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o EIGRP capabilities and attributes (2.1.1)

o Fast Convergence
 Stores all its neighbots routing tables to quickly adapt to alternate routes
if a preferred route disappears
 if not route exists a query packet is sent out all interfaces to locate a new
o VLSM support
 Classless routing protocol, advertises a subnet for each destination
 summarization at major network boundries
o Partial Updates
 does not send periodic updates
 partial updates are send when path or metrics change for a route, they
only contain information about the changed routes
• Propagated with unicast or multicast ( to only hosts that
need the update
o Multiple network-layer protocol support
 Support for IP, IPX, AppleTalk. Novell NetWare through the use of PDM
(protocol dependent modules)
o EIGRP features (2.1.2 – 2.1.7)
o Protocol-dependent modules (PDM)
 allows protocols to maintain their own module and operate independent
from one another
 Operates at the network layer
o Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)
 Guarantees delivery to all EIGRP Neighbors
 Transport layer protocol
o Neighbor discovery and recovery
 Hello between neighbors
o Diffusing update algorithm (DUAL)
 Selects lowest cost loop free paths
 Lowest cost is calculated by adding the cost between the next-hop router
and destination.
• Advertised Distance (AD) – Cost between next hop and destination
• Feasable Distance (FD) - Cost from local router to next hop + AD
o Successor / Feasible successor (2.1.6)
o Successor – Neighbor with lowest cost path
o Feasible Successor – Backup to the current successor
 Recalculated during routing updates
o By default 4 successors can be added to routing table
 Configurable up to 6
o The AD of the Feisible successor must be less then the FD of the current

o Tables (2.2.1)
o Neighbor – Lists Adjacent Routers
o Topology – Lists all learned routes from EIGRP neighbors
 Destination entries in the topolgy table can be in two states:
• passive (desired) – Router is no performing a recompuatation
• active – Router is performing recomputation
• If a fesable successor already exists and a passive route goes down
the topolgy table uses this route before recomputation of routes
o Routing – Lists bests paths
 By default 4 equal cost paths can be entered in routing table
 Summary Routes will be listed in the table with interface Null0
o Neighbor table builds topology table, topology table builds the routing table.
o Initial route discovery steps:
 Router A sends hello packet to B
 Router B returns a hello packet and also sends an update to router A
 Router A returns an Ack packet and sends an update to Router B
 Router B acknowledges the packet
 Router A and B are fully converged
o Packet Types (2.2.5)
o Hello Packets
 1.5 Mbps or less hello interval is 60 hold is 180
 1.5 Mbps or greater hello interval is 5 hold is 15
 Multicast address
 Timers do not have to match from device to device
o Update
 Transmitted in unicat or multicast
 Sent reliably
 used when router detects a change
o Query
 Devices uses query packets when specific information is needed from one
or all neigbors
o Reply
 Used to respond to a query packet
 Sent unicast only
 transmitted reliabily
o Ack
 dataless hello packet used to indicate it received a EIGRP packet during a
reliable change
 Unicast
 Hello packets are not acknowledged ever
o EIGRP Metric (2.2.7)
o Default
 Bandwidth (slowest link)
• (10^7/least bandwidth)*256
 Delay (sum of all to destination)
o Optional metrics
 Many times applying these metrics will cause frequent recalculation of
the topology tables
 Reliability
 Load
o Metrics are multiplied by 256 to receive the actually metric
 BW (Slowest link) + Delay (Sum of all delays in the path) * 256 = Metric
o Metrics are refered to as K values, if K values do not match between the
neighbors it can cause the neighbors to reset
o [FD/AD]

o Summary (2.4.1)
o Auto summary is on by default
 Summarize a classful network address at a major network boundary
o Manually Summarizaton – Configured per interface
 Points twards null0
 Loop prevention mechanism
 configurable at the interface level
o If you have discontiguous networks you must disable auto-summary
o Summary route cost is 5 by default
o benefits of Summary routes
 Smaller routing tables
 Smaller updates
o Load balancing across equal \ unequal cost paths (2.4.4 – 2.4.5)
o EIGRP automatically load balances across equal cost paths
 Up to 4 equal costs paths can be used
o Process-switched occurs over equal cost paths on a per packet basis
 dont ping
o Fast-Switched occurs over equal cost paths on a per destination basis
o Variance command allows a multipler effect to the metric to allow feasable
successors exist when by default they will not.
o Two feasibility conditions
 The local best metric (current FD) must be greater than the best metric
(the AD) learned from the next router.
 The variance multiplied by the local best metric must be greater then the
metic throught the next router.
 Variance multiplies the current successors FD
o EIGRP Link types (2.4.7)
o Point to point links
 Multipoint links
 point to point links
o EIGRP uses 50% bandwidth by default
 This option is configurable with 'ip bandwidth-percent eigrp [ASN] [%]' on
a per interface basis
o Frame Relay Hub-and-Spoke Topology (2.4.9)
o To support virtual circuts take the bandwidth of the service link and divide it by
the amount of virtual connections that exist.
o EIGRP Authentication (2.5.1 – 2.5.2)
o By default no routing authentication is used
o Two types of authentication are avaiable
 Simple password (Plain Text)
 MD5
o Every souce of routing updates is verified using authentication
 Authentication must be configured on both sending and receiving routers
Scalability Factors (2.6.1)
o Amount of Traffic between neighbors
o Number or routes
 Direct relation of routers in AS to resources used during network changes
o Depth of topology
 No more then 7 hops between 2 routers in an internetwork
 Three teired network is highly desired
o Number of alternate paths
 Ideal conditions for SIA
 Reduce alternate paths

o Advanced Distance Vector (2.6.2)

o Active router – Router searching for paths to destinations
o Passive router – Router operating normal not looking for routes
o SIA Connections (2.6.3)
o Query packets are sent out when the successor route goes down and there are
no entires in the topology for a feasibile successor
 All queries must be returned before a new passive route (successor) can
be chosen
 If a query is not answered in 3 minutes by default the route is considered
SIA and all neighbors that did not return a query are re-established from
a hello packet
• this will cause all lost connections to interrupt the network
o Causes of SIA connections
 Router is to busy to answer query because of high CPU
 Link between router is not good
 Unidirectional link
 To many alternate paths exist
o Mitigation of SIA connections
Summary routes can prevent SIA connections by letting neighbor routers

know that it has all connections to one network
 SIA advanced reply allows the SIA connection to return a reply even if a
route has not been found, this allows the router looking for the route to
not terminate the connection with its neighbor.
o HUB and SPOKE (2.6.4)
o There is no need for a full routing table on a remote site
 To avoid this set up a default route

o STUBs (2.5.5/6)
o Four types of STUB configurations
 Receive – Prevents from any type of route being sent
 Connected – Permits STUB to send connected routes
 Static- Permits STUB to send static routes
 Summary – Permits STUB to send summary routes
o Graceful shutdown (2.6.9)
o Notify neighbors that the local router is shutting down via a broadcast message

o OSPF Attributes (3.1.1 – 3.1.2)

o Link-State
 respond quickly to network changes
 Send triggered updates
 link-state refresh at long intervals (30 min)
o Full understanding of interarea Topology
o Updates are triggerd or default every 30 minutes
o LSA updates are reliable and flooded throughtout the AREA they also contain a
squence number to ensure most up to date LSA.
o Multicast address to
o Dijkstra's Algorithm (SPF)
o Split Horizion (never advertises route back to sender of route)
o Best path comes from the Forwarding table (routing table)
o OSPF tables (3.1.3)
o Neighbor tables
 Also refered to as the Adjacency database
 Contains list of recognized neighbors
 Must send and receive a hello packet to establish an entry in the
neighbor table
• For hellos to exchanges the parameters must match
o Orginating Router ID
o Area ID
o Authentication settings
o Timers
o Router Priority
o DR
o Stub Area flag
o Topology table
 Refered to as the LSDB
• All routers in an area have identical LSDB
 Contains all routers and their attacked links in the area network
o Routing Table
 Commonly refered to as the forwarding database
 Contains lists of best paths to destinations
o Topology table is built after the hellos are exchanged, neighbors to the local
router will build and update the LSDB for that router

o OSPF Benefits and Issues (3.1.5)

o Benefits of using OSPF compared to EIGRP
 Minimize routing table
 Local impact of topology change
 LSA in local area minimizes flooding
 Hiearchy routing
o Issues with large OSPF networks
 SPF algorithm Calcuations
 Routing table size
• introduce Summarization of routes to reduce the routing table
 LSDB for entire area
• Divide OSPF into multiple areas to reduce the LSDB since each area
only maintains its own LSDB
o OSPF requires:
 Hiearchial network design
• Transit (backbone)
• Regular areas (non-backbone)

o Router types and roles (3.1.6)

o Internal – Routers that have all interfaces within the same area
o Backbone – atleast one interface in the backbone area
o ABR – Routers with interface attached to multiple areas
 These routers will maintain a seperate LSDB for each area they connect,
they are the exit point for the area
o ASBR – One interface attached to an external network of another AS can inport
non-ospf information
o Link state data structures (3.1.9)
o LSA entry have an aging timer of 30 minutes
 expressed in seconds
 also the default update timer
o After an LSA ages the router that originated the entry sends an LSA with a
higher sequence number in an LSU packet
 If the LSU that is received is older, the receiving router returns the LSU
with the higher sequence number
o Packet Types (3.2.1)
o Hello
 Discovers and builds adjacenys
o Database description (DBD)
 Checks database between routers
o link-state request (LSR)
 requests link state records
 This is used when a router is searching for a route it does not know
o link-state update (LSU)
 Updates specifically requested records
o link-state acknowledgment (LSAck)
 Acknowledges other packet types

o Neighbor States (3.2.5)

o Router with higher Router ID exchanges information first
o Down –
o Init –
o Two-way –
o Exstart –
o Exchange -
o Loading -
o Full-Adj –
o Configuring Router ID (3.3.4)
o By default the router ID is highest ip address of any active physicial interface
 does not have to be part of the OSPF process
o Loopback IP address is used over a physical interface because it is guaranteed
to be 'up'
o Using the 'router-ID' command is preferred procedure to set the router ID
o clear ip ospf * must be used for any changes to take effect regarding router ID
in the network
o OSPF network types (3.4.1)
o Point to point
 Joins a single pair of router
o broadcast
 Ethernet, multiple access
o non-broadcast multiaccess (NBMA)
 A network interconnects more then two routers but has no broadcast

Excel chart for the whole 3.4.X sections. Know in detail.

o LSA types (3.6.2)

o LSAs are the building blocks of the OSPF LSDB
 'individually they are database records as a combination they are the
entire topology'
o By default summary LSAs do not contain summarized routes
o Routing table entries for each LSA include:
 type 1
• O
 type 2
• O
 type 3
• O IA
 type 4
• O IA
 type 5
• O E1
• O E2
 type 7
• O N1
• O N2
Type Description Different link types, different meanings: Link ID
1 Router LSAs Point-to-Point connection to another router Neighboring router ID
2 Network LSAs Connects to a transit network IP address of DR
3 Summary LSA Connects to a stub network IP network/subnet number
4 SummaryLSA Virtual Link Neighboring router ID
5 AS External LSAs
7 Defined for NSSA Used by ASBR in the NSSA area, floods that area
only type 7 LSA is converted to type 5 LSA when
exiting the area.
9,10,1 Null These LSAs are for future upgrades to OSPF

o Interpreting the Routing table (3.6.5)

o ASBR is the only router that can create an external route, however an ABR can
distribute it
 E1 routes are external + internal
 E2 routes are just external (default)
o Area Types and STUBS (3.7.1)
o Area Control Types
 Standard
• all link updates
• summary
• all external routes
 Backbone
• interconnects all areas
• accepts all LSA
 STUB areas
o Stubby
 Uses a single type 3 LSA to advertise a default route
into the stub
 Single point exit/No ASBR
 Blocks 4/5
 No external routes
 No transit for virutal links
o Totally Stubby
 Does not accept external AS routes
 Does not accept other areas routes
 Blocks 3/4/5 LSA types
 No transit for virtual links
o Not So Stubby
 Allows type 7 LSA converts to type 5
 Allows external routes
 Has an ASBR
• Purpose of STUBS
o Reduce LSDB
o Reduce routing tables
o Reduce Flooding
o OSPF Virtual Links (3.8.1)
o Provides a backup to backbone area
 avoid if possible
 used for a backup or failover link
o Temporary use for merging two OSPF networks
o Open standard
o Hello timer for virtual links is 10 seconds
o LSA over virtual link have a do not age option so that LSA does not age out, this
is useful to prevent excessive flooding over the virtual link
o ABR/ASBR summary and default route propogation (3.9.1 and 3.9.6)
o Interarea summary routes configure on ABR and do not apply external routes
into OSPF redistrobution
 show as IA in the routing table
o External route summary is only on an ASBR
o The command 'default-information originate' must be used to advertise any
default route
 shows up in the database as a external LSA type 5
o DR / BDR things to know:
o DR communicates to the area via
o Area communicates to the DR or BDR via
o Features of ISIS
o Hiearchial routing
o Link-State
o Classless behavior
o Rapid flooding of new information
o Fast convergence
 Dijkstra's SPF algorithm
o Very scaleable
o Flexible timer tuning
o Protocol independent
o Supports up to 1000 routers
o Runs ontop of the data link layer
o Repeats election of DR everytime a devices is added

o Similarities of OSPF & ISIS (4.1.2)

o Classless
o Link state
o LSDB & Dijkstras algorithm
 SPF algorithm
o Hello packets form and maintain Adj.
o Use areas from hiearchal topologies
o Address summary between areas
o DR on Multi-access
o Convergence capabilities
o CLNS (4.1.3 – 4.1.6 – 4.2.1)
o Required to identify routers and build the LSDB
o Supports VLSM
o Carried directly in the data link layer frames
o Can be used with IP protocol
o Apply to the entire node not just an interface
o CLNS use addresses used by routers are called NSAP
 NSAP contains (Maximum size is 20 bytes)
• NSEL - 00
• OSI address of the device
• Link to higher layer process
 NSAP is divided into three fields (Cisco implimented design of NSAP)
• Area address
• System ID
o Can be a static, MAC or IP address
• NSEL - 00
 NET is a portion of the NSAP address that defines the router it consists of
three main parts:
• Prefix which identifiies the area that the router is part of
• System ID which uniquely identifiies each device
o IDP – Initial Domain Part consists of AFI and IDI
o DPS – Domain specific part consists of the high-order DSP (Subnet mask),
system ID and NSEL

The CLNS address 49.0001.0000.0c12.3456.00 represents the following:

AFI of 49
49 referes to private
Area ID of 0001
refers to the area
used at level 2 routing
System ID of 0000.0c12.3456
System ID defaults to the MAC address of LAN interface
Must be 6 octets for Cisco
Must be unique in a level 1 routing
NSEL (NET) of 0
NSEL (NET) of 0 is always used for a router
Always 2 octets
o Area address is used to route between areas, system ID is used to route within
an area
 Within an area if a system ID is not matched it is forwarded to the level ½
o Route leaking – Injection of level 2 routes into level one to help avoid
suboptimal routing

o Routing in ISIS (4.1.4 – 4.1.5)

o ISIS establishes neighbor adjacencies with a hello Packets and LSP (link state
packet) is sent to build the LSDB
o IP routing is only used to route packets to an ES
o Levels of routing
 Levels of routing can be configurable on a per interface level, the reason
for this is if one side of the router will only route to level 1 there is no
need for it to send level 2 IIH
 Level 0 routing – ES to ES routing it sends it to the IS and the IS will
process it and forward it to the receiving ES
 Level one routing(Intra-area) – Occurs within a single area
 Level two routing(Interarea) – Routers know both level one routing areas
and build an interarea routing table, based on the destination address the
level one IS will forward the packet to the nearest level ½ router
 Level 3 (Similar to BGP) – routing between domains
• not implimented on cisco routers
o Types of routers
 Level 1 – Intra-Area do not have external routes enables communication
for ES.
 Level 2 – Routes between areas
 Level 1/2 – Both intra-area and external routes
• Level ½ routers maintain a seperate LSDB and routing table (SPF
algorithm runs once for each level) for both the level 1 and level 2
• Summarization should be implimented at this level
• Advertises a default route to level 1 routers
o All areas and backbones must be a contigous
o The border in ISIS network design is actually the link between the devices not a
device itself
o Partical route calcuation (PRC) – runs to calculate the reachability to IP
destinations (ES) since SPF is ran on the CLNS address not the IP address
o Path Selection is defined by
 Cost, Error, Delay, and Expense respectivly
o Integrated IS-IS and design (4.1.6 – 4.1.7 – 4.3.4)
o Integrated ISIS can be used for IP routing, CLNS routing or a combination
 uses its own PDU's to transport data
 Not carried within a network-layer protocol; carried directly within data
link layer frames
o Supports up to 1000 routers in an area
o Requires CLNS reguardless if you are using IP for transport
o Using areas will confine the scope of the LSP propagation and saves bandwidth
 Route summarization is only possible when using hiearchial addressing
 limites update traffic
 minimizes CPU utilization
o Topology types
 Broadcast for LANs
 Multipoint for WANs
 Point-to-Point (Recommended)
 No concept of NBMA networks
o Collection of all connected areas is refered to as a Domain
o If no change to a metric is made IS-IS operates similar to RIP in that it adds the
default metric of 10 as it traverses the network
 Metric can be set from 1-64
o Easier to expand the network then OSPF, simply adding level 2 or level ½
routers can extend the backbone
o IS-IS performs the election process anytime a new router becomes active
 Does not effect network performance as much since every router
maintains its own LSDB
 The election elects the psudeonode (DIS)
o ES – IS, IIH (4.1.8 – 4.3.6)
o ES-IS handles handles topology information discovery and exchange between
ES and IS (hosts to routers)
 ESH – (end system hello) ES announce to IS their presence to IS
• IP systems do not use ES-IS
• Returned with ISH from the IS to acknowledge the existance of the
o Performs the following tasks
 Identifiies the area (prefix) to the ES
 Create adjacencies between ES and IS
 Creates data link-to-network address mappings
o Level 0 routing is considered to be ES-ES
o IIH – Used to establish and maintain neighbors
 Default hello is 10 seconds
 Default hold is 30 seconds
 Seperate IIH for each level, level one make Adjacencies with level 1
routers within their area only, level 2 routers only make adjacencies only
with other level 2 routers
 Sent multicast on boardcast networks
 Sent unicast on point-to-point
o PDU's and LSP's (4.3.1 – 4.3.2 – 4.3.3)
o Seperate level 1 and level 2 LSPs are generated depending on the router type
o LSP can be sent fragmented if they are to large
o 4 catagories of PDU's
 Hello – Establishes and maintains neighbor adjacencies
 Complete sequence number – DIS sends to syncronize LSDB
 Partial sequence number – Request to DIS for missing LSP
o Routers describe themselves with LSPs, LSPs contain:
 PDU type
 length
 Seq.
•Reloading a router returns the sequence number to 1
•Ensures latest LSP is used for route calcuations
•Avoid entering duplicate LSP in topology table
o After an LSP ages it is removed from the LSDB, default time
for this is 1200 seconds followed by 60 seconds before an
aged LSP is flooded.
 remaining life
o TLV field contains:
 IS neighbors
 ES neighbors
 Authentication information
 Attached IP subnets
o Psudenode / DIS (4.3.5)
o Psudenode is represented by a DIS a DIS has these characteristics:
 A virtual router psudenode used to build a graph for the broadcast media
 Selection is based on
• Highest priority (default 64 configurable from 1 – 127)
o priority is configured per link this allows a DIS of level one to
be different then the DIS of level two
• Highest SNPA its the tie breaker (MAC)
 DIS for level 1 & 2 may differ
 used for calcuation of the SPF tree
 Sends out LSP info on behalf the LAN
• Can be sent Multicast or unicast
 Hello timer is 3 times smaller then the timer of other routers in the area
 Uses the CSNP to verify LSDB accuracy
• By default this is sent every 10 seconds to all routers via multicast
• Alternativly a PSNP is a request from a router to the DIS for pieces
of the LSDB
• On a point-to-point link CSNP is only sent when a link comes up to
syncronize the LSDB
Route Redistrobution
o Reasons for multiple protocols (5.1.2)
o Interm during conversion of routing protocols
o Applications specific protocols
o Political boundries
o Mismatch between devices
o Redistrobution Basics (5.1.3)
o Boundry routers must run all protocols that are exchanging information
o Factors that impact redistrobution
 Metrics
 Administrative distance
 Classfull/Classless
o Seed metric – Artificially designates distance, cost etc.. to the redistrobution
o Only protocols with the same IP stacks can be distributed
o In multiple protocol environments assign a higher Administrative Distance to
the least desired protocol
o Redistrobution Default Metrics and Key 'words' (5.1.4)
o RIP – Infinite
 When redistirbuting into RIP include the Metric keyword
o EIGRP – Infinite
 When redistirbuting into EIGRP include the Metric keyword
o OSPF – 20 for all but BGP which is 1
 When redistirbuting into OSPF include the Subnets keyword
o IS-IS 0
 It is a recommeneded practice to give IS-IS a seed metric but is not
 Routes are introduced as level 2 and with an infinite metric
o BGP – Metric set to IGP value
o Controlling routing updates (5.3.1)
o Passive interfaces
 Prevents routing updates from exiting the routers interface
 Hellos are no longer sent out this interface, for a lot of protocols this is an
issue when trying to establish neighbor adjacencies
• this effects EIGRP ISIS and OSPF
o Distrobution lists
 Prevent from incomming, outgoing or specific redistirbuting protocols
o Policy routing using policy maps
 Route maps which are more powerful and flexible then an ACL
• a collection of route maps with the same name are considered the
same route map
o Classless into Classful (5.2.3)
o OSPF has a longer mask then RIP
 Set a static route and redistirbute static into RIP
ip route null0 ← OSPF static
router rip
redistribute static ← sends static route into RIP
default metric 1
Static route is a default metric of 1 enless the static route is pointed to an

outgoing interface then it is considered connected and has a metric of 0
o RIP has a longer mask then OSPF
 Create static routes per subnet on OSPFto allow all the routes to be
redistributed into RIP, to do this be sure that you modify the subnet mask
to allow all routes into RIP.
• Refer to the example .... 5.2.3 figure 3
o DHCP (5.5.1)
o Structured on BOOTP
o Order of DHCP steps
 DHCPDISCOVER from the client
• locates DHCP server
 DHCPOFFER from server (Unicast)
• Offers configuration parameters such as IP address, domain name,
a DNS server, default gateway and a lease for the IP address
 DHCPREQUEST from client
• returns a formal request for the IP address
 DHCPACKNOWLEDGE from server (Unicast)
• Confirms that the address is allocated to the client
o DHCP address allocation mechanisms
 Manual
• assigns an IP to a specific MAC
 Automatic
• IP address is perminately assigned to the host
 Dynamic
• Assigned under a limited time or till the host releases the address
o ip helper-address command causes the UDP broadcast to be changed to
unicast and forwarded out another interface, this allows the broadcast to be
forwarded directly to the DHCP server

o Features and Multihoming (6.1.1 through 6.1.5)
o IBGP – In a single AS
 IGP – internal to an AS
o EBGP – Between different AS
 EGP – External to an AS
o BGP is an interdomain routing protocol (IDP) and is most useful when multiple
exterior paths exist
o Reasons for implementing BGP
 Reliability and performance through multihoming
• Each ISP passes a default route to the local AS
o lease amount of resources but path and bandwidth
manipulation is difficult
• Each ISP passes a default route and provider-owned specific routes
to the AS
o Benificial method because path selection is more predictible
o allows for path and bandwidth manipulation
• Each ISP passes all routes to the AS
o most resource intensive but allows for the best path selection
and manipulation
 not recommended to resource intensive
o BGP AS numbers 64512 – 65535 are reserved for private use
o BGP is policy based routing protocol that uses path attributes to contol routing
o BGP4 is most commom and newest
o Can only advertise routes that it uses
o Advanced Distance-Vector protocol port 179 TCP
o Incremental and triggered updates only
 Keep alives are 60 seconds
o After BGP has 65 outstanding packets it waits for an acknowledgement before
sending more packets
o BGP Attributes (6.1.7)
o Path-vectors are exchanged in BGP that contain reachability information this is
made up of the BGP attributes
 Path-vectors are never accepted by the AS that originated them
o EBGPs administrative distance is 20 IBGP have an administrative distance of
o Network injecting in BGP uses the 'network [ip address]' command, this tells
BGP what networks it is the source for
 Allows network to be advertised in BGP
o BGP Database (6.1.10)
o Neighbor table
 List BGP neighbor
o BGP table
 Lists all routes from neighbors
 Can contain multiple paths to destinations
o IP routing table
 Best paths
o BGP message types (6.1.11)
o BGP has four message types:
 Open
• Hold time and BGP router ID and AS number of local router
 Keepalive
• 0 keepalive does not send keepalive message and the link is
considered to always be 'up'
 Notification
• When an error is detected
• BGP connection is closed
 Update
• Information for one path only
• Includes path attributes and networks
• Can withdraw routes from active BGP
o BGP neighbor types (6.2.1)
o Any router that runs BGP is considered a BGP speaker
o BGP peer and neighbor are used to define the same relationship, a direct
connection is not required.
 The neighbor command must be configured, BGP does not dynamically
find neighbors
• After the neighbor command is configured a 3-way TCP handshake
must be completed before a connection is established
 Neighbors do not have to be within the same AS, they can be either
internal or external
• By Default EBGP neighbors need to have a direct connection
• IBGP (Same AS) neighbors do not have to be directly connected
• ebgp-multiphop command allows EBGP to make neighbors more
then one hop away which is default
o Configuring EBGP multiphop command allows for load
balancing to destination ASs
o BGP peer group is a group of neighbors that all have the same update policies
 Peer group recieves updates per group not per neighbor since their
configuration and policy is the same
o To implement major policy changes, shutdown the neighbor connection apply
the changes and bring the neighbor back up.
o IBGP neighbors should be configured with the loopback address to avoid issues
with the source address not matching the incomming packets.
o Update source option overwrites the default source IP address with the
loopback address of a router, this adds resilency to IBGP
 an IGP must be configured so that the IBGP knows how to get to the next
hop loopback address
o BGP Syncronization (6.3.12)
o Syncronization states that BGP should not use or advertise to an external
neighbor a route that is learned from IBGP unless the route is local or the router
learns it from IGP
 Syncronization is disabled by default on cisco IOS release 12.2(8) or later
o BGP States (6.4.1)
o Idle – Search for route to neighbor in Routing table
o Connect – Complete TCP handshake
o Open sent – Parameters of BGP session
o Open Confirm – receive agreement of parameters
o Established – Begin routing
o Three ways to trigger an update (6.4.9)
o Hard reset
 Clear ip bgp *
• all information is removed
 After 30-60 seconds the BGP sessions are re-established
o soft reset
 Clear ip bgp soft out
• clears outbound routes and updates neighbors
 BGP sessions is not interupted
o Route Refresh
o Multicast and Unicast
o Multicast -Single copy of data for multiple recievers
o Unicast – Multiple individual devices
o When a MAC is used for multicasting:
 MAC is comprised of 48 bits the first 25 bits of the MAC is fixed, this
allows the last 23 bits of the mac address to correspond the the last 23
bits in the IP mulicast group address.
• 5 bits are lost from the IP address when using MAC for multicast
o IGMP snooping -Complex, standardiezed, proprietary implementations, switchs
o IGMP has three versions
 Version 1 leaves the group quietly
• Mulitcast IP address to host) and (host to
o This address is used by hosts to joing the group
 Version 2 Announces when it leaves the group
• Backwards compatible with Version 1
• Uses IP multicast address (router to host) and
(host to router)
 Version 3
• Uses IP multicast address (host to router) and
(router to host)
o Simple proprietary, routers and switchs
o better option for low end switchs
o Trees and Protocols
o Shared Trees
 Sparce
 shared trees are less resource intensive but can lead to suboptimal
 (*(All Services),G (multicast group)) (*.G)
o Source Trees
 Dense
 source trees are build for each source to all members in group
 (S (Source), G (multicast)) (S,G)
o Dense mode protocols
o Sparse mode protocols
o RPF (reverse path forward) to prevent forwarding loops and ensure the shortest
path from the source to the recievers
o PIM-DM uses a flood and prune behavior every 3 minutes to prune devices that
no longer need to receive the multicast messages
 All RPF ports without downstream recievers flood prune messages
o PIM-SM – only who needs its RP makes decisions
 only sends single copy to registers recievers

o IPv6 is 128 bits
o Leading 0's in an IPv6 are optional
o successive fields of 0's can be represented by ::
o Minimum link MTU is 1280
o IPv6 addresses have scope
o Link local
o Unique Local
o Global
o IPv6 Address types include
o Multicast
o Unicast
o Anycast
 one to nearest
 used for multihoming
o Prefix lengths
o Registry /23
o ISP Prefix /32
o Site Prefix /48
o Subnet Prefix /64
o Perminate multicast
o FF02::1 – all nodes - Link local
o FF02::2 – all routers - Link local
o FF02::9 – All rip routers – link local
o FF02::1:FFxx:xxxx – solicited node – link local
o FF05 ::101 – all NTP server – site local
o OSPFv3 & v2 can run concurrently
o Features that are the same
 Packet types
 Neighbor discovery
 Topology types
 multicast addresses are the same but expressed in IPv6
o Network and subnet are replaced with “link”
o IPv4 to v6 transition
o Smooth integration of ipv4 to ipv6
o use of dual stack 6-to-4 tunnels
 can communicate with both ipv6 and ipv4
• this is accomplished by encapsulating the v6 into the v4
 Both ipv6 and v4 can be configured on the same interface