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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF

SOLUTIONS
General Chemistry II
1st Semester AY: 2019 - 2020
DEFINITION AND TYPES OF SOLUTIONS
A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or
more substances.

The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in


the smaller amount(s).

The solvent is the substance present in the


larger amount.
Sodium Acetate dissolved in water.
(a) unsaturated (b) saturated (c) supersaturated

Supersaturated solution of copper (II) sulfate


results to the formation of crystals
A saturated solution contains the maximum amount
of a solute that will dissolve in a given solvent at a
specific temperature.

An unsaturated solution contains less solute than the


solvent has the capacity to dissolve at a specific
temperature.

A supersaturated solution contains more solute than


is present in a saturated solution at a specific
temperature.
ENERGY OF SOLUTION FORMATION
Three types of interactions in the solution process:
• solvent-solvent interaction
• solute-solute interaction
• solvent-solute interaction

DHsoln = DH1 + DH2 + DH3 12.2


ENERGY OF SOLUTION FORMATION

• DHsolution > 0 (solution formation is endothermic)


• DHsolution < 0 (solution formation is exothermic)
CONCENTRATION UNITS
SOLUTION CONCENTRATION
• The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute
present in a given quantity of solvent or solution.
• A concentrated solution is one in which there is a large
amount of solute in a given amount of solvent.
A dilute solution is one in which there is a small amount of
solute in a given amount of solvent
Concentration Units

Percent by Mass
mass of solute
% by mass = x 100%
mass of solute + mass of solvent
mass of solute x 100%
=
mass of solution
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = × 100
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 (𝑔ሻ


𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠/𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 = × 100
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑚𝑙ሻ
EXAMPLE 1
• A solution was prepared by dissolving 34.5 g of sugar in 125
g of water. What is concentration of the solution in % by
mass?

• Solution:

34.5 𝑔
% 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = × 100 = 𝟐𝟏. 𝟔 %
159.5 𝑔
CONCENTRATION UNITS BASED ON
MOLES

1. Mole Fraction
2. Molarity
3. Molality
Mole Fraction (X)

moles of A
XA =
sum of moles of all components
Concentration Units
Molarity (M)
moles of solute
M =
liters of solution

Molality (m)

moles of solute
m =
mass of solvent (kg)

12.3
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
• A solution is prepared by mixing 25.0 g of water, H 2O, and 25.0 g of ethanol, C2H5OH.
Determine the mole fractions of each substance.
moles of each substance
25.0 𝑔
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻20 = = 1.39 𝑚𝑜𝑙
18.02 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

25.0 𝑔
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 = = 0.543 𝑚𝑜𝑙
46.08 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Mole fractions

1.39 𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑋𝐻2𝑂 = = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟏𝟗
1.39 𝑚𝑜𝑙 + 0.543 𝑚𝑜𝑙
0.543
𝑋𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 = = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟖𝟏
1.39 𝑚𝑜𝑙 + 0.543 𝑚𝑜𝑙
What is the molarity of a solution containing 28.0 grams of NaCl per 1.00 L of
solution?

28.0 𝑔
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙 = 𝑔 = 0.479 𝑚𝑜𝑙
58.44
𝑚𝑜𝑙

0.479 𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟕𝟗 𝑴
1.00 𝐿
Calculate the molality of a sulfuric acid solution containing 24.4 g of sulfuric
acid in 198 g of water. The molar mass of sulfuric acid is 98.09 g.

0.249 𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟔 𝒎
0.198 𝑘𝑔
DILUTE CONCENTRATION UNITS

• Parts per million, and parts per billion are often used in expressing very low
concentrations of liquid and gaseous solutions.
What is the concentration in ppm of calcium if 250 grams of the solution
contains 9.75 X 10-4 grams Ca?

9.75 × 10−4 𝑔
𝐶𝑎 𝑝𝑝𝑚 = × 106 = 𝟑. 𝟗𝟎 𝒑𝒑𝒎
250 𝑔
SAMPLE EXERCISES
1. Calculate the amount of water (in grams) that must be added to 5.00 g of
urea in the preparation of a 16.2 percent by mass solution.
2. Calculate the mole fraction of H2O2 in a 20.0 % by mass aqueous solution.
Assume that the solution is 100. grams.
3. How many grams of KMnO4 are needed to make 100.0 mL of 0.250 M
solution?
4. What is the mass of NaOH needed to produce 250. mL of 0.100 M solution?
5. What is the mass of water (in kg) that is needed to be added to 14.3 grams
of sugar (C12H22O11) to produce a 0.0621 molal solution?