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Int. J. Pres. Ves.

& Piping 53 (1993) 335-350

External L o a d s on N o z z l e s

C. J. D e k k e r
Continental Engineering bv, Joan Muyskenweg 22, 1096 CJ Amsterdam,
The Netherlands
(Received 12 February 1992; accepted 26 February 1992)

ABSTRACT

Local loads are still approximated quite often by means of the so-called
'shrink ring' method first published by the M W Kellogg Company in
their publication 'Design of Piping Systems'. In this article the shrink
ring method is compared with calculation methods from WRC Bulletin
107and BS 5500, Appendix G. Both nozzles on spherical shells as well
as nozzles on cylindrical shells are taken into consideration.
The stresses in spherical vessels were estimated quite reasonably by
means of the shrink ring method; however, the stresses in cylindrical
vessels are severely underestimated. An improved shrink ring method
for cylinders is proposed in Appendix 2 of this article.

1 INTRODUCTION

Local load stresses in the shell wall at the shell/nozzle junction are
sometimes approximated by means of the so-called 'shrink ring'
approach, first published by the MW Kellogg C o m p a n y in its publica-
tion Design o f Piping Systems. 1 Although today better methods are
available (e.g. the W R C Bulletin 107 methods or even comprehensive
finite element m e t h o d (FEM) analysis techniques) the shrink ring
method is still used, which is quite understandable as it is easy to use
and indeed its derivation is appealing (see Appendix 1).
However, these merits do not guarantee that the 'shrink ring'
approximated local load stresses are correct a n d / o r are at all conserva-
335
Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping 0308-0161/92/$05-00 © 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd,
England. Printed in Northern Ireland
336 C. J. Dekker

tbrust ,'%rce)
circJmferentiol moment '~2 of nozzle

(a)
d£ of nozzte
I thrust (force) moment L~

..jjro

(b)
Fi l. 1. Nozzles on (a) cylindrical and (b) spherical shells.

tive. In this article the results from the 'shrink ring' approach will be
compared with the stress intensities as may be derived from the W R C
Bulletin 107 and from BS 5500, Appendix G. Both nozzles on spherical
shells as well as nozzles on cylindrical shells will be considered (Fig. 1).

2 SHRINK RING APPROACH

The article 'Piping reactions on pressure vessel nozzles' by Stikvoort, 2


being one of the latest publications to adopt the 'shrink ring' approach,
will be used here as a reference. The part of the m e t h o d concerned with
the local load stresses could be called the 'load fraction rule' as the
contributions from each load component, i.e. thrust (= radial load),
longitudinal m o m e n t and circumferential m o m e n t , are expressed as
fractions.
For nozzles on cylindrical shells:
(FJEt,a) + (MI/MI,a) + (MJMc,a) <- 1
where
E = radial load (or thrust)
M~ = longitudinal m o m e n t
Mc = circumferential m o m e n t
External loads on n o z z l e s 337

By defining
K = (ro. T) 2 . Sm/X/-R--T
one finds
F~.a = 3.6K/ro ( = m a x i m u m allowable thrust)
Ml.a = 3.6K/0.9 ( = m a x i m u m allowable longitudinal m o m e n t )
Mc,a = 3.6K/2 ( = m a x i m u m allowable circumferential m o m e n t )
and back substitution yields
r0 x thrust + 0-9 × longitudinal m o m e n t + 2 x circumferential m o m e n t
3.6K s 1

For thrust, the stress ratio with respect to the allowable stress of I x Sm
(with Sm being the basic allowable stress for tension according to
A S M E VIII division 1) is ro x thrust/(3.6K) and noting that 3 . 6 ~
2:r/1.75, the corresponding stress intensity is

a (thrust) = 1.75 - - x thrust


2~ZroT
In a similar m a n n e r ,

a (circumferential m o m e n t ) = 1.75 Vz~rgT


~ T x circumferential m o m e n t

Taking into account that the allowable stress for the longitudinal
m o m e n t is taken as 1.5Sm, one finds

a (longitudinal m o m e n t ) = 1.17 V:trg


~ TT x longitudinal m o m e n t

For nozzles on spheres:


In the last paragraph of the above r e f e r e n c e d article it is stated that 'In
analyzing a spherical vessel, or a nozzle attached to a hemispherical
head, the stresses induced by the meridional m o m e n t can be considered
analogous to those induced by the longitudinal m o m e n t ' . (In the
original text, 'circumferential' is m e n t i o n e d , but through personal
contact with the author it has been ascertained that 'meridional' was
meant instead.) In an identical m a n n e r as above one may arrive at
ro x thrust + 0.9 x m o m e n t (meridional)
-<1
3-6K
338 C. J. Dekker

and for the stress intensities

cr (thrust) = 1.75 × thrust


2zrro T

a (moment) = 1.17 V;rr~T


R/T × moment

3 N O Z Z L E S ON S P H E R E S

A number of analysis methods for the stresses in the wall of a spherical


shell at the shell/nozzle junction are considered here. These methods
are expressed (or can be coerced) in the same mathematical form, thus
enabling a graphical comparison between them to be presented.

3.1 BS 5500--G2.5: Local Loads on Spherical Shell/Nozzle


Attachments 3

The stress intensity due to radial thrusts is given by

cr = SCF × - - × thrust
2;rrT
where SCF is the stress concentration factor which depends on the
nozzle's geometry and is a function of the non-dimensional parameter
p = r/V
Here the thrust's SCF for flush nozzles with t/T = 1-0 from Fig. G.2(31)
is reproduced in the 'thrust' graph for nozzles on spheres (Fig. 2).
The stress intensity due to meridional m o m e n t is given by

cr = SCF x ~ x moment

In the ' m o m e n t ' graph the m o m e n t ' s SCF for flush nozzles with
t/T = 1-0 from Figure G.2(33) is reproduced (Fig. 3).

3.2 WRC Bulletin 107/August 1985 (revision, March 1979) 4

By adopting the rigid plug approach, the stress intensity due to radial
thrust is readily obtained:
( _ ~ T ) thrust ( _ ~ ) 6 x thrust
a = K, ~ + Kb T2
External loads on nozzles 339

3.0 : i ; ; , ; "
i i i i i i

i i i i i i

2-0 ............ ~ .......... . . ' ~ i ~~~acc."shrink-ring"method:

Lt.
t)
tO
/ ~ : : : : : ' ~ acc. G 2 . S o f i
. . . . . : -~ ass~oc
? i ???? ! : :
1.0 . . . . . . " ... acc. WRC-107. '

............ , ................ i .-i. .'...~..i .i . . . . . . . i ...... ... . '.

t~l
~'()~1 0.2 0-3 0.4 0.5 0-7 1.0 2"0 3'0 4.0
p,U

Fig. 2. Stress intensity due to thrust (nozzles on spheres).

3.0

2"0 ............................. i.. : .; ~.~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


acc."shrink-ring" method : ; ; ; :

LL
~J
to

1.0

O0-L1 0-2 0"3 0-4 0"5 07 10 2.0 30 4-0

p,U

Fig. 3. Stress intensity due to moments (nozzles on spheres).


340 C. J. Dekker
For non-fatigue purposes K. = Kb = 1 and hence

o=[{(_~__T)+6(_~)} 2~rro]V~/T thrust


~J 23troT x
The term between the square brackets is directly comparable with the
thrust's SCF as defined in G.2.5 of BS 5500 and is plotted against the
non-dimensional parameter U = ro/V~R-T in the 'thrust' graph (Fig. 2).
In evaluating this term the values for (NxT/P) and ( M / P ) were taken
from WRC--107, Figure SR-2.
In a similar way, the stress intensity due to a m o m e n t loading is
obtained:
m o m e n~t
T2X/_R__ t- Kb Mx 6 x moment
T2V-k-
With K. -- Kb = 1.0:

o=
[ { (NxT~-T ) + 6 (.%V~)} ~r \v'-R--T!
(ro ]2]J V~-/T X
~rr2T m o m e n t

The term between square brackets is directly comparable with the


moment's SCF as defined in G.2.5 of BS 5500 and is plotted against U
in the 'moment' graph (Fig. 3). In evaluating this term the values for
(NxT~/-R-T/M) and (MxV~-R-T/2M) were taken from Figure SR-3.

3.3 'Shrink ring' method

As already indicated in a previous paragraph, the stress intensity due to


thrust loading is
V /T
a (thrust) = 1.75 z thrust
2~rr0 T
The factor 1.75 can be compared with the thrust's SCF as given by
G.2.5 of BS 5500 and with the 'square bracket' expression as developed
from WRC-107.
Although the referenced article on the shrink ring approach suggests
considering a meridional m o m e n t as a longitudinal m o m e n t acting on
the cylindrical shell's nozzle, we will consider it as a circumferential
moment:
V-k-/T
o (moment) = 1.75 srr2T x m o m e n t (meridional)
External loads on nozzles 341

The moment's SCF as given by G.2.5 of BS 5500 and the 'square


bracket' expression as developed from WRC-107 can now be compared
with the factor 1.75.

Notes
- - I f one considers the meridional moment as a longitudinal moment,
then

tr (moment) = 1-17 VJrr2oT


~ / T x moment

The factor for comparison purposes is now 1.17.


- - B y this adaptation (meridional moment like a circumferential
moment) the combined loading rule changes into

ro × thrust + 2 × moment
-<1
3.6K

4 N O Z Z L E S ON C Y L I N D E R S

In a manner very similar to 'nozzles on spheres' we will compare the


following local load method for nozzles on cylinders.

4.1 WRC Bulletin 107/August 1965 (revision, March 1979)

4.1.1 Stress intensity due to thrust


The maximum stress in the q~ direction while adopting the WRC-107
notation is given by

(p~) P (-~-~)-~s6P
O".... * = Kn RmT"I- Kb

Observing that for non-fatigue purposes K. = Kb = 1 and using y =


Rm/T and fl = 0.875 ro/Rm one may find that

= (p--~) +(-~) I × thrust


0.875V~ 0.875v~J 2~roT
In an identical manner the maximum stress in the x direction is found as

' 0.875V~ + ( - ~ ) 0 . 8 7 5 @ J 2~rroT thrust


342 C. J. Dekker
As the various stress c o m p o n e n t s of both the f - d i r e c t i o n stress as well
as the x-direction stress have equal signs at the same locations, the
stress intensity (SI) due to thrust is d e t e r m i n e d by the largest 'square
bracket' expression. This 'square bracket' expression can be likened to
a stress concentration factor and is a function of/3 and 7:
RV~m/~r
SI(thrust) = SCF x - - × thrust
2 ~rroT

with SCF th m a x i m u m value of the following two expressions

and
o . ~ ~(~)0.8~
+ 0-8~yJ
For various 7 values this SCF is calculated across the fl range up to
fl = 0-5 and is plotted against the fl p a r a m e t e r in the 'thrust' graph for
nozzles on cylinders (Fig. 4).
For these SCF pertaining calculations the following WRC-107 graphs
were used:

~i~4c ,or (~t Fi~:C, ~or t~t


N,
F,~.4c ~o~ (~); Fi~. lC-1 ~or (-~t
4.1.2 Stress intensity due to circumferential moments
N¢ M~ + M~ 6Mc
O". . . . q~= gn (~c~-~2fl)R2mflT gb (~c-~mfl)e m f l T 2
As before with thrust: K. = Kb = 1, y = Rm'/T and fl = 0.875 r,/Rm one
may find that
N, ~fl M, 6z~fly ] k,cff-m~/T
O".... ~"~-[(Mc~'Efl)0.875zv~ t- (Mc/Rmfl)0.875zv~/ ~ t r g ~ Mc
In an identical way the m a x i m u m stress in the x direction is
Nx sift Mx 6sift7 ] RVR~/TM
Omax~= [ (Mc/R2mfl) 0.8752V~ + ( M J - R m f l ) 0 . 8 - ~ V ~ A strUT ~
External loads on nozzles 343

6.0

5.0

~ ~ ¢ =10
4.0

3.0
///
//, \i ilo
~0

2-0

' acc."shrink-ring" method

1-0

0 0.1 0.2 0"3 0"4 0"5 0"6

Fig. 4. Stress intensity due to thrust.

As the various stress c o m p o n e n t s have equal signs at the same


locations, the stress intensity due to a circumferential m o m e n t is
d e t e r m i n e d by the largest 'square bracket' expression. This 'square
bracket' expression can be likened to an SCF and is a function of fl and
7:

Sl(circumferential m o m e n t ) = S C F x × circumferential m o m e n t
~tR~T

with SCF the m a x i m u m value of the following two expressions:

L\ N. ~ ~fl
o.87~v~
+ (- ~ M. ) 6~rf17 1
, ~ . o.sT~v~,
344 C. J. Dekker

and
N~ :r/3 6n/3y 1

For various I/ values this SCF is calculated across the /3 range up to


/3 = 0.5 and is plotted against the /3 parameter in the 'circumferential
moment' graph for nozzles on cylinders (Fig. 5).
The following WRC-107 graphs were used in the calculations
pertaining to the SCF:
N,
Fig. 3A for (Mj-R~fl); Fig. 1A for ( M, "~--m~ )
/ M~
Fig. 4A for ,~vlc/lx/lT'7-A~2mfl';

6.0 ¸
=100

50

5"0

4.0

I
!
3oi

2-0

acc. " s h r i n k - r i n g " method

1-O

0"1 0"2 0"3 0,4 0"5 0"6

Fig. 5. Stress intensity due to circumferential moment.


Externalloadson nozzles 345

4.1.3 Stress intensity due to longitudinal moments


The derivation of the stress intensity due to a longitudinal moment is
wholly identical to that due to a circumferential moment; simply
replace Me everywhere by MI:

RV~m/r
SI(longitudinal moment) = SCF × 2¢rr2T x longitudinal moment

with SCF the maximum value of the following two expressions:

Nx ~rfl +( ) 6~rfl7 ]
0. 8752vr~ \ M~-m~ / 0. 8752Vr~.]
and

N~ zfl 6~rfly ]
[ (M1/R2m~) 0.8752x/-~+ (m,'~--m~)
Me~ 0.8752x/~J
As before, this SCF is calculated across the fl range up to fl = 0-5 for
various ~, values and is plotted against the fl parameter in the
'longitudinal moment' graph for nozzles on cylinders (Fig. 6).
The following WRC-107 graphs were used in the calculations
pertaining to the SCF:

ig.3, for Fig. 1,-1 for

N~ M~
Fig.4, for Fig. 2,-1 for

4.2 'Shrink ring' method

In an earlier paragraph it has already been indicated that the stress


intensity due to thrust loading is

SI(thrust) = 1.75 - -
RVR~/rx thrust
2srroT
The factor 1.75 can be directly compared with the thrust's SCF as
derived from WRC-107 for nozzles on cylinders (see paragraph 4.1.1).
Note that this factor of 1-75 is independent of any parameter such as
WRC-107's fl and/or ),.
346 C. J. Dekker
6.0

5.0 .... ' .... .-- -. . . . . . -, , . ' " . .... , "

4 . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

u_
L) 3 0 . . . . ~ . . . . .. , . . • , : . . .

2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

! i.-~i ~---,__ 7~--2o


' ---~--~y : 50
. . i. . / : : : ~. -'y:lo(
1-0 .- ~ / -: . . . . i ...... acc."shrtnk-mng"method

/ .

0 0-1 0.2 0"3 0"4 0"5 0"6

Fig. 6. Stress intensity due to longitudinal moments.

The stress intensities for the two m o m e n t loadings are:

SI(circumferential m o m e n t ) = 1.75 - - x circumferential m o m e n t


V~m/T
:rrgT
v~-~/ r
SI(longitudinal m o m e n t ) = 1 - 1 7 - x longitudinal m o m e n t
~rrgT
The factors of 1-75 and 1-17 can be directly compared with the
circumferential moment's SCF and the longitudinal m o m e n t ' s SCF
respectively (see paragraphs 4.1.2 and 4.1.3).

5 CONCLUSIONS

Although, admittedly, the WRC-107 methods and the shrink ring


method (i.e. load fraction rule) are based upon the outside nozzle
External loads on nozzles 347

radius while the method of G.2.5 of BS 5500 is based upon the mean
nozzle radius, the differences arising from this minor divergence will be
minimal for realistically sized nozzles and will in no way affect the
conclusions reached here.
For nozzles placed on cylinders:

- - T h e shrink ring method results in stress intensities that may differ


vastly from those calculated per WRC-107.
- - W i t h the possible exception of longitudinal moment loading, the
shrink ring method appears to produce unreliable results and
should not be used.
w i t is not possible to indicate a limited range for the fl parameter
(i.e. ratio of the nozzle diameter to the vessel diameter) in which
the shrink ring method may give reliable and/or conservative
results.

For nozzles placed on spheres:

wWRC-107 (rigid plug approach) and G.2.5 of BS 5500 are generally


in close agreement, as one may expect from these well-regarded
methods.
- - T h e meridional moment loading should be considered in the same
way as a circumferential moment loading (for a nozzle placed on a
cylinder) and not as a longitudinal moment loading.
- - T h e shrink ring method gives reliable and/or conservative estim-
ates for the local load stress intensities. Consequently, the load
fraction rule in its adapted form can be used safely for nozzles on
spheres.

REFERENCES

1. The MW Kellogg Co., Design o f Piping Systems, 2nd edn. John


Wiley, New York, 1956.
2. Stikvoort, W. J., Piping reactions on pressure vessel nozzles.
Chemical Engineering, 7 July 1986.
3. BS 5500: 1990, G.2.5, Local Loads on Spherical Shell~Nozzle
Attachments. British Standards Institution, London, 1990.
4. Wichman, K. R., Hopper, A. G. & Mershon, J. L., Local Stresses
in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings. W R C
Bulletin 107/August 1965, Revision, March 1979.
348 C. J. Dekker

A P P E N D I X 1: D E R I V A T I O N OF T H E SHRINK RING
METHOD

Nozzle loading is to be considered as a line load on the edge of the


opening in the shell (Fig. 7) with r0 the outside radius of the nozzle, R
the m e a n radius of the cylinder and T the thickness of the cylinder.

A I . 1 Line loads (maximum values)


W
D u e to a radial thrust W :fw-
2:fro
MI
D u e to a longitudinal m o m e n t M1 : f~ =
zer2
Mc
D u e to a circumferential m o m e n t Me: fc =
zcr2
This m a x i m u m line load is used as a kind of shrink ring load; the
longitudinal bending stress due to this load is then interpreted as the
maximum stress level in the vessel due to this nozzle loading.

A1.2 Shrink ring

The m a x i m u m longitudinal bending m o m e n t in the cylinder is given by


(see, for example, Timoshenko's Theory of plates and shells)

f
M = 4---~ where /34 = 3(1R2T2
- v 2) (v is the Poisson constant)

and the m a x i m u m longitudinal bending stress by


6M 6f 6V'R--T
o = T~- - 4/3T 2 - 4 x ~/3(1 - v2)T 2 f

Fig. 7. Nozzle with loading (here from a longitudinal moment) and the resulting line
load on the edge of the nozzle opening in the vessel.
External loads on nozzles 349

~ f (= Jine load )
j

Fig. 8. Vessel with shrink ring load (this is a pure axi-symmetric load).

or
V'RT~
o= 1-17--~] (note that v = 0.3)

A1.3 Local load stresses

For longitudinal m o m e n t loading on a nozzle, the above formula is


thought to give a reasonable approximation of the local load stresses in
the cylindrical vessel. However, for both thrust loading and circum-
ferential m o m e n t loading this is not the case. To improve matters the
factor of 1-17 is often replaced by a higher value of, for example, 1.75.

A P P E N D I X 2: I M P R O V E D SHRINK RING M E T H O D F O R
CYLINDERS

In case it is preferred to use a simple local load stress calculation then


the following improved shrink ring m e t h o d for nozzles on cylinders is
proposed:
T
SI (thrust) = 4.5 × - - × thrust
2~troT
X/-R-/
SI (longitudinal m o m e n t ) = 1.5 × ~rr~T × longitudinal m o m e n t

SI (circumferential m o m e n t ) = (1 + 1.05
r0 v -/v
~/-R--TJ rer~T
x circumferential m o m e n t

= (1 + 1.2V~t~)
.l•g,

× circumferential m o m e n t
For realistically sized nozzle and vessel geometries, i.e. fl(=
0.875ro/R) <- 0.5 and 10-< y ( = R / T ) <- 100, the above formulae under-
estimate by 10% at the most the stress intensities as calculated per
WRC-107.
350 C. J. Dekker

If it is realised that the stress intensity at properly designed nozzles


due to the internal design pressure will be about 2f (with f = basic
allowable stress in tension), then there remains I f for the stress
intensity due to, for example, external loading of the nozzle. This is
based upon the limit of 3f (or in ASME terminology 3Sin) for the
combination of primary and secondary stress and the assumption that
the secondary stresses, i.e. all bending stresses at the nozzle/shell
junction and the local membrane stress of the external load in case the
load is of a secondary nature, make up at least half of the combined
stress intensity (see either BS 5500, Appendix A or Appendix 4 of
ASME VIII, division 2).
In case the BS 5500 code is employed to design the nozzles then the
maximum stress intensity due to internal pressure will not exceed
(2.25/1.1).1: = 2.045f for nozzles on which external loads will act. See
para. 3.5.4.3.1 and Enquiry Case 5500/19. Nozzles designed with the
area replacement method from the ASME VIII codes have even lower
stress intensities as this method is slightly more conservative than the
BS 5500 method.
Applying the above stress considerations to the shrink ring formulae
and conservatively adding the individual stress intensities together, one
finds that an external load on a nozzle is allowable if
2.25ro x thrust + 1 . 5 M L -I- (1 + 1"05 ro/VR--T)M~
~--1
3rK
with
ro = outside nozzle radius
R = mean vessel radius
T = thickness of vessel
thrust = the radial force on the nozzle
ML = the overturning moment in the longitudinal direction
Mc = the overturning moment in the circumferential direction
K =fr~T2/X/-RT
f = basic allowable stress in tension
In case the nozzle is reinforced with a doubling plate or pad then one
is advised to check the external load's allowability at two locations:
- - a t the nozzle/shell junction with ro the outside nozzle radius and T
the sum of the vessel thickness and the pad thickness;
- - a t the outer edge of the reinforcing pad with r,, the outer radius of
the pad and T the vessel thickness.