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Lecturer: Rahmawati Husein, M.C.P., Ph.D

Fetty Riswati Ningsih


International Program Of Governmental Affairs and

Administrative Studies

Faculty of Political and Social Science

Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta

Chapter I
I. Background

Until now the earth is the only planet that can support the survival of all beings, among

other planetary members of the solar system. Therefore knowledge of the earth is considered

very vital for the survival of its inhabitants including humans.

Emergency response is a series of activities carried out immediately in the event of a

disaster to deal with the adverse effects, which include rescue and evacuation of victims,
property, fulfillment of basic needs, protection, management of refugees, rescue, and restoration
of infrastructure and facilities. Disaster emergency stages include Emergency Alert, Emergency
Response and Transition to Recovery (Novita, 2012).

Based on observations so far, we do more post-disaster activities (post-event in the form

of emergency response and recovery than pre-disaster activities in the form of disaster reduction

/ mitigation and disaster preparedness. In fact, if we have little attention to pre-disaster activities,

we can educate potential hazards or damages that may arise due to a disaster.

Activities that can be carried out before a disaster can be in the form of disaster

awareness education, disaster management exercises, disaster-proof technology preparation,

disaster response social systems and disaster management policies (disaster management


In the universe is still a lot of knowledge that we have not mastered, including knowledge

of the earthquake and how to predict it. Indonesia is a country surrounded by volcanoes and

flanked by two plates, the Australian and Eurasian plates. Because it creates a subduction zone in

Indonesia and also has a ring of fire because there are so many volcanoes in Indonesia. An

earthquake is a disaster that can occur at any time due to movement activity between the plates
or volcanoes. In addition, earthquakes can also cause tsunamis that can occasionally take

casualties and cause harm both from the economic and life side to a State.

The loss of life caused by the earthquake has increased of the earthquake (large quake),

this is due to a lack of insight and knowledge of the society to the earthquake, especially in

Medan recently experienced an earthquake.

II. Problem formulation

As the background describe above, it can be concluded the following problem

formulation are:

1. What an earthquake?

2. What are the factors of earthquake?

3. How the earthquake’s impact on human life?

III. Research Objectives

1. Explains the causes of earthquake

2. Analyzing the consequences of earthquakes

3. Describes ways to tackle and mitigate against earthquakes

Chapter II


1) Earthquake

An earthquake is a genuine jolt from within the earth, from within the earth then

propagates to the earth's surface (Katili1996) earthquake relates to a series of wave motions

propagating and penetrating the earth's constituent rock.

When the rock suddenly moves along the fracture, the energy that has accumulated

comes loose. This can cause havoc on the surface of the earth. The origin of an ipocentrum

earthquake (focus) which lies relatively far in the earth. The point on the earth's surface just

above the focus is called the epicenter. The most devastating earthquakes focus superficially, less

than 70km from the earth's surface. Its influence on the surface varies from vibration and hard

shaking, to the scratch of the soil causing the sea level to recede.

2) The Factors of Earthquake

1. Shifting the earth’s crust

An earthquake caused by a shift in the location of the earth's crust or earth's crust, called

a tectonic earthquake or a dislocation earthquake. The earth's skin (lithosphere) is divided

into several plates. The plates of the earth's crust at all times shift or move from the real

position due to the strong force from the bottom.

2. Volcanic activity
This earthquake is caused by volcanic activity or called a volcanic earthquake. Volcanism

is the release of magma to the surface of the earth through the hole of magma in the body

of the volcano.

3. Collapse

Earthquakes caused by the collapse of a large plot of land under the surface of the earth

or landslide hills on the earth's surface.

3) The earthquake’s impact on human life and cases in Medan city

On Monday, January 16, 2017, at 18:42 WIB the earthquake shook the region of

North Sumatra, which is the province of Medan City with a power of 5.6 SR and a depth

of 19 km. In addition, there was another 22 aftershocks in Medan City with the largest

magnitude 4.3. The earthquake that occurred in the city of Medan did not cause the

tsunami because its strength is not strong enough to generate changes in the seabed that

can trigger a tsunami. As a result of the quake, some areas in northern Sumatra such as

Karo or Berastagi experienced landslides and Japanese geologists also directly intervened

to analyze the causes of earthquakes, especially in Medan.

Earthquakes can cause a very significant impact for a State or affected area.

1. Physically impact

 Building collapsed.

 Fire

 Landslide.

 Casualties.
 Seismic earthquake caused the tsunami.

2. Social Impact

 Poverty.

 Starving.

 Cause disease.

Especially in Medan city, the earthquake did not cause casualties but caused landslide as

well as damage to buildings and some local infrastructure causing high losses. However,

the earthquake that occurred in Medan this time often occur considering the last few

years rare earthquake in the city of Medan.

4) The Mitigation on Earthquake disaster

There are several things or actions that we can do in the event of an earthquake, are:

A. Before an Earthquake.

1. Recognize what is called an earthquake;

Make sure that the structure and location of your house can be protected from the

dangers caused by the earthquake (landslide, liquefaction, etc.)

2. Note the location of doors, elevators and emergency stairs, in case of an

earthquake, already know the safest place to hide;

Write down the important phone numbers that can be contacted in the event of an


3. Store flammable substances where they are not easily broken to avoid fires.

4. Always turn off water, gas and electricity when not in use.
5. Tools that must be present in every place (P3K box, flashlight, food and water).

B. In the event of an earthquake

1. Protect your body and head from the ruins of the building by hiding under the

table etc.

2. Find the safest place of ruins and shaking;

Run outside if it can still be done.

3. Stay away from the beach to avoid the danger of a tsunami.

4. In case of an earthquake avoid areas that may occur avalanches.

C. After the earthquake

1. If you are in a building Do not use stairs or elevator, use the usual stairs;

2. Check your surroundings

3. Do not enter a building that has been hit by an earthquake

4. Listen to information about the earthquake from the radio (in case of aftershocks).
Chapter III


An earthquake is a genuine jolt from within the earth, from within the earth then

propagates to the earth's surface earthquake relates to a series of wave motions propagating and

penetrating the earth's constituent rock. Earthquakes can be caused by several factors: collisions

between plates (tectonics), volcanic activity (volcanic) and collapse. In addition, earthquakes can

also cause harm to a State or area affected by such disasters such as loss of life, infrastructure

and economic damage. There are several ways in anticipating the earthquake either before,

shortly after the earthquake. In addition to the mitigation we can know what actions we should

take or do when an earthquake and with the progress of IT we can create a program or

application to know and able to predict the arrival of earthquakes.

We recommend that mitigation knowledge about the earthquake disaster has been taught

since childhood with the aim to create a generation of disaster response and useful for the nation

and the nation.

ischak. (2008). GEMPA BUMI DAN KLASIFIKASI GEPA. PT. pariwira yogyakarta.