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ASSIGNMENT –

 Evolution of internet.
 Internet:
 A network of networks, joining many government, university and private
computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail,
bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext documents, databases and other
computational resources
 The vast collection of computer networks which form and act as a single
huge network for transport of data and messages across distances which
can be anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the world.

 Origin of the Internet:


 The origins of the Internet date back nearly 40 years, with the U.S.
military's funding of a research network dubbed Arpanet in 1969.
 Since then, the Internet has undergone more than just a name change. The
number of computers connected to the Internet has grown exponentially,
while the number of users has risen from a handful of computer scientists
to 1.5 billion consumers.
 The network's reach has expanded beyond the United States to every
corner of the globe. But its popularity has a dark side, as it has evolved
from a friendly research network to a hotbed of criminal activity including
fraud and identity theft.
 The world's largest network of computer networks got its original name
from the U.S. military arm that funded it: Arpanet was for the Advanced
Research Projects Agency. Back in 1969 when Arpanet was created, it
connected five sites: UCLA, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, the University
of Utah and BBN.

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 In the early 1980s, dozens of vendors were incorporating TCP/IP into their
products because they saw buyers for that approach to networking.
 Unfortunately, they lacked real information about how the technology was
supposed to work and how their customers planned to use the approach.
 In 1983, the U.S. Defense Department spun-off MILNET*, which was the
part of Arpanet that carried unclassified military communications. Arpanet
was renamed the Internet in 1984, when it linked 1,000 hosts at university
and corporate labs.
 In 1985, recognizing the lack of available information and appropriate
training, Daniel Lynch in cooperation with the IAB arranged a three-day
workshop for all vendors to learn how TCP/IP worked and what it still
could not do well. Speakers were mostly from the DARPA research
community where they had developed these protocols and used them in
day-to-day work.

 A Brief Summary of the Evolution of the Internet:

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 Simple, But Significant Ideas Bigger Ones Grow 1940s to 1969:

 Simple, But Significant Ideas Bigger Ones Grow 1970s to 1995:

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 Architecture of the Internet:
A good place to start is with a client at home. Let us assume our client
calls his or her ISP over a dial-up telephone line, as shown

The modem is a card within the PC that converts the digital signals the
computer produces to analog signals that can pass unhindered over the telephone
system. These signals are transferred to the ISP's POP (Point of Presence), where
they are removed from the telephone system and injected into the ISP's regional
network.
From this point on, the system is fully digital and packet switched. If the
ISP is the local telco, the POP will probably be located in the telephone switching
office where the telephone wire from the client terminates. If the ISP is not the
local telco, the POP may be a few switching offices down the road.
The ISP's regional network consists of interconnected routers in the
various cities the ISP serves. If the packet is destined for a host served directly by
the ISP, the packet is delivered to the host. Otherwise, it is handed over to the
ISP's backbone operator.
At the top of the food chain are the major backbone operators, companies
like AT&T and Sprint. They operate large international backbone networks, with
thousands of routers connected by high-bandwidth fiber optics. Large
corporations and hosting services that run server farms (machines that can serve

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thousands of Webpages per second) often connect directly to the backbone.
Backbone operators encourage this direct connection by renting space in what are
called carrier hotels, basically equipment racks in the same room as the router to
allow short, fast connections between server farms and the backbone.
If a packet given to the backbone is destined for an ISP or company served
by the backbone, it is sent to the closest router and handed off there. However,
many backbones, of varying sizes, exist in the world, so a packet may have to go
to a competing backbone. To allow packets to hop between backbones, all the
major backbones connect at the NAPs discussed earlier. Basically, a NAP is a
room full of routers, at least one per backbone.
A LAN in the room connects all the routers, so packets can be forwarded
from any backbone to any other backbone. In addition to being interconnected at
NAPs, the larger backbones have numerous direct connections between their
routers, a technique known as private peering.

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ASSIGNMENT –
 Difference between Connection oriented and connectionless
service:

 In computer networks, delivery between source and destination can be


accomplished in either of the two ways:

o Connection-oriented services
o Connection-less services.
 Connection-oriented services:

o Connection-oriented services define a way of transmitting data between a


sender and a receiver, in which an end-to-end connection is established
before sending any data. After establishing a connection, a sequence of
packets, (from the source to destination), can be sent one after another. All
the packets belonging to a message are sent from the same connection.
When all packets of a message have been delivered, the connection is
terminated.
o In connection-oriented services, the devices at both the endpoints use a
protocol to establish an end-to-end connection before sending any data.
o Connection-oriented service usually has the following characteristics:
 The network guarantees that all packets will be delivered in order
without loss or duplication of data.
 Only a single path is established for the call, and all the data
follows that path.
 The network guarantees a minimal amount of bandwidth and this
bandwidth is reserved for the duration of the call.
 If the network is over utilized, future call requests are refused.
o Connection-oriented service is sometimes called a “reliable” network
service because:
 It guarantees that data will arrive in the proper sequence.
 Single connection for entire message facilitates acknowledgement
process and retransmission of damaged and lost frames.
o Connection-oriented transmission has three stages. These are:
 Connection establishment: In connection oriented services,
before transmitting data, the sending device must first determine
the availability of the other to exchange data and a connection
must be established by which data can be sent.

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Connection establishment requires three steps. These are:
 First the sender computer requests the connection by
sending a connection request packet to the intended
receiver.
 Then the receiver computer returns a confirmation packet
to the requesting computer.
 Finally, the sender computer returns a packet
acknowledging the confirmation.
 Data transfer: After the connection gets established, the sender
starts sending data packets to the receiver.
 Connection termination: After all the data gets transferred, the
connection has to be terminated.
 Connection termination also requires a three-way handshake i.e.,
 First, the sender computer requests disconnection by
sending a disconnection request packet.
 Then, the receiver computer confirms the disconnection
request.
 Finally, the sender computer returns a packet
acknowledging the confirmation.
o Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol.
 Connection-less Services:

o Connection-less service define a way of communication between two network


end points in which, a message can be sent from one end point to another without
prior arrangement. The sender simply starts sending packets, addressed to the
intended recipient.
o Connectionless service is a service that allows the transfer of information among
subscribers without the need for end-to-end connection establishment procedures.
o Connection-less service is sometimes known as “unreliable” network service.
Connection-less protocols are usually described as stateless because the
endpoints have no protocol-defined way of remembering where they are in a
“conversation” of message exchange.
o The Internet Protocol (IP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are
connectionless protocols, but TCP/IP (the most common use of IP) is connection-
orientated.
 Two different services are taken into consideration depending on the type of service
being offered. These two schemes are known as virtual circuit subnet (VC subnet) for
connection-oriented service and datagram subnet for connection-less services.
 A VC subnet may be compared to the physical circuit required in a telephone setup. In a
connection-oriented service, a route from the source to the destination must be
established. In a datagram subnet, no advance set up is needed.

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 Implementation of Connection-oriented Services:
o To implement connection-oriented services, we need to form a virtual-
circuit subnet. This idea behind the creation of a VC is so that, a new route
for every packet sent.
o In virtual circuits:
 First, a connection needs to be established.
 After establishing a connection, a route from the source machine to
the destination machine is chosen as part of the connection setup
and stored in tables inside the routers. This route is used for all
traffic flowing over the connection.
 After transmitting all the data packets, the connection is released.
When the connection is released, the virtual circuit is also
terminated.

o In a connection-oriented service, each packet carries an identifier that


identifies the virtual circuit it belongs to.
o Now, let us take an example, consider the situation of a subnet in Figure.
In this figure, H1,H2 and H3 represent host machines and R1, R2, R3, R4,
R5 and R6 represent routers. Processes are running on different hosts.
o Here, host HI has established connection 1 with host H2. It is remembered
as the first entry in each of the routing tables as shown in Table 1. The
first line of R1‟s table says that, if a packet bearing connection identifier 1
comes in from HI, it is to be sent to router R3, and given connection
identifier 1. Similarly, the first entry at R3 routes the packet to R5, also
with connection identifier 1.

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o Now, let us consider a situation in which, H3 also wants to establish a
connection with H2. It chooses connection identifier 1 (because it is
initiating the connection and this is its only connection) and informs the
subnet to setup the virtual circuit. This leads to the second row in the table.
Note, that we have a conflict here because although R1 can easily
distinguish connection 1 packets from HI and connection 1 packets from
H3, R3 cannot do this. For this reason, R1 assigns a different connection
identifier to the outgoing traffic for the second connection (No.2). In order
to avoiding conflicts of this nature, it is important that routers have the
ability to replace connection identifiers in outgoing packets. In some
contexts, this is called label switching.

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 Implementation of Connection-less Services :

o In these services, packets are individually injected into the subnet and their
routing decisions are not dependent on each other (packets). Therefore, in
connectionless services, no advance setup is needed. In this context, the
packets are frequently called datagrams and the subnet is called a
datagram subnet.
o Now, let us take an example to learn how a datagram subnet works.
Consider the situation of Figure. In this Figure, H1 and H2 represent host
machines and R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 represent routers.
o Suppose that the process running at host H1 has a long message to be
transmitted to a process running at H2 machine. To do so, it transfers the
message to the transport layer with appropriate instructions to deliver it to
the process running at H2. Where is the transfer layer process running, can
you figure out? Well, it may also be running on H1 but within the
operating system. The transport layer process adds a transport header to
the front of the message and transfers the message (also called TPDU) to
the network layer; the network layer too, might be running as another
procedure within the operating system.
o Let us assume, that the message is five times longer than the maximum

packet size, therefore, the network layer has to break it into five packets,
1,2, 3, 4 and 5 and send each of them in turn to router R1 (because it is
linked to R1) using some point-to-point protocol. After this, the carrier
(supported by ISP) takes over. Every router has an internal table telling it
where to send packets for each possible destination. Each table entry is a

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pair consisting of a destination and the outgoing line to use for that
destination. Only directly-connected lines can be used. For example, in
Figure, R1 has only two outgoing lines-to R2 and R3. So every incoming
packet must be sent to one of these routers.

o As the packets arrive at R1 from H1, packets 1, 2, and 3 were stored


briefly (to verify their checksums). Then, each packet was forwarded to
R3 according to R1‟s table (table not shown here). Packet 1 was then
forwarded to R5 and from R5 to R6. When it got to R6, it was
encapsulated in a data link layer frame and sent to H2. Packets 2 and 3
follow the same route.
o However, something different happened to packet 4 and 5. When it got to
R1 it was sent to router R2, even though it has the same destination. Due
to some reason (for ex. congestion), R1 decided to send packet 4 and 5 via
a different route than that of the first three.
o The algorithm that manages the tables and makes the routing decisions is
known as the routing algorithm. In next unit, we shall study routing
algorithms.

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 Comparison between Connection-oriented and Connectionless
Communication:

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ASSIGNMENT -
INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
 Network definition:
 A network as a "group of computers and associated devices that are connected by
communications facilities."
 A network can be defined as two or more computers connected together in such a
way that they can share resources.

 A network is simply a collection of computers or other hardware devices that are


connected together, either physically or logically, using special hardware and
software, to allow them to exchange information and cooperate.
 A network provides two principle benefits: the ability to communicate and the
ability to share.
 A network supports communication among users in ways that other media
cannot. E-mail, the most popular form of network communication,
provides low-cost, printable correspondence with the capability for
forwarding, acknowledgment, storage, retrieval, and attachments.

 Sharing involves not only information (database records, e-mail, graphics,


etc.), but also resources (applications, printers, modems, disk space,
scanners, etc.) Through its ability to share, a network promotes
collaboration

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 Networking is the term that describes the processes involved in designing,
implementing, upgrading, managing and otherwise working with networks and
network technologies.

 Advantages of networking:
 Connectivity and Communication
 Data Sharing
 Hardware Sharing
 Internet Access
 Internet Access Sharing
 Data Security and Management
 Performance Enhancement and Balancing
 Entertainment
 Disadvantages (Costs) of Networking:
 Network Hardware, Software and Setup Costs
 Hardware and Software Management and Administration Costs
 Undesirable Sharing
 Illegal or Undesirable Behavior
 Data Security Concerns

 Network Classifications:

 Depending on one‟s perspective, we can classify networks in different ways.


 Based on transmission media:
 Wired (UTP, coaxial cables, fiber-optic cables)
 Wireless
 Based on network size:
 Local area network (LAN)
 Metropolitan area (MAN)
 Wide area network (WAN)
 Based on management method:
 Peer-to-peer
 Client/Server
 Based on topology (connectivity):
 Bus (Ethernet)
 Star (Wireless networks with central Access Point)
 Ring

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 Transmission Media:

 Two main categories:


 Guided ― wires, cables
 Unguided ― wireless transmission, e.g. radio, microwave, infrared,
sound, sonar
 Guided media classification:
 Twisted-Pair cables:
o Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cables
o Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cables
 Coaxial cables
 Fiber-optic cables
 Twisted- Pair Cables introduction:
 Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a
single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out
electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance,
electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and
crosstalk between neighboring pairs.
 If the pair of wires are not twisted, electromagnetic noises from, e.g.,
motors, will affect the closer wire more than the further one, thereby
causing errors.

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 Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP):
 Typically wrapped inside a plastic cover (for mechanical protection)
 A sample UTP cable with 5 unshielded twisted pairs of wires

 Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP):


 STP cables are similar to UTP cables, except there is a metal foil or
braided-metal-mesh cover that encases each pair of insulated wires

 Categories of UTP Cables:


 EIA classifies UTP cables according to the quality:
 Category 1 ― the lowest quality, only good for voice, mainly
found in very old buildings, not recommended now
 Category 2 ― good for voice and low data rates (up to 4Mbps for
low-speed token ring networks)
 Category 3 ― at least 3 twists per foot, for up to 10 Mbps
(common in phone networks in residential buildings)
 Category 4 ― up to 16 Mbps (mainly for token rings)
 Category 5 (or 5e) ― up to 100 Mbps (common for networks
targeted for high-speed data communications)
 Category 6 ― more twists than Cat 5, up to 1 Gbps

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 Coaxial Cables:
 In general, coaxial cables, or coax, carry signals of higher frequency
(100KHz–500MHz) than UTP cables
 Outer metallic wrapping serves both as a shield against noise and as the
second conductor that completes the circuit

 Fiber-Optic Cables:
 Light travels at 3108 ms-1 in free space and is the fastest possible speed in
the Universe
 Light slows down in denser media, e.g. glass
 Refraction occurs at interface, with light bending away from the normal
when it enters a less dense medium

 Beyond the critical angle total internal reflection occur.


 An optical fiber consists of a core (denser material) and a cladding (less
dense material)
 Simplest one is a multimode step-index optical fiber
 Multimode = multiple paths, whereas step-index = refractive index
follows a step-function profile (i.e. an abrupt change of refractive index
between the core and the cladding)
 Light bounces back and forth along the core
 Common light sources: LEDs and lasers

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 Advantages of fiber optic cables:
 Noise resistance ― external light is blocked by outer jacket
 Less signal attenuation ― a signal can run for miles without regeneration
(currently, the lowest measured loss is about ~4% or 0.16dB per km)
 Higher bandwidth ― currently, limits on data rates come from the signal
generation/reception technology, not the fiber itself
 Disadvantages of fiber optic cables:
 Cost ― Optical fibers are expensive
 Installation/maintenance ― any crack in the core will degrade the signal,
and all connections must be perfectly aligned

 Fundamental networks:

 Local Area Networks (LANs):


 A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small
geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings
 Usually one kind of technology throughout the LAN
 Serve a department within an organization
 Examples:
 Network inside the Student Computer Room
 Network inside your home
 Wide Area Networks (WANs):
 Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad
area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan,
regional, or national boundaries). Or, less formally, a network that uses
routers and public communications links
 The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.
 WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so
that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and
computers in other locations
 Examples:
 Network of our Campus
 Internet

 Example WAN technologies:


 ISDN – Integrated Service Digital Network
Basic rate: 192 Kbps Primary rate: 1.544Mbps
 T-Carriers ― basically digital phone lines
1: 1.544Mbps T3: 28T1

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 Frame relay
Each link offers 1.544Mbps or even higher
 ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Support B-ISDN: 155Mbps or 622Mbps or higher
 SONET – Synchronous Optical Network
Basic rate OC1: 51.84Mbps
 Support OC12 and up to OC192 (9953.28Mbps) or even higher in
the future
 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
 A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users
with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that
covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the
area covered by a wide area network (WAN).
 The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a
single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a
wide area network).
 It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks
by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes
referred to as a campus network.
 Peer-to-Peer Networks:
 Peer-to-peer network is also called workgroup
 No hierarchy among computers =all are equal
 No administrator responsible for the network

 Advantages of peer-to-peer networks:


o Low cost
o Simple to configure
o User has full accessibility of the computer
 Disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks:
o May have duplication in resources
o Difficult to uphold security policy

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o Difficult to handle uneven loading
 peer-to-peer network is appropriate At:
o 10 or less users
o No specialized services required
o Security is not an issue
o Only limited growth in the foreseeable future
 Client and Server:
 The terms "client" and "server" are used to describe individual computers
that are part of a network where computing resources and workload are
shared.
 A server is a computer that makes its resources available to the network
and responds to the commands of a client. The server‟s shared resources
can be files (a file server); printers (a print server); processing power (an
application server); etc…
 A client is a computer that uses the resources made available by a server.
The client must have sufficient processing power on its own to run
applications that interact with the resources on the server.
 It is possible, and quite common, for an individual computer to function as
both a client and a server.
 For example, if Bill queries a SQL Server database from his workstation
for the data he needs to create an Excel spreadsheet, then his workstation
is functioning as a client. However, if Sue then connects to Bill‟s
workstation from her computer and copies the spreadsheet, then Bill‟s
workstation is functioning as a server

 Network Topologies:

 A topology refers to the manner in which the cable is run to individual


workstations on the network.
 the configurations formed by the connections between devices on a local
area network (LAN) or between two or more LANs
 There are three basic network topologies (not counting variations thereon): the
bus, the star, and the ring.
 It is important to make a distinction between a topology and architecture.
 A topology is concerned with the physical arrangement of the network
components.
 In contrast, an architecture addresses the components themselves and how
a system is structured (cable access methods, lower level protocols,

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topology, etc.). An example of architecture is 10baseT Ethernet which
typically uses the star topology.

 Bus Topology:
 A bus topology connects each computer (node) to a single segment trunk.
 A „trunk‟ is a communication line, typically coax cable that is
referred to as the ‘bus.‟ The signal travels from one end of the bus
to the other.
 A terminator is required at each end to absorb the signal so it does
not reflect back across the bus.
 In a bus topology, signals are broadcast to all stations. Each computer
checks the address on the signal (data frame) as it passes along the bus. If
the signal‟s address matches that of the computer, the computer processes
the signal. If the address doesn‟t match, the computer takes no action and
the signal travels on down the bus.
 Only one computer can „talk‟ on a network at a time. A media access
method (protocol) called CSMA/CD is used to handle the collisions that
occur when two signals are placed on the wire at the same time.
 The bus topology is passive. In other words, the computers on the bus

simply „listen‟ for a signal; they are not responsible for moving the signal
along.
 A bus topology is normally implemented with coaxial cable.
 Advantages of bus topology:
 Easy to implement and extend
 Well suited for temporary networks that must be set up in a hurry
 Typically the cheapest topology to implement
 Failure of one station does not affect others
 Disadvantages of bus topology:
 Difficult to administer/troubleshoot
 Limited cable length and number of stations
 A cable break can disable the entire network; no redundancy
 Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run
 Performance degrades as additional computers are added

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 Star Topology:
 All of the stations in a star topology are connected to a central unit called
a hub.
 The hub offers a common connection for all stations on the
network. Each station has its own direct cable connection to the
hub. In most cases, this means more cable is required than for a
bus topology. However, this makes adding or moving computers a
relatively easy task; simply plug them into a cable outlet on the

wall.
 If a cable is cut, it only affects the computer that was attached to it. This
eliminates the single point of failure problem associated with the bus
topology. (Unless, of course, the hub itself goes down.)
 Star topologies are normally implemented using twisted pair cable,
specifically unshielded twisted pair (UTP). The star topology is probably
the most common form of network topology currently in use.
 Advantages of star topology:
 Easy to add new stations
 Easy to monitor and troubleshoot
 Can accommodate different wiring
 Disadvantages of star topology:
 Failure of hub cripples attached stations
 More cable required (more expensive to wire a building for networking)
 Ring Topology:
 A ring topology consists of a set of stations connected serially by cable. In
other words, it‟s a circle or ring of computers. There are no terminated
ends to the cable; the signal travels around the circle in a clockwise (or
anticlockwise) direction.
 Note that while this topology functions logically as ring, it is physically
wired as a star. The central connector is not called a hub but a Multistation

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Access Unit or MAU. (Don‟t confuse a Token Ring MAU with a „Media
Adapter Unit‟ which is actually a transceiver.)
 Under the ring concept, a signal is transferred sequentially via a "token"
from one station to the next. When a station wants to transmit, it "grabs"
the token, attaches data and an address to it, and then sends it around the
ring. The token travels along the ring until it reaches the destination
address. The receiving computer acknowledges receipt with a return
message to the sender. The sender then releases the token for use by
another computer.
 Each station on the ring has equal access but only one station can talk at a
time.

 In contrast to the „passive‟ topology of the bus, the ring employs an


„active’ topology. Each station repeats or ‟boosts‟ the signal before
passing it on to the next station.
 Rings are normally implemented using twisted pair or fiber-optic cable
 Advantages of ring topology:
 Growth of system has minimal impact on performance
 All stations have equal access
 Disadvantages of ring topology:
 Most expensive topology
 Failure of one computer may impact others
 Complex

 Choosing a Topology:
 The following factors should be considered when choosing a topology:
 Installation
 Maintenance and troubleshooting
 Expected growth
 Distances
 Infrastructure
 Existing network

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 As a general rule, a bus topology is the cheapest to install, but may be
more expensive to maintain because it does not provide for redundancy.
 Various topologies can be mixed on the same network.
 One very common example is a large Ethernet network with multiple
hubs. Usually the hubs are located on different floors in a building or
perhaps outside in another building. Each hub is wired in the typical star
configuration. However, the hubs are connected together along a bus,
typically referred to as a „backbone.‟
 The backbone between hubs might consist of fiber optic cable while the
workstations are wired to each individual hub with UTP (unshielded
twisted pair) cable.

 Media Access Methods:

 A media access method refers to the manner in which a computer gains and
controls access to the network‟s physical medium (e.g., cable).
 Common media access methods include the following:
 CSMA/CD
 CSMA/CA
 Token Passing
 One of the primary concerns with media access is how to prevent packets from
colliding when two or more computers try to transmit simultaneously. Each of the
methods listed above takes a different approach to this problem.
 Data transmitted over a network is sent one bit at a time. A bit is either a 1 or a 0
represented by a voltage change (on or off) or a light pulse. If two stations are
transmitting at the same time, it is possible that the signals may overlap, resulting
in garbled data. Such overlapping is referred to as a "collision."

 CSMA/CD:
 CSMA/CD stands for Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection. It is a media access method which means it defines how the
network places data on the cable and how it takes it off.
 CSMA/CD specifies how bus topologies such as Ethernet handle
transmission collisions. A collision occurs when two or more computers
transmit signals at the same time.
 "Carrier Sense" means that each station on the LAN continually
listens to (tests) the cable for the presence of a signal prior to
transmitting.

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 "Multiple Access" means that there are many computers
attempting to transmit and compete for the opportunity to send
data (i.e., they are in contention).
 "Collision Detection" means that when a collision is detected, the
stations will stop transmitting and wait a random length of time
before retransmitting.
 CSMA/CD works best in an environment where relatively fewer, longer
data frames are transmitted. This is in contrast to token passing which
works best with a relatively large amount of short data frames.
 Because CSMA/CD works to control or manage collisions rather than
prevent them, network performance can be degraded with heavy traffic.
The greater the traffic, the greater the number of collisions and
retransmissions.
 CSMA/CD is used on Ethernet networks.
 CSMA/CD Operation:
 A station that wishes to transmit on the network checks to see if the cable
is free.
 If the cable is free, the station starts transmitting.
 However, another station may have detected a free cable at the same
instant and also start transmitting. The result is a "collision."
 Once the collision is detected, all stations immediately stop transmitting.
 Stations then wait a random length of time before checking the cable and
then retransmit

 CSMA/CA:
 CSMA/CA stands for Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Avoidance and is a media access method very similar to CSMA/CD.
 The difference is that the CD (collision detection) is changed to CA
(collision avoidance). Instead of detecting and reacting to collisions,
CSMA/CA tries to avoid them by having each computer signal its
intention to transmit before actually transmitting. In effect, the
transmitting computer gives a 'heads up' prior to transmitting.
 Although CSMA/CA can prevent collisions, it comes with a cost in the
form of the additional overhead incurred by having each workstation
broadcast it's intention prior to transmitting. Thus, CSMA/CA is slower
than CSMA/CD.
 CSMA/CA is used on Apple networks and on WiFi (IEEE 802.11)
networks.

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 Token Passing:
 Token passing is a media access method by which collisions are
prevented.
 Collisions are eliminated under token passing because only a computer
that possesses a free token (a small data frame) is allowed to transmit. The
token passing method also allows different priorities to be assigned to
different stations on the ring. Transmissions from stations with higher
priority take precedence over stations with lower priority.
 Token passing works best in an environment where a relatively large
number of shorter data frames are being transmitted. (As opposed to
CSMA/CD which works best in an environment where relatively fewer,
longer data frames are being transmitted.)
 Token passing is used on Token Ring networks
 Token Passing Operation:
 A station that wishes to transmit on the network waits until it will receive
a free token.
 The sending station transmits its data with the token.
 The data travels to the recipient without stopping at other stations (it is just
relayed).
 The receiving station receives the data and returns the token to the sender
as an acknowledgment.
 The sender receives acknowledgment and releases the token to next
station.
 The token continues being passed along the ring until it is “seized" by the
next station that wants to transmit.

 Intranet and Internet Specifications:


 Intranet: An intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise.
It may consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in
the wide area network.
 An intranet uses TCP/IP, HTTP, and other Internet protocols and in general looks
like a private version of the Internet. With tunneling, companies can send private
messages through the public network, using the public network with special
encryption/decryption and other security safeguards to connect one part of their
intranet to another.
 Internet: is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network of networks
in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information
from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other
computers).

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 LAN Architectures:

 Network architecture refers to the manner in which the hardware and software is
structured. The architecture includes the cable access method (transmission),
topology, and lower level protocols.
 The most common types of LAN architectures are Ethernet and Token Ring
 These architectures are sometimes referred to as "lower-level protocols" because
they represent the specifications for the IEEE802 model which encompasses the
physical (1st) and data link (2nd) layers of the OSI model (to be discussed latter)
 Ethernet:
 Ethernet is a popular, relatively inexpensive, easy-to-install LAN
architecture with the following characteristics:
 Uses the CSMA/CD media access control.
 Data transmission normally occurs at 100 Mbps (10Mbps in the
early forms and 10Gbps in the most recent forms).
 Typically implemented in a star topology (early versions used bus
topology as well).
 Ethernet LANs are normally distinguished by the type of cable
they use Twisted Pair (Thinnet or Thicknet were also used in the
past).
 The Ethernet architecture conforms to most but not all of the IEEE 802.3
specification (the physical layers are identical but the MAC layers are
somewhat different).
 An Ethernet LAN is often described in terms of three parameters:
transmission rate, transmission type, and segment distance or cable type.
 "100baseT" means:
o 100 - transmission rate or through put of 100Mbps
o base - transmission type is baseband rather than broadband
network (i.e., the signal is placed directly on the cable, one
signal at a time)
o T – the cable type (e.g. Twisted pair)
 Few types of Ethernet: 10Base2, 10Base5, 10BaseT and 10BaseF,
100BaseT, 100BaseF, etc..
 Token Ring:
 Token ring is a relatively expensive LAN architecture that is strongly
influenced by IBM. It is very stable and can be expanded without a
significant degradation in network performance.
 Token ring uses the token passing media access control. Data transmission
normally occurs at 4 or 16 Mbps depending on the cable.

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 Token ring is normally implemented in a logical ring/physical star
topology with a MAU (Multistation Access Unit) as the hub. The
maximum number of stations on one ring is 260 for shielded twisted pair
and 72 for unshielded twisted pair (UTP). There can be up to 33 MAUs
per ring.
 Token Ring LANs normally use shielded twisted pair (STP) but may also
use unshielded twisted pair (UTP) or fiber-optic cable. The maximum
distance to the MAU from the workstation depends on the cable and varies
from 45 meters for UTP to 100 meters for STP.
 The Token Ring architecture conforms generally to the IEEE’s 802.5
specification
 Connecting Networks:

 Repeater: Extends a network


 Bridge: Connects two compatible networks, doesn‟t necessarily pass all the
messages across the connection

 Switch: Connect several compatible networks, allowing it to connect several


busses rather than two.

 When networks are connected via repeaters, bridges or switches, the result is a
single large network.
 The entire system operates in the same way as the original smaller networks
 Sometimes the networks to be connected have incompatible characteristics (e.g.
WiFi network to be connected with Ethernet network, etc..).
 When building networks of networks, the system is known as internet (note the
small “i”, term that is distinct from the Internet – which refers to a particular
worldwide internet).

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 Router: Connects two incompatible networks resulting in a network of networks
– internet.
 Routers are highly intelligent devices that connect multiple network types
and determine the best path for sending data.
 The advantage of using a router over a bridge is that routers can determine
the best path that data can take to get to its destination.
 Like bridges, they can segment large networks and can filter out noise.
 However, they are slower than bridges because they are more intelligent
devices; as such, they analyze every packet, causing packet-forwarding
delays. Because of this intelligence, they are also more expensive.
 Routers are normally used to connect one LAN to another.
 Typically, when a WAN is set up, there will be at least two routers used.

 Routers and internet addressing:


 Routers purpose is to route (forward messages) in their proper directions.
 The forwarding process is based on an internet wide addressing system
which all the machines in the internet (including the machines in the
original networks as well as the routers) are assigned unique addresses.
 Thus each machine in an internet has two addresses: its original local
address within its own network and the internet address
 A machine wanting to send a message to a machine in a distant network, it
will attach the internet address of the destination and will direct the
message to its local router. From there it is forwarded to the proper
direction (based on a
forwarding table
maintained by the router).
 ISO/OSI Model:

 The International Standards


Organization (ISO) Open Systems
Interconnect (OSI) is a standard

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set of rules describing the transfer of data between each layer in a network
operating system. Each layer has a specific function (i.e. the physical layer deals
with the electrical and cable specifications)
 The OSI Model clearly defines the interfaces between each layer. This allows
different network operating systems and protocols to work together by having
each manufacturer adhere to the standard interfaces. The application of the ISO
OSI model has allowed the modern networks that exist today. There are seven
layers in the OSI model
 The Physical Layer
 Establishes the physical characteristics of the network (e.g., the type of
cable, connectors, length of cable, etc.)
 Defines the electrical characteristics of the signals used to transmit the
data (e.g. signal voltage swing, duration of voltages, etc.)
 Transmits the binary data (bits) as electrical or optical signals depending
on the medium.
 The Data Link Layer
 Defines how the signal will be placed on or taken off the NIC. The data
frames are broken down into individual bits that can be translated into
electric signals and sent over the network. On the receiving side, the bits
are reassembled into frames for processing by upper levels.
 Error detection and correction is also performed at the data link layer. If
an acknowledgement is expected and not received, the frame will be
resent. Corrupt data is also identified at the data link layer.
 Because the Data-Link Layer is very complex, it is sometimes divided into
sublayers (as defined by the IEEE 802 model). The lower sublayer
provides network access. The upper sublayer is concerned with sending
and receiving packets and error checking.
 The Network Layer
 Primarily concerned with addressing and routing. Logical addresses (e.g.,
an IP address) are translated into physical addresses (i.e., the MAC
address) for transmission at the network layer. On the receiving side, the
translation process is reversed.
 It is at the network layer where the route from the source to destination
computer is determined. Routes are determined based on packet addresses
and network conditions. Traffic control measures are also implemented at
the network layer.
 The Transport Layer
 On the sending side, messages are packaged for efficient transmission and
assigned a tracking number so they can be reassembled in proper order.

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On the receiving side, the packets are reassembled, checked for errors and
acknowledged.
 Performs error handling in that it ensures all data is received in the proper
sequence and without errors. If there are errors, the data is retransmitted
 The Session Layer
 Is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and terminating a connection
called a 'session'.
 A session is an exchange of messages between computers (a dialog).
Managing the session involves synchronization of user tasks and dialog
control (e.g., who transmits and for how long). Synchronization involves
the use of checkpoints in the data stream. In the event of a failure, only the
data from the last checkpoint has to be resent.
 Logon, name recognition and security functions take place at the Session
Layer.
 The Presentation Layer
 It is responsible for data translation (formatting), compression, and
encryption.
 The Presentation Layer is primarily concerned with translation;
interpreting and converting the data from various formats. For example,
EBCIDIC characters might be converted into ASCII. It is also where data
is compressed for transmission and uncompressed on receipt. Encryption
techniques are implemented at the Presentation Layer.
 The redirector operates at the presentation layer by redirecting I/O
operations across the network.
 The Application Layer
 Provides the operating system with direct access to network services.
 It serves as the interface between the user and the network by providing
services that directly support user applications.
 Each layer may add a Header and a Trailer to its Data (which consists of the next
higher layer's Header, Trailer and Data as it moves through the layers). The
Headers contain information that specifically addresses layer-to-layer
communication. For example, the Transport Header (TH) contains information
that only the Transport layer sees. All other layers below the Transport layer pass
the Transport Header as part of their Data.

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 TCP/IP Protocols:

 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP):


 Creates a reliable connection between two computers. TCP is one of the
main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only
with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and
exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also
guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they
were sent.
 User Datagram Protocol (UDP):
 Does not establish a connection, just sends messages.
 A connectionless protocol that, like TCP, runs on top of IP networks.
Unlike TCP/IP, UDP/IP provides very few error recovery services,
offering instead a direct way to send and receive datagrams over an IP
network. It's used primarily for broadcasting messages over a network.

 Internet Protocol (IP):


 Provides addressing scheme.. IP specifies the format of packets, also
called datagrams, and the addressing scheme. Most networks combine IP
with a higher-level protocol called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP),
which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source.
 IP by itself is something like the postal system. It allows you to address a
package and drop it in the system, but there's no direct link between you
and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a connection
between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a
period of time.

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 The current version of IP is IPv4. A new version, called IPv6 or IPng, is
under development.
 TCP/IP applications:
 The highest-level protocols within the TCP/IP protocol stack are
application protocols. They communicate with applications on other
internet hosts and are the user-visible interface to the TCP/IP protocol
suite. All application protocols have some characteristics in common:
 They can be user-written applications or applications standardized and
shipped with the TCP/IP product. Indeed, the TCP/IP protocol suite
includes application protocols such as:
– Telnet for interactive terminal access to remote internet hosts
– File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for high-speed disk-to-disk file
transfers
– Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) as an internet mailing
system
 These are some of the most widely implemented application protocols, but
many others exist. Each particular TCP/IP implementation will include a
lesser or greater set of application protocols.
 They use either UDP or TCP as a transport mechanism. Remember that
UDP is unreliable and offers no flow-control, so in this case, the
application has to provide its own error recovery, flow control, and
congestion control functionality. It is often easier to build applications on
top of TCP because it is a reliable stream, connection-oriented,
congestion-friendly, flow control-enabled protocol. As a result, most
application protocols will use TCP, but there are applications built on
UDP to achieve better performance through increased protocol
efficiencies.
 Most applications use the client/server model of interaction.

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OSI vs. TCP/IP

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References:
• Andrew S. Tanenbaum – Computer Networks, ISBN: 0-13066102-3

• J Glenn Brookshear “Computer Science – An Overview”, ISBN: 0-321-54428-5

• Stallings W., “Data and Computer Communications”, Prentice Hall, 7th Ed., 2004

• Forouzan B. A, “Data Communications and Networking”, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Ed., 2000

• TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview by International Technical Support


Organization.

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ASSIGNMENT –
 SPREAD SPECTRUM

 Definition Of Spread Spectrum:


o “A transmission technique in which thepseudo0code independent of information
data is employed as a modulation waveform to spread the signal energy over
bandwidth much greater than the signal information bandwidth; At receiver it is
despread using replica synchronization of pseudo-code”

o And though spread spectrum radios are often views as one "type" of radio, few people
realize that under FCC regulations, two types of spread spectrum radios are allowed –
 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Radios (DSSS)
 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Radios (FHSS).

 Sorting out the differences between these two types of spread spectrum radios will
hopefully. Clarify why each type plays a different role in terms of application and
function.

 A spread-spectrum transmission offers three main advantages over a


fixed-frequency transmission:

1. Spread-spectrum signals are highly resistant to narrowband interference. The process


of re-collecting a spread signal spreads out the interfering signal, causing it to recede
into the background.
2. Spread-spectrum signals are difficult to intercept. An FHSS signal simply appears as
an increase in the background noise to a narrowband receiver. An eavesdropper
would only be able to intercept the transmission if the pseudorandom sequence was
known.
3. Spread-spectrum transmissions can share a frequency band with many types of
conventional transmissions with minimal interference. The spread-spectrum signals
add minimal noise to the narrow-frequency communications, and vice versa. As a
result, bandwidth can be utilized more efficiently.

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 DIRECT SEQUENCE SPREAD SPECTRUM (DSSS)

 Just like a fixed frequency radio, a DSSS radio starts with a data packet that it is required
to send. But instead of sending that data as a "narrow band" signal, the DSSS generates a
15, 63 or 127 bit pseudo random code word for every bit in that packet and then
combines these code words with the packet by multiplying them together.
 These code words spread the "narrow" data being sent across a much wider bandwidth
than would normally be required. The result is a signal with lower power density,
stretched across a wide bandwidth waiting for a receiver to find it.

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 At the DSSS receiver, the same spreading code is reapplied to the spread received power
signal once it is found and the wideband signal is narrowed. The data is retrieved intact
because the spreading process is independent of the data and when the spreading is
cancelled; the data is left in its original state.
 The data has moved from a narrow state, to a wide one, and back to narrow. The nature
of this process enables data to be moved through the DSSS radio very quickly, and in
terms of security, the radio signal essentially hides amidst the "background noise,"
undetectable.
 When a narrowband interfering signal enters the wide low power signal's bandwidth it
enters the system after the transmitter, but before the receiver, it passes though only one
spreading code generator and is therefore spread by the same code that is de-spreading
the original data.

 If the original data signal is stronger than the interference, the spreading of the interfering
signal by the receiver‟s code generator is rejected in favor of the more powerful narrowed
data signal and 100% of the data gets through. The DSSS has overcome its interference.

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But when the strength of the interfering signal exceeds that of the original data signal by
some margin (depending on the radio's process gain or upper jamming margin), errors
occur repeatedly and data throughput of the DSSS radio ceases.

 The process gain of the original data signal can be increased somewhat by bumping up
the length of the spreading code. But in the end, as the power of the interfering signal
increases, a threshold is reached and the radio fails immediately and without warning.
 This can obviously be troublesome in an industrial workplace full of powerful interferers.
It should be noted that this process applies to narrowband interferers and it is interesting
to point out that a DSSS system has no effect on wideband interferers or common
broadband noise. The de-spreader in the DSSS simply rearranges the random wideband
signals with the result being equally wide and equally random.
 So then, how does the other spread spectrum radio overcome or tolerate interference, and
what, if any advantages does it have over the DSSS which dies when the interference in
its bandwidth exceeds what it can filter out, similar to the fixed frequency radio?

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 FREQUENCY HOPPING SPREAD SPECTRUM (FHSS)

 With a FHSS, the complexity and ability to tolerate interference does not rely on the
spreading and dispreading of the data signal (like it does with a DSSS), but with the
hopping synchronization of an unaltered, narrow data signal.
 In a nutshell, the FHSS is a narrow band fixed frequency radio - but only for an instant -
then it hopes to become another fixed frequency radio on another channel, and then
another, and another, and so on. And it has plenty of room to hop. The 902-928 MHz
ISM frequency band, for example, is wide enough to hold the equivalent of
approximately 1000 separate, licensed narrowband radios.
 An OMNEX FHSS Hop Link hops in a pseudo-random pattern around the frequency
band, updating the receiver with its small packet of data over at least 50 different
frequencies before repeating its hopping sequence.
 On those occasions when the Hop Link does encounter a significant interfering signal on
a frequency it has hopped to, it detects an error and that transmitted packet is discarded.
The hopping sequence continues and the data updates resume. In other words, an
interfering signal can knock one packet out of a FHSS radio's hop pattern, but the rest of
the updates get through, no matter how powerful that narrowband interferer becomes.

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 Hopping in this fashion, each FHSS packet has the unique characteristic and advantage of
being a small moving target, and herein lies the key to the FHSSs ability to tolerate
interference.
 The radio accepts the fact that some packets will be knocked out, but because it's hopping
across such a wide bandwidth, throughput will not cease unless the entire ISM frequency
band is jammed. This enables the FHSS to reliably transmit small redundant messages
(level, flow, pressure, temperature, alarm, etc.) through areas of heavy interference, even
if the strength and size of individual interferers increases.
 This is quite different from the DSSS, which maintains error-free transmission of its data
until one interferer exceeds its jamming margin, at which point the throughput of the
DSSS quickly drops to zero… not at all appropriate for mission critical industrial I/O.

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 TUTORIAL SUMMARY
 In summary, what are the effects of interference on the various forms of radios available
to the industrial user?
 Narrowband licensed radios cease to operate when interference, typically in the order of
one-tenth the strength of the original desired signal, enters the frequency band this radio
operates in. The radio "dies" because it cannot move away.
 In a low to medium interference environment - one in which the interfering signal
strength is below the jamming margin of the DSSS - 100% of the direct sequence
message will get through, whereas the frequency hopper will experience packet losses
due to the interference. In this case, the direct sequence radio is a good choice for large
packet messages, similar to those sent by LAN radios used in offices to link PC's.
 In heavy interference environments - one in which the interfering signals exceed the
jamming margin of the DSSS - the direct sequence radio will cease to work, whereas the
frequency-hopper will continue to function until the entire ISM frequency band is
jammed, a very unlikely scenario.
 Here the frequency hopper is the perfect choice for small packet redundant data, such as
alarm and emergency stop signals, because although a few packets are lost, the rest get
through.
 To dispel a common misconception, FHSS radios do not avoid interference, they tolerate
it. Each packet is error checked and when interference is encountered, the affected packet
is not processed.
 As the hopping pattern continues, the radio moves along its sequence looking for the next
packet to get through cleanly, at which time the good data is output. Slow and steady,
FHSS radios are the obvious choice for moving short packet, redundant industrial I/O, for
example, temperature, level, pressure and flow.

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