158-012-0845-xDiunggah olehYutaka Takahara
- Compendi o Diagram as e IndicesDiunggah olehAndrea De Stefano
- ceeb311Diunggah olehChoo Fu-Kiat

- 2012 Properly Spec MaterialsDiunggah olehKurt Zarwell
- FOOTINGS.xlsDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- Second Quarter 2017 Engineering JournalDiunggah olehcmkoh
- AISC Engineering Journal 2017 Third Quarter Vol 54-3Diunggah olehsymon01_ellimac
- MARUBENI_EXPANSION JOINT.docxDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- composite.pdfDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- Minimizing HazardDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- Modular Construction Best PracticesDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- COLUMN BASEDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- Residential Building ConstructionDiunggah olehvelarajan
- The Right Connection.pdfDiunggah olehKarthikeyan Krish
- AISCDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- 2014v02_tipsDiunggah oleheduardox11
- A GOOD MANAGERDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- 20 tips of manager.pdfDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- 10 Commandment of Communicating Connection DesignDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- 09.2019.pdfDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1410-Dog House Rc DetailsDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1420-Walling Beam and Buttress Rc DetailsDiunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1502-Ramp RC Details (Sheet 3)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1500-Ramp RC Details (Sheet 1)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1515- Water Tank RC Details (Sheet 6)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1513- Water Tank RC Details (Sheet 4)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1512- Water Tank RC Details (Sheet 3)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1511- Water Tank RC Details (Sheet 2)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1510- Water Tank RC Details (Sheet 1)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1520-Staircase Details (Sheet 1)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1521-Staircase Details (Sheet 2)Diunggah olehYami Yugi
- S-1522-Staircase Details (Sheet 3)Diunggah olehYami Yugi

- Experimental Observation in GrapheneDiunggah olehCesar Ang Gomez
- Performance of grade 500 steel in concrete structure.Diunggah olehAhetesham Uddin Ahmed Tipu
- EPF Lab ReportDiunggah olehmakutad
- Sucker Rod Pumping Wells: Design, Operation, & OptimizationDiunggah olehDownhole Diagnostic
- Lecture 3 Basic Well Completion ConceptsDiunggah olehAlimko
- 07_RR420305-ROBOTICSDiunggah olehandhracolleges
- KVPY 2015 Interview Preparatory GuideDiunggah olehharshal patel
- Qb 114325Diunggah olehDhileepan Kumarasamy
- n. a. Kozyrev - Experimental Study of Properties of TimeDiunggah olehLeon Blažinović
- TE-UNIT-3Diunggah olehMuthuvel M
- Topikal ForceDiunggah olehjesunathan44@yahoo.com
- F_ma_lab2Diunggah olehFiona Liu
- SHEAR PERFORMANCE OF FIBER REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE DEEP BEAMSDiunggah olehIAEME Publication
- The Entanglement Concept in Polymer RheolgyDiunggah olehsachinbobade
- CHAPTER 2 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY.pdfDiunggah olehChee Fong Make
- Temperature Corrections for CTADiunggah olehvandalashah
- LecturesDiunggah olehMike Wasauski
- MachinesandMechanisms-1.pdfDiunggah olehCristian Martinez Peña
- Philosophy of Physics (Compiled Report)Diunggah olehShahbaz Ahmed Alvi
- 5e physicsDiunggah olehapi-306946659
- Electricity and Fields QuestionsDiunggah oleheverreadytutor
- Ritz MethodDiunggah olehGourav Srusti
- fulltext_5Diunggah olehVan Nguyen
- Rigid Rotor Induced DipoleDiunggah olehpero_k
- Crystallization Scaleup pptDiunggah olehamo
- Edu Joshuatly Com Juj 2010 Physics PDF March 1 2012-10-54 Am 1 9 MegDiunggah olehIwin Soossay Sathianathan
- D&S_1_ LESSON 24Diunggah olehanon_300705897
- CREEP Corrosion Presentation MS2007Diunggah olehanwarhas05
- Heat Transfer Analysis of Pusher Type ReheatDiunggah olehRoberto C Reséndez
- Tools of Radio AstronomyDiunggah olehKiran Kumar

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.