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Republic of the Philippines

CAVITE STATE UNIVERSITY


Don Severino de las Alas Campus
Indang, Cavite

DESIGN AND IMPROVEMENT OF HARD HAT FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKER


IN THE SELECTED CONSTRUCTION SITES IN CAVITE

An Undergraduate Thesis
Submitted to the Faculty
of the College of Engineering and Information Technology
Cavite State University
Indang, Cavite

In partial fulfilment
of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering

ANDY M. AREVALO
CHARLIE JAMES GOMEZ
April 2016
DESIGN AND IMPROVEMENT OF HARD HAT FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKER
IN THE CONSTRUCTION SITES

Andy M. Arevalo
Charlie James Gomez

An undergraduate thesis submitted to the faculty of the Department of Industrial Engineering and
Technology, College of Engineering and Information Technology, Cavite State University,
Indang, Cavite in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in
Industrial Engineering with Contribution No. ___________________.

INTRODUCTION

Construction is a high hazard industry that comprises a wide range of activities

involving construction or repair. It includes residential construction, bridge erection, roadway

paving, excavations, demolitions, and large scale painting jobs.

Construction workers engage in many activities that may expose them to serious

hazards, such as falling from rooftops, unguarded machinery, being struck by heavy construction

equipment, electrocutions, silica dust, and asbestos.

A hard hat is used by workers at a building site to protect their heads from

falling objects. This protective headwear is designed to absorb some of the energy of a blow

through destruction of its component parts and, even though damage may not be apparent, any

partial protective headwear subjected to severe impact should be replaced.


According to the website wearing hard hat is a mandatory requirement set forth by

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) which requires employers to provide

workers with hard hats and ensure to wear it during working hours. According to Bureau of

Labor Statistics, in 2011, almost 393 fatal injuries were caused by exposure to falling or flying

objects and equipment at workplaces. According to OSHA “the employer shall ensure that each

affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there potential for

injury to the head from falling objects.”Hard hat is composed of two parts the shell and the

suspension. Hard hat is very important for the construction worker to protect and save their lives

in every accident happen in their working areas.

According to Michael Lloyd (2007) hard hat is one of the most recognizable

pieces of safety equipment in the industrial workplace. It's also one of the most important pieces

of safety equipment because it protects our head and brain.

According to the website, employers must ensure their workers wear head

protection if they are at risk of being struck by falling objects, bumping their heads on fixed

objects or coming in contact with electrical hazards. OSHA states that hard hats should resist

penetration by objects, should absorb the shock from a blow to the head by an object, should be

slow to burn and be water-resistant. OSHA states that hard hats must feature a hard outer shell

and a lining that absorbs shock and incorporates a headband. The three industrial classes of hard

hats are Class G - General Helmet, Class E - Electrical Helmet and Class C - Conductive Helmet

(http://www.safetyandhealthmagazine.com/articles/13407-hard-hats-know-the-facts).

Therefore, it is essential to identify the ergonomic related problems encountered while

using hard hat and ergonomic factors to establish ergonomically designed hard hat. These
problems gave the researchers enough interest in improving the existing hard hat and establish a

high level of comfort and secure the health of the construction workers while doing their job.
Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study sought to design and improve hard hat for the construction worker

in the construction sites.

The study aimed to answer the following questions:

1. What are the existing characteristics of the hard hat use by the construction worker in the

construction sites?

2. What are the problems encountered in hard hat used by the construction worker in the

construction worker in the construction site?

3. What are the actions that will ergonomically correct the problems occurring in the

existing hard hat?

Objectives of the Study

Generally, the study aimed to design and improve hard hat for the construction worker in

the construction sites.

The study specifically aimed to:

1. determine the existing characteristics of the hard hat use by the construction worker in the

construction sites;

2. determine the problems encountered in hard hat used by the construction worker in the

construction site; and

3. formulate the actions that will ergonomically correct the problems occurring in the

existing hard hat.


Scope and Limitations

The study is conduct in the construction sites in selected areas in Cavite who use hard

hat. It would also cover observation and investigation of the essential data and information

concerning the condition of construction worker may obtain during their working days. Some of

the worker are not wearing hard hat due to uncomfortable in wearing it, the study would evaluate

the anthropometric design of hard hat for construction worker in the construction sites in selected

area of Cavite.

This study also assessed the designs and dimensions including length, width, and depth of

hard hat for the application of ergonomics in redesigning and improvement of the hard hat.

Importance of the Study

The proponents suggest that the beneficiaries of the study would be the following:

Construction workers. The study would benefit the construction worker by gaining

knowledge about how their PPE’s, particularly their hard hat are designed to fit in the nature of

their job. And also they know the importance of wearing hard hat all the times in their work.

Construction sites. It would help the industry improve its PPEs that will bring forth safe

for the construction workers.

Other construction sites. It would benefit from the improved design of hard hat.

BSIE Program. The result of this study might be used by the Industrial Engineering

program with regards on considering human factors in making design for the safety tools used

such as the personal protective equipment.

Researchers. The researchers would gain knowledge in developing ergonomically design

PPE.
Future Researchers. The study would benefit the future researchers by guiding them in

their related studies.

Time and Place of the Study

The study on the design and improvement improve hard hat for the carpenters in the

construction sites was conducted in selected area of Cavite from the month of June 2016 to

February 2017.
Definition of Terms

For the purpose of the study, the following terms are defined as:

Anthropometric. A measurement of the size and proportion of the human body.

Ergonomic.Deals with designing and arranging things so that people can use them easily and

safety.

Construction workers. The one who work in the construction sites where structures such as

bridges and houses are being built.

Hard hat. A hat used by the carpenters to protect their head from falling objects.

Hazard. A danger or risk.

Personal protective equipment. Refers to protective clothing, helmets goggles or other

garments or equipment designed to protect the body from injury or inspection.

Conceptual Framework

 Existing construction  Descriptive Analysis Designed and improved the


workers hard hat.  Anthropometry
 Problems encountered hard hat.
in existing hard hat. Percentile Values
o 5thPercentile
o 95thPercentile

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study