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A.

TITLE OF EXPERIMENT
Hydrogen and Oxygen

B. DATE OF EXPERIMENT
Wednesday, 18th September 2019 / 09:30 – 12:00 WIB

C. PURPOSE OF EXPERIMENT
1. Knowing how to make hydrogen gas
2. Knowing the properties of hydrogen gas and its compounds
3. Identifying hydrogen gas and its compounds
4. Knowing how to make oxygen in the laboratory
5. Knowing the presence of oxygen gas in a compound

D. BASIC THEORIES
1. Hydrogen
Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe,
constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass (Boyd, 2014). Hydrogen gas
was first artificially produced in the early 16th century by the reaction of
acids on metals. In 1766–81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize
that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance, and that it produces water when
burned, the property for which it was later named: in Greek, hydrogen
means "water-former" (Werthmüller, n.d.).
a. Physical Properties
1) State
Boiling and freezing temperatures are most meaningfully
compared relative to “absolute zero”. Absolute zero (0 ºR; 0
K; –459.69 ºF; –273.15 ºC) is the lowest temperature in the
universe at which all molecular motion stops (Greenwood &
Earnshaw, 1997).
Hydrogen has the second lowest boiling point and melting
points of all substances, second only to helium. Hydrogen is
a liquid below its boiling point of 20 K (–423 ºF; –253 ºC) and
a solid below its melting point of 14 K (–434 ºF; –259 ºC) and
atmospheric pressure. Obviously, these temperatures are extremely

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low. Temperatures below –100 ºF (200 K; –73 ºC) are collectively
known as cryogenic temperatures, and liquids at these temperatures
are known as cryogenic liquids. The boiling point of a pure
substance increases with applied pressure—up to a point. Propane,
with a boiling point of –44 ºF (–42 ºC), can be stored as a liquid
under moderate pressure, although it is a gas at atmospheric
pressure. (At temperatures of 70 ºF (21 ºC) a minimum pressure of
111 psig (7.7 barg) is required for liquefaction). Unfortunately,
hydro gen’s boiling point can only be increased to a maximum of
-400 ºF (–240 ºC) through the application of approximately
195 psig (13 barg), beyond which additional pressure has no
beneficial effect (Wiberg, Wiberg, & Holleman, 2001).
2) Odor, Color and Taste
Pure hydrogen is odorless, colorless and tasteless. A stream
of hydrogen from a leak is almost invisible in daylight. Com
pounds such as mercaptans and thiophanes that are used to
scent natural gas may not be added to hydrogen for fuel cell
use as they contain sulfur that would poison the fuel cells (Wiberg,
Wiberg, & Holleman, 2001).
3) Toxicity
Hydrogen is non-toxic but can act as a simple asphyxiant by
displacing the oxygen in the air (Wiberg et al., 2001).
4) Density and Related Measures
Hydrogen has lowest atomic weight of any substance and
therefore has very low density both as a gas and a liquid. Density is
measured as the amount of mass contained per
unit volume. Density values only have meaning at a specified
temperature and pressure since both of these parameters
affect the compactness of the molecular arrangement, espe
cially in a gas. The density of a gas is called its vapor den
sity, and the density of a liquid is called its liquid density.

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Table 1. Vapor and Liquid Densities of Comparative Substances
(Wiberg et al., 2001)

b. Chemical Properties
1) Reactivity
High reactivity is characteristic of all chemical fuels. In each
case, a chemical reaction occurs when the fuel molecules
form bonds with oxygen (from air) so that the final, reacted
molecules are at a lower energy state than the initial, unreacted
molecules. As the molecules react, the change in chemical energy
state is accompanied by a corresponding release of energy that we
can exploit to do useful work. This is true in both a combustive
reaction (as in an internal combustion engine where the
energy is released explosively as heat) or in an electrochemical
reaction (as in a battery or fuel cell where the energy is
released as an electrical potential and heat). This chemical energy
release is analogous to that which occurs when water flows from a
high level to a low level. The water at the high level has potential
energy that is released as it falls to the low level. This energy can be
harnessed to do useful work, such as turning a turbine (Greenwood
& Earnshaw, 1997).
2) Flammability
Three things are needed for a fire or explosion to occur: a
fuel, oxygen (mixed with the fuel in appropriate quantities)
and a source of ignition. Hydrogen, as a flammable fuel,
mixes with oxygen whenever air is allowed to enter a hydro
gen vessel, or when hydrogen leaks from any vessel into the

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air. Ignition sources take the form of sparks, flames, or high
heat (Wiberg et al., 2001).
Flashpoint
All fuels burn only in a gaseous or vapor state. Fuels like
hydrogen and methane are already gases at atmospheric
conditions, whereas other fuels like gasoline or diesel that
are liquids must convert to a vapor before they will burn.
The characteristic that describes how easily these fuels can
be converted to a vapor is the flashpoint. The flashpoint is
defined as the temperature at which the fuel produces
enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air at its
surface.
Flammability Range
The flammability range of a gas is defined in terms of its
lower flammability limit (LFL) and its upper flammability
limit (UFL). The LFL of a gas is the lowest gas concentration
that will support a self-propagating flame when mixed with
air and ignited. Below the LFL, there is not enough fuel
present to support combustion; the fuel/air mixture is too
lean.
Autoignition Temperature
The autoignition temperature is the minimum temperature
required to initiate self-sustained combustion in a combustible fuel
mixture in the absence of a source of ignition. In
other words, the fuel is heated until it bursts into flame.
Each fuel has a unique ignition temperature. For hydrogen,
the autoignition temperature is relatively high at 1085 ºF
(585 ºC). This makes it difficult to ignite a hydrogen/air
mixture on the basis of heat alone without some additional
ignition source.

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Flame Characteristics
Hydrogen flames are very pale blue and are almost invisible
in daylight due to the absence of soot. Visibility is enhanced
by the presence of moisture or impurities (such as sulfur) in
the air. Hydrogen flames are readily visible in the dark or
subdued light. A hydrogen fire can be indirectly visible by
way of emanating “heat ripples” and thermal radiation, particularly
from large fires. In many instances, flames from a
hydrogen fire may ignite surrounding materials that do produce
smoke and soot during combustion (Housecroft & Sharpe, 2008).

Figure 1 Invisible Hydrogen Flame Igniting Broom (Housecroft &


Sharpe, 2008)
c. Production
H2 is produced in chemistry and biology laboratories, often as a
by-product of other reactions; in industry for the hydrogenation of
unsaturated substrates; and in nature as a means of expelling reducing
equivalents in biochemical reactions.
1) Electrolysis of water
The electrolysis of water is a simple method of producing
hydrogen. A low voltage current is run through the water, and
gaseous oxygen forms at the anode while gaseous hydrogen forms
at the cathode. Typically the cathode is made from platinum or
another inert metal when producing hydrogen for storage. If,
however, the gas is to be burnt on site, oxygen is desirable to assist

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the combustion, and so both electrodes would be made from inert
metals. (Iron, for instance, would oxidize, and thus decrease the
amount of oxygen given off.) The theoretical maximum efficiency
(electricity used vs. energetic value of hydrogen produced) is in the
range 88–94%.
2H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)
(Kruse, Grinna, & Buch, 2002)
2) Metal-acid
In the laboratory, H2 is usually prepared by the reaction of
dilute non-oxidizing acids on some reactive metals such
as zinc with Kipp's apparatus.
Zn + 2 H+ → Zn2+ + H2
Aluminum can also produce H2 upon treatment with bases:
2 Al + 6 H2O + 2 OH− → 2 Al(OH)−4 + 3 H2
An alloy of aluminum and gallium in pellet form added to water can
be used to generate hydrogen. The process also produces alumina,
but the expensive gallium, which prevents the formation of an oxide
skin on the pellets, can be re-used. This has important potential
implications for a hydrogen economy, as hydrogen can be produced
on-site and does not need to be transported (Venere, 2007).
Table 2. Solubility of several hydroxide compounds (“Solubility
Product Constants, Ksp,” n.d.)
Hydroxides
Al(OH)3 4 x 10-15
Ca(OH)2 6 x 10-6
Mg(OH)2 1.8 x 10-11
Zn(OH)2 5 x 10-17

2. Oxygen
Oxygen is a plentiful and highly reactive element on the earth. Oxygen
comprises about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. In its elemental form oxygen is a
gas and diatomic.

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Table 3. Major Components in Earth's Atmosphere

Table 4. Elemental Abundances in Earth’s Crust

Many metals react with oxygen to form oxides. For example, copper reacts
with oxygen to form copper (II) oxide. Iron reacts with oxygen to form
iron(III) oxide (rust). Magnesium also reacts with oxygen, forming
magnesium oxide:

Metalloids will also react with oxygen. Upon reaction with oxygen silicon
forms silicon dioxide, the main component of sand.

Just as with metals and metalloids, the product of the reaction of a nonmetal
with oxygen is an oxide. Elemental sulfur (S8) reacts with oxygen to form
sulfur dioxide, a poisonous gas that can be used as a food additive to sterilize
dried fruit and wine. Carbon burns in oxygen to form carbon monoxide and
carbon dioxide gases. Elemental phosphorus (P4) combines with oxygen to
form solid tetraphosphorus decaoxide:

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(Wiberg, Wiberg, & Holleman, 2001)
Preparation of Molecular Oxygen
One way to obtain highly pure oxygen is to compress and cool air
until it liquefies. Since air is composed primarily of nitrogen and oxygen,
liquefying air is an efficient method for obtaining oxygen. Oxygen liquefies
at 88 K (-185°C). Nitrogen liquefies at 77 K (-196°C). By cooling to a
temperature below 77 K both oxygen and nitrogen liquefy. Oxygen can then
be separated from nitrogen by heating the liquefied air to a temperature
between 77 K and 88 K. This method is used for large-scale production of
oxygen (Oxygen Nuclides / Isotopes, n.d.).
Thermal decomposition is a less sophisticated method that can be
used to generate small amount of molecular oxygen. In this process,
molecular oxygen is generated by heating a metal oxide until it chemically
decomposes. For example, mercury(II) oxide decomposes into mercury and
oxygen at 400°C:

Some oxides, like magnesium oxide, are very stable and do not decompose
under the heat from a Bunsen burner:

Whether a metal oxide compound decomposes easily, like mercury(II)


oxide, depends to a large extent on the strength of the metal-oxygen bonds.* If the
bonds are strong, as in the case of magnesium oxide, then a large amount of energy
(high temperature) is required to break them. If they are relatively weak, as in the
case of mercury(II) oxide, then the amount of energy required to break the bonds
is smaller, and the temperature at which the compound decomposes is relatively
low.
Oxides formed from reaction with oxygen can be studied by considering
their acid-base properties. Oxides that contain nonmetals react with water to form
acids. Oxides that contain metals react with water to form bases. For example:

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The actual term for bond strength when considering ionic compounds, as in
HgO and MgO, is lattice energy. Lattice energy is the amount of energy
released when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form an ionic
solid:

(Wiberg et al., 2001)


where M+ is a metal cation and X- is a nonmetal anion.
Decomposition of Oxides
The heating of many oxides with a Bunsen burner results in their
decomposition. This results in the formation of molecular oxygen (O2). For
example, potassium chlorate decomposes under heat to form potassium
chloride and oxygen gas. Many oxides decompose to form oxygen gas:

On the other hand, some oxides are particularly stable and do not
decompose, even under the intense heat of a Bunsen burner. These include:

(Stwertka, 2002)

Testing Acid-Base Properties of Oxides


Acid-base indicators are compounds that can measure the level of
acidity for solutions. For example, phenolphthalein is a compound that is
colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions. The structure of
phenolphthalein is shown below:

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Figure 2 Acid Base Solution Structure

Table 5. Acid Base Solution Color Indicator

(Miessler & Tarr, 2004)

E. TOOLS AND SUBSTANCES


Tools
1. Porcelain cup 1 pcs
2. Porcelain spoon 1 pcs
3. Bunsen burner / spiritus 1 pcs
4. 100 cc measuring cup 1 pcs
5. Test tube 5 pcs
6. Wood clamp 1 pcs
7. Drop pipette sufficiently
8. Side pipe test tube 4 pcs
9. Plastic hose / connecting pipe 1 pcs
10. Rubber cover 1 pcs
11. Statips and clamps 1 set
12. Bunsen burner 1 pcs

Substances
1. Calcium metal ± ¼ spoon of spatula
2. Magnesium powder ± ¼ spoon of spatula
3. Zinc powder sufficeintly
4. H2O2 3% sufficiently
5. H2O2 4,5% sufficiently

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6. Calsium Iodide 0,1 M solution ± 1 mL
7. Barium peroxide sufficinetly
8. Glass cotton sufficinetly
9. Starch solution ± 2-3 drops
10. Phenopthalein solution (PP) ± 2-3 drops
11. Dilute potassium iodide solution sufficiently
12. Hydrochloric acid 4 M solution sufficiently
13. Potassium chloride crystals sufficiently
14. Litmus paper 4 pieces
15. Wood 2 pieces
16. Kawi stone powder (pirolusit) sufficiently

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F. LANES WORK
Hydrogen
1. Making hydrogen gas from calcium and H2O reaction

¼ spoon of calcium

- Placed on porcelain cup


- Added aquades 3-5 mL
- Observed the result

Solution Gas

- Checked with litmus paper

Red litmus paper bceomes blue,


blue litmus paper didn’t changed

Reaction:
Ca(s) + H2O (l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2(g)
2. Making hydrogen gas from magnesium and H2O reaction

Aquades

- Entered into porcelain cup


- Added ¼ spoon of magnesium
- Heated on Bunsen burner

Solution Gas

- Checked with pp indicator


- Noted the result

Pink color

Reaction:
Ca(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2(g)

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3. Making hydrogen gas from reaction of Zn with H2O

Wet glass cotton

- Placed on test tube


- Added dry glass cotton
- Zinc powder (0,02 gram)
- Added dry cotton
- Covered the test tube using spoon / rubber lid
- Held the test tube using wood camp
horizontally
- Heated the test tube, sometimes on zinc
powder and sometime on wet cotton
- Tested the gas using flame and live coals

The flame is bigger, the


live coal is brighter

Reaction:
Zn(s) + 2H2O(l) → Zn(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
4. Making H2O gas from Zn + HCl

Zinc

- Entered into side pipe test tube (large test tube)


- Connected the pipe onto measured glass that
sinked under the water
- Added 4 M HCl 3-5 mL
- Covered test tube using rubber lid
- Tested the gas using flame and live coals

The flame is bigger, the


live coal is brighter

Reaction:
Zn(s) + 2HCl(l) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

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5. Identify the hydrogen compound

1 mL KI

- Entered into tes tube


- Added amylum
- Added H2O2 3%
- Observed the result

The color of
solution change

Reactions:
Oxidation : 2KI(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → I2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) + 2e-
Reduction : H2O2(aq) + 2e- + 2H2O(l) → 2H2O(l) + 2OH-(aq)
Complete : H2O2(aq) + 2KI(aq) ⇄ 2KOH(aq) + I2(aq)
Complex:

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Oxygen
6. Making O2 gas with heating process

Potassium chloride

- Entered into test tube (± 0,5 cm from the base)


- Added “batu kawi” powder
- Connected the test tube with a measuring cup
in an upside down position using a plastic hose
- Heated on bunsen burner with low fire

O2 gas

- Collected the O2 gas on reversed test tube


- Let it for 10 minutes
- Tested with a fire wood

The flame is bigger,


the live coal is brighter

Reaction:
𝑀𝑛𝑂2
2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl(aq)
7. Making O2 gas without heatng process

0,5 gram permanganate

- Entered into side pipe test tube (large test tube)


- Connected the pipe with reversed test tube
- Added drop by drop H2O2 4,5% carefully
- Covered the test tube using rubber lid
- Let it for 10 minutes

O2 gas

- Tested with a fire wood

The flame is bigger,


the live coal is brighter
- Compared the gas volume with the 6th
experiment

Volume difference

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Reactions:
Oxidation : H2O2 (aq) + 2OH- (aq) → O2(g) + 2e- + 2H2O(l)
Reduction : KMnO4(aq) + 3e- + 2H2O(l) → MnO2 (aq) + KOH(aq) +
3OH-(aq)
Complete : H2O2(aq) + 2KMnO4 ⇄ 2MnO2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) +
3O2(g) + 2H2O(l)

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G. OBSERVATION RESULT
Experiment Result Conclusion
No. Procedure Prediction/Reaction
Before After
Hydrogen
1 Making hydrogen gas from calcium and H2O ▪ Calcium = ▪ Calcium Formed gas H2 and base soution (Ca(OH)2) H2 formed
reaction white diluted Reaction: indicated by
powder into water Ca(s) + H2O (l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2(g) the color of
▪ Aquades = = colorless The color of litus paper changes from red to blue litmus paper
colorless ▪ Buble = because the presence of Ca(OH)2 as base solution changes
▪ Litmus just a little Ksp = 5,5 × 10-5 from red to
paper = red (cant blue and
& blue observe) litmus paper
▪ Ca : blue color
partially wasn’t
dissolved changed.
▪ Litmus
paper
changed:
from red

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to bule;
blue didn’t
changed
2 Making hydrogen gas from magnesium and H2O ▪ Aquades = ▪ Magnesiu Formed H2 gas and base solution Mg(OH)2 Formed H2
reaction colorless m does not Reaction: gas indicate
▪ Magnesium diluted Ca(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2(g) by the
= dark grey into water The color of PP indicator changes from colorless to presence of
ore ▪ Heat: pink because the presence of Mg(OH)2 as base Mg(OH)2.
▪ PP indicator formed solution.
= colorless bubble; Ksp = 1,8 × 10-11
magnesiu
m does not
diluted
into water
▪ PP
indicator:
changes
into pink

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3 Making hydrogen gas from reaction of Zn with ▪ Wet glass ▪ Wet glass Formed H2 gas Formed H2
H2O cotton= + dry glass Reaction: gas
white + zinc Zn(s) + 2H2O(l) → Zn(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) indicated by
cotton, powder = Ksp = 5 × 10-17 the flame
shine no goes bigger.
▪ Dry glass changing
cotton= ▪ Heated =
white, formed H2
cotton, gas
shine ▪ There is
▪ Zinc air on
powder= measured
grey color glass
▪ Dry cotton ▪ Zn =
= white melted
▪ Tested
with flame
= flame

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goes
bigger
▪ Tested
with live
coal =
distinguish
4 Making H2O gas from Zn + HCl ▪ Zinc = grey ▪ Added Formed H2 gas Formed H2
powder HCl = Reaction: gas
▪ HCl 4M = formed Zn(s) + 2HCl(l) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) indicated by
colorless bubble; The flame is bigger than before the flame
colorless goes bigger.
solution
▪ Tested
with
flame:
flame goes
bigger;
tested with
live coal,

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live coal
distinguish
▪ Volume
gas = 23
mL
5 Identify the hydrogen compound ▪ KI = ▪ KI + Reaction: Formed
colorless amylum = Hydrogen
▪ Amylum = colorless compound
colorless ▪ KI + (KOH)
Complex:
▪ H2O2 = amylum + indicated by
colorless H2O2 = the color of
dark puple solution
color change from
solution colorless
▪ Formed into dark
bubbles purple
Oxygen

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6 Making O2 gas with heating process ▪ KClO3 = ▪ Heated: Formed O2 gas Formed O2
white KClO3 Reaction: gas
crystal melted, 𝑀𝑛𝑂2 indicated by
2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl(aq)
▪ Pirolusit formed The flame goes brighter the flame
(kawi bubbles, Vcalculation = 148 mL goes bigger
powder = color and live coal
black chips changes goes
into grey brighter.
▪ Volume of
O2 = 37
mL
▪ The flame
goes
bigger
▪ The live
coal goes
brighter

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7 Making O2 gas without heatng process ▪ KMnO4 = ▪ KMnO4 + Formed O2 gas Reaction
dark purple H2O2 = Reactions: between
color purple KMnO4 and
▪ H2O2 4,5% color H2O2
= colorless ▪ KMnO4 + formed O2
▪ Mass of H2O2 + gas
KMnO4 = Heated = Vcalculation = 74 mL indictaed by
05 gram purple the
color and characteristi
formed c of flame
bubbles, becomes
formed bigger and
dark live coal
brown spot becomes
▪ Tested brighter.
with flame
= flame
goes
bigger

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▪ Tested
with live
coal = live
coal goes
brighter

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H. ANALYSIS
1. Making hydrogen gas from calcium and H2O reaction
The first experiment was aimed at making hydrogen gas by reacting
calcium (s) with distilled water. In accordance with the theory of reactions
that occur namely:
Ca(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
Hydrogen gas is said to form if a reaction between calcium and
distilled water forms hydrogen gas products and hydrogen compounds. This
also includes another objective, namely to identify hydrogen gas. The
hydrogen compound formed is identified by the litmus paper, if it shows
changes from litmus paper red into blue and litmus paper blue remain blur,
then it is proven that the compound Ca(OH)2 is a base.
The first step is as much as ¼ calcium spatula inserted into the
porcelain cup. The purpose of selecting porcelain plates is related to the
nature of calcium as an element of the alkali soil group, although not as
alkaline-active, to anticipate something like an explosion that could be
dangerous if using a glass test tube, then porcelain plates are used. Next, 3-
5 mL of distilled water was added and the changes were observed. Calcium
added with distilled but not completely dissolved, formed a colorless
solution. When tested with red litmus paper, red litmus paper turns blue and
when tested with blue litmus paper, blue litmus paper does not change. This
shows the presence of Ca(OH)2 compounds which are alkaline (blurring red
litmus paper) and in other words hydrogen (H2) gas is also formed.
According to the theory, H2 gas should be formed which is marked by
bubbles, but in our practice we do not observe bubbles. This is likely due to
the amount of calcium used is too small.

2. Making hydrogen gas from magnesium and H2O reaction


The second experiment as the same as first experiment was aimed at
making hydrogen gas, by reacting magnessium (s) with distilled water. In
accordance with the theory of reactions that occur namely:
Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) → Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)

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Hydrogen gas is said to form if a reaction between magnesium and
distilled water forms hydrogen gas products and hydrogen compounds. This
also includes another objective, namely to identify hydrogen gas. The
hydrogen compound formed is identified by PP indicator, if its color
changed into pink from colorless, then it is proven that the compound
Mg(OH)2 is a base.
The first step is several mL of distilled water put into a porcelain cup.
The use of porcelain plates is the same as the reason in the first practicum
which is related to the nature of Mg as group IIA or alkaline earth which is
reactive and quite dangerous when using test tubes or glass tools. Next ¼
spoonful of Mg spatula is added and heated to the Bunsen burner. The
purpose of heating is because Mg will be easier to act in hot temperatures
when compared with Ca which is able to react at even / cold temperatures.
Furthermore, changes were observed. Magnesium is not completely
dissolved in water due to the solubility of the compound Mg(OH)2, which
is Ksp 1.8 × 10-11 which is smaller than Ca(OH)2, which is 5.5 × 10-6.
Therefore Mg is more insoluble compared to Ca. Furthermore, when heated
bubbles form, which indicates the formation of H2 gas. When the solution
of the second experiment is tested with the PP indicator, the color of the
solution changes to pink. This indicates the formation of hydrogen
compounds, namely Mg(OH)2 which are basic.

3. Making hydrogen gas from reaction of Zn with H2O


The third experiment aims to make hydrogen gas and identify
hydrogen compounds, and to know the hydrogen properties by reacting Zn
or zinc with water vapor, with the reaction equation.
Zn(s) + H2O(g) → Zn(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
Zn reacted with water vapor rather than water is directly related to the
nature of Zn which when reacting directly with water can produce
compounds that are quite dangerous for the practitioner.
The first step is glass cotton, zinc and dry cotton put into a test tube in
the following order: dry glass cotton - wet glass cotton - zinc - dry cotton.
The sequence is related to what is reacted with Zn is water vapor and not

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water directly. Laying dry cotton is intended so that water vapor that is
formed does not come out and that can come out through the hose is
hydrogen gas (H2) in accordance with the original purpose. After it has been
arranged in such a way, the test tube is closed with a rubber cover that has
been connected with a hose connected to a measuring cup positioned upside
down in a container filled with water where the measuring cup is filled with
water. Then it was heated and it was seen that the water in the measuring
cup was reduced to be replaced by hydrogen gas (H2). The gas is checked
by fire test at the end of the hose and a coal test in the tube. The fire test
shows that the fire enlarges a moment and then immediately dims, this is
related to the nature of hydrogen gas that is explosive. As for the ember test,
the coals become dimmer, then when pulled out, the coals ignite again
because what is in the test tube is only hydrogen gas and no oxygen. The
final result shows Zn in the form of a solution due to the heating process.

4. Making H2O gas from Zn + HCl


The fourth experiment aims to make hydrogen gas and identify
hydrogen compounds, and to know the hydrogen properties by reacting Zn
and HCl. Reaction shown below.
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
The first step is gray zinc powder put into a test tube. Then 5 drops of
HCl (clear, colorless) were added with a concentration of 4M and covered
with a rubber stopper in the middle of which a hole was inserted in the hose
and closed again with plasticine to prevent the gas from escaping. The hose
is connected to a measuring cup placed in an upside down position in a
container filled with water. The resulting solution is a gray ZnCl2 solution
and bubbles appear which indicate the presence of hydrogen gas. The height
of the water in the inverted measuring cup will decrease because it is
replaced by hydrogen gas.
Furthermore, the flame test and ember test are carried out, the flame
test is carried out at the end of the hose and produces a fire that becomes
larger and then fades away as inert, this is related to the explosive nature of
hydrogen gas. Meanwhile, for the coal test carried out in a test tube, the coal

27 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
becomes dimmed because there is only hydrogen gas and not oxygen.
Where oxygen is a triangle of fire while hydrogen is not. The volume of
hydrogen gas obtained is 23 mL.

5. Identify the hydrogen compound


The fifth experiment aims to identify hydrogen compounds namely
KOH through the reaction between potassium iodide and hydrogen peroxide
with amylum as an indicator. The reaction between the two will produce
KOH and I2 with the following reaction.
Reactions:
Oxidation : 2KI(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → I2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) + 2e-
Reduction : H2O2(aq) + 2e- + 2H2O(l) → 2H2O(l) + 2OH-(aq)
Complete : H2O2(aq) + 2KI(aq) ⇄ 2KOH(aq) + I2(aq)
KOH will be identified if the color of the solution changes from
colorless to deep purple. The color indicates that H2O2 has been used up to
form action KOH and what remains is amylum as an indicator that reacts
with KI to form iodine amylum. With the complete reaction as follows.
Complex:

The first steps are 1 mL of KI put into a test tube then add 2 drops of
amylum. Amylum functions as an indicator. Next, add 3% H2O2 one drop
and the solution has instantly turned dark purple. This indicates that H2O2
has reacted entirely with KI to form KOH which is a hydrogen compound.
While the rest of KI reacts with amylum to form dark purple iod iodum.

28 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
6. Making O2 gas with heating process
The sixth experiment aims to find out how to make oxygen gas in
the laboratory and to know the presence of oxygen gas in a compound. At
first Potassium chlorate in the form of white crystals is inserted in a test tube
as high as ± 0.5 cm from the bottom of the tube. Added a little pirolusit or
kawi stone powder (MnO2) black gray. MnO2 here serves as a catalyst. This
mixture of potassium chlorate and kawi stone powder is black and has a
pungent odor. Then heated with a small flame. The results of the reaction
are Oxygen and KCl with the equation:
MnO2
2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl (aq)
The hydrogen gas formed is identified by means of which, in a test
tube a hose is attached and at the end near the rubber cover coated with
plasticine to prevent gas leakage and connected to a measuring cup that is
placed upside down in water and allowed 10 minutes for the gas to collect.
Supposedly, after 10 minutes the gas collected is tested with flame and
ember. In theory, if the flame is brought closer to the oxygen gas then the
flame will be more fiery, while for embers will be brighter and can even
cause a flame.
The results of our experiments show that KClO3 melts into a gray
solution and there are gas bubbles that are identified as oxygen gas. Our
experiment only got 37 mL of gas from 148 mL of gas (based on
calculations in the appendix). Some of the factors that cause this are the gas
produced when it leaks when flowed to a measuring cup in a container filled
with water. The second thing is that KClO3 does not react as a whole to form
oxygen gas. When tested with a flame, the flame becomes large. Meanwhile,
when tested with embers, these coals become brighter. This is in accordance
with the nature of oxygen gas which is a triangle of fire so that the more
oxygen the greater the fire / the brighter the flame from the embers.

7. Making O2 gas without heatng process


The aim of the seventh experiment was to find out how to make
oxygen gas in the laboratory and to know the presence of oxygen gas in a
compound. At first, 0.05 grams of potassium permanganate in the form of

29 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
black crystals is inserted into a test tube covered with a rubber cover with a
middle in the middle and covered again with plasticine, then assembled the
hose and connected with a measuring cup placed upside down in a water
container. Then added H2O2 (clear, colorless) 4.5% and the test tube is
closed with a rubber cover. The color of the solution changes to purple. The
equation for the reaction that occurs after the addition of H2O2 is as follows:
KMnO4(s) + 2H2O2(aq) → K+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) + 3O2 (g) + 2H2O (l)
To prove the existence of hydrogen gas formed, then the series is
left for 10 minutes so that the gas is collected. The collected gas is tested
with a glowing wood (flame test and ember test). The last step is to compare
the volume of gas with experiment 6. Based on our experiments we also
formed a brown dot that shows the formation of MnO. Very little gas
collected is <10 mL when compared with the gas in the calculation of 74
mL, because the amount of oxygen gas produced is not enough to push and
replace the water in the measuring cup so the results cannot be measured.
Therefore the flame test and ember test are carried out in a test tube. The
flame test shows that the flame is getting bigger, while the ember test shows
that the embers are getting brighter. This is in accordance with the nature of
oxygen gas which is a triangle of fire so that the more oxygen the greater
the fire / the brighter the flame from the embers.

I. CONCLUSION
From this experiment It can conclude that hydrogen gas can be made
through: reaction between calcium or magnesium with akuades (H2O); reaction
between Zn and H2O (g); and reaction between Zn and HCl. Each of the product
from the reaction can be identified by several ways: Ca(OH)2 can be identified
with litmus paper; Mg(OH)2 can be identified with PP indicator. The other
hydrogen compound, KOH can be identified by the color changes of the
solution from colorless into dark purple, indicated that H2O2 already perfectly
reacted with KI and the rest react with amylum formed complex iod amylum.
While hydrogen gas itself can be identified by flame and live coal testing, the
result shown flame becomes bigger then dissapear and live coal becomes

30 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
brighter then distinguish as in accordance with hydrogen properties which is
explosive.
In Oxygen experiment it can conclude that oxygen can be made by
heating process and without heating process. From heating process by heating
KClO3 to form O2 and KCl catalyze by MnO2 (kawi powder). From the
experiment, obtained 37 mL gas of oxygen. While in non heating process,
which is by reacting KMnO4 with H2O2 4,5%, it obtained just a little of O2 (<
10 mL). When it test with flame and live coal, flame becomes bigger and live
coal become brighter. This is shown the nature of oxygen gas which is a triangle
of fire so that the more oxygen the greater the fire / the brighter the flame from
the embers.

31 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
REFERENCES

Boyd, P. (2014). What is the chemical composition of stars? NASA. Retrieved from
https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/ask_astro/stars.html#961112a
Greenwood, N. N. (Norman N., & Earnshaw, A. (Alan). (1997). Chemistry of the
elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Housecroft, C. E., & Sharpe, A. G. (2008). Inorganic chemistry. Pearson Prentice
Hall.
Kruse, B., Grinna, S., & Buch, C. (2002). Hydrogen Status og Muligheter. Bellona.
Retrieved from http://bellona.org/filearchive/fil_Hydrogen_6-2002.pdf
Miessler, G. L., & Tarr, D. A. (Donald A. (2004). Inorganic chemistry. Pearson
Education.
Oxygen Nuclides / Isotopes. (n.d.). EnvironmentalChemistry.com. Retrieved from
http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/O-pg2.html
Solubility Product Constants, Ksp. (n.d.). Retrieved September 24, 2019, from
http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/solubility-product-constants
Stwertka, A. (2002). A guide to the elements. Oxford University Press.
Venere, E. (2007). New process generates hydrogen from aluminum alloy to run
engines, fuel cells. Purdue University. Retrieved from
http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2007a/070515WoodallHydrogen.html
Werthmüller, A. (n.d.). The Hindenburg Disaster. Swiss Hydrogen Association.
Retrieved from http://www.hydropole.ch/Hydropole/Intro/Hindenburg.htm
Wiberg, E., Wiberg, N., & Holleman, A. F. (Arnold F. (2001). Inorganic chemistry.
Academic Press.

32 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
ATTACHMENTS

A. Calculations
Oxygen
1) First Experiment
𝑀𝑛𝑂2
Rx: 2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl(aq)
Known: Mr KClO3 = 122,5 g/mol
Asked: Volume O2 gas
Answer:
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑎 0,5 𝑔
Mol KClO3 = = 122,5 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙 = 0,004 mol
𝑀𝑟
𝑀𝑛𝑂2
2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl(aq)
m 0,004
r 0,004 0,006 0,004
s - 0,006 0,004

P.V = n.R.T
I.V = 0,006 × 0,082 . 302
V = 148 mL

2) Second Experiment
Rx: 2KMnO4 + H2O2 → 2MnO2 + 2KOH + 2O2
Known:
• Mr KMnO4 = 158
• Massa = 0,5 gram
Asked: Volume O2 gas
Answer:
0,5 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚
Mol = = 0,003 mol
158
𝜌 × % × 10
MH2O2 = 𝑀𝑟
1,1 × 4,5 ×10
= = 1,46
34
𝑛
m =𝑉
𝑛
1,46 = 0,004 𝐿

33 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
n = 0,006 mol

2KMnO4 + H2O2 → 2MnO2 + 2KOH + 2O2


m 0,003 0,006
r 0,003 0,0015 0,0015 0,003 0,003
s - 0,0045 0,0015 0,003 0,003

mol O2 = 0,003 mol


P.V = n.R.T
I.V = 0,003 × 0,082 × 302
= 74 mL

B. Documentation

Tools that used in these experiments Ca (solid)

[1st Experiment] Ca put into [1st Experiment] checked with litmus


porcelain cup paper (blue litmus paper remain blue,
red litmus paper changed into blue)

34 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
Mg (s) [2nd Experiment] Mg inside porcelain
cup heated with bunsen burner

[2nd Experiment] checked with PP


indicator

[3rd Experiment] Wet glass cotton


placed inside test tube

[3rd Experiment] Test tube heated


with bunsen burner
[3rd Experiment] zinc powder

[3rd Experiment] Tested with flame [4th Experiment] zinc powder

35 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
[4th Experiment] Added 3-5 mL HCl [4th Experiment] Gas formed during
4M into test tube carefully process of experiment

[4th Experiment] Flame testing [4th Experiment] Live coal testing

[5th Experimen] KI solution [5th Experiment] KI solution +


amylum

[5th Experiment] after added H2O2 Potassium chlorate solution

36 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
[6th Experiment] Heating process
with bunsen burner
MnO2 (pirolusit / kawi powder)

[6th Eperiment] Gas flow through


hose [6th Experiment] flame testing

[6th Experiment] Live coal testing


[6th Experiment] potassium chlorate
melted

[7th Experiment] 0,5 gram [7th Experiment] Added drop by dro


permanganate H2O2 4,5%

37 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
[7th Experiment] Live coal testing
th
[7 Experiment] The amount of gas
obtained (<10 mL)

[7th Experiment] Flame testing

C. Question Answers
Hydrogen
1. Explain what the burst gas is and what are its uses?
Answer:
The burst gas is Hydrogen gas (H2). Hydrogen, as atomic H, is the most
abundant chemical element in the universe, making up 75% of normal
matter by mass and more than 90% by number of atoms. This element is
found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets. Molecular clouds of
H2 are associated with star formation. Hydrogen plays a vital role in
powering stars through the proton-proton reaction and the CNO cycle of
nuclear fusion.

2. Write down all the reactions that occurred in the experiment above!
Answer:
Hydrogen
a. Making hydrogen gas from calcium and H2O reaction

38 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
Reaction:
Ca(s) + H2O (l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2(g)
b. Making hydrogen gas from magnesium and H2O reaction
Reaction:
Ca(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2(g)
c. Making hydrogen gas from reaction of Zn with H2O
Reaction:
Zn(s) + 2H2O(l) → Zn(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
d. Making H2O gas from Zn + HCl
Reaction:
Zn(s) + 2HCl(l) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
e. Identify the hydrogen compound
Reactions:
Oxidation : 2KI(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → I2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) + 2e-
Reduction : H2O2(aq) + 2e- + 2H2O(l) → 2H2O(l) + 2OH-(aq)
Complete : H2O2(aq) + 2KI(aq) ⇄ 2KOH(aq) + I2(aq)
Complex:

3. Why should hydrogen peroxide be used in a dilute solution?


Answer:
Hydrogen peroxide is an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH or
H2O2), a compound sold as a mild disinfectant or bleach. Usually
commercially sold hydrogen peroxide is a dilute solution containing a small
amount of stabilizer, in a glass or polyethylene bottle to reduce the rate of

39 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
decomposition. 6% (w / v) hydrogen peroxide can damage the skin, causing
white boils caused by oxygen bubbles.
Oxygen
1. Calculate the volume of oxygen gas obtained if the available KClO3 is 1
gram?
Answer
𝑀𝑛𝑂2
Rx: 2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl(aq)
Known: Mr KClO3 = 122,5 g/mol
Asked: Volume O2 gas
Answer:
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑎 1𝑔
Mol KClO3 = = 122,5 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙 = 0,008 mol
𝑀𝑟
𝑀𝑛𝑂2
2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl(aq)
m 0,008
r 0,008 0,012 0,008
s - 0,012 0,008

P.V = n.R.T
I.V = 0,012 × 0,082 . 302
V = 297 mL

2. Write a Lewis structural formula that shows an O2 molecule with two


unpaired valence electrons!
Answer

Pada atom O terdapat dua elektron tidak berpasangan sehingga diperlukan


dua elektron lain untuk memenuhi kaidah oktet.

3. Explain the events in experiments 1 and 2?


Answer

40 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )
In Oxygen experiment shwon that oxygen can be made by heating process
(experiment 1) and without heating process(experiment 2). From heating
process by heating KClO3 to form O2 and KCl catalyze by MnO2 (kawi
powder). From the experiment, obtained 37 mL gas of oxygen. While in
non heating process, which is by reacting KMnO4 with H2O2 4,5%, it
obtained just a little of O2 (< 10 mL), because the amount of oxygen gas
produced is not enough to push and replace the water in the measuring cup
so the results cannot be measured. When it test with flame and live coal,
flame becomes bigger and live coal become brighter. This is shown the
nature of oxygen gas which is a triangle of fire so that the more oxygen the
greater the fire / the brighter the flame from the embers.

4. Write the reaction equation in experiments 1 and 2?


Anwer:
Oxygen
a. Making O2 gas with heating process
Reaction:
𝑀𝑛𝑂2
2KClO3(aq) → 3O2(g) + 2KCl(aq)
b. Making O2 gas without heatng process
Reactions:
Oxidation : H2O2 (aq) + 2OH- (aq) → O2(g) + 2e- + 2H2O(l)
Reduction : KMnO4(aq) + 3e- + 2H2O(l) → MnO2 (aq) + KOH(aq) +
3OH-(aq)
Complete : H2O2(aq) + 2KMnO4 ⇄ 2MnO2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) +
3O2(g) + 2H2O(l)

41 | (H y d r o g e n a n d O x y g e n )