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FLUID

MACHINES:
Rotary Pumps
Marcelino N. Lunag Jr.
Topic Level Outcomes (TLO’s)

• To calculate the volumetric efficiency and power


requirement of Rotary pumps.
• To be familiar with the types of rotary pumps
Review:
PDP pumps (review)

They are based purely on mechanical concepts,


since the liquid is displaced by a gear system
rotating in closed housing (gear pump) or a piston
(plunger) moving in a cylinder (reciprocating
pump).
It discharges a definite quantity of liquid (apart
from any leakage) irrespective to head on pump,
hence, there is a positive displacement.
Reciprocating Pump
(review)
Rotary Pumps

• These are displacement pumps that deliver a


steady flow by the action of two members in
rotational contact.
• They are used for low discharge, low head
operation and for pumping viscous liquid like
oil.
• The majority of these types are capable of
handling only a clean solution essentially free
of solids.
• The designs using rubber or plastic parts for the
pressure device can handle some suspended
particles.
• In general, these pumps handle materials of a wide
range of viscosity (up to 500,000 SSU), and can
develop quite high pressures (over 1000 psi).
• Additionally, the units can handle some vapor or
dissolved gases mixed with the liquid being pumped.
• The capacity is generally low per unit, and at times,
they are used for metering. For specific performance
characteristics of any type consult the appropriate
manufacturer.
• These pumps are low in cost, require
small space, and are self priming.
• Some can be rotated in either direction,
have close clearances, require
overpressure-relief protection on
discharge due to positive displacement
action, and have low volumetric efficiency
Classifications of Rotary Pumps

• A. SINGLE ROTOR- • B.MULTI-ROTOR


TYPE TYPE
• 1.Vane pump • 1. Gear type
• 2.Piston Pumps • 2. Lobe type
• 3.Flexible member • 3. Circumferential
type Piston type
• 4.Screw type • 4. Screw type
• 5.Peristaltic type
pumps
Gear pump

• It is a rotary pump in which two meshing gear


wheels operate in opposite directions so that
the liquid is entrained on one side and
discharged on the other side.
Applications
• Various fuel oils and lube oils
• Chemical additive and polymer metering
• Chemical mixing and blending (double pump)
• Industrial and mobile hydraulic applications (log
splitters, lifts,
• etc.)
• Acids and caustic (stainless steel or composite
construction)
• Low volume transfer or application
• Lubrication pumps in machine tools
• Fluid power transfer units and oil pumps in engines
Gear pump Calculations
Example Problem
• A gear pump has a 3 in outside diam and
a 2 in inside diam with a 1 in width of
teeth. If actual pump flows at 1800 rpm
and at a rated pressure is 28 gal/min.
Determine its volumetric efficiency.
Two Lobe rotary pump
• Two-lobe Rotary Pump
– (gear pump with two “teeth” on each gear)
– same principle as gear pump
– fewer chambers - more extreme pulsation

trapped fluid
Volume flow rate thru Two lobe
rotary pump
• A two-lobe rotary positive-displacement pump,
similar to that of Figure, moves 0.45 cm3 of
SAE 30 motor oil in each lobe volume V lobe,
as sketched. Calculate the volume flow rate of
oil for the case where N= 900 rpm.
APPLICATIONS
• Polymers
• Paper coatings
• Soaps and surfactants
• Paints and dyes
• Rubber and adhesives
• Pharmaceuticals
• Food applications
Screw pump

• Can handle debris


• Used to raise the level of wastewater
• Abrasive material will damage the seal
between screw and the housing
• Grain augers use the same principle
Applications
• chemical-processing
• liquid delivery
• marine
• biotechnology
• pharmaceutical
• food, dairy, and beverage processing.
• fuel-injection
• oil burners
• lubrication
Cam pump
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
OF ROTARY PUMPS
• Flow proportional to speed and almost
independent of pressure differential.
• Internal slip reduces efficiency, and increases
with pressure and decreasing viscosity.
• Entrained gases reduce liquid capacity and
cause pulsations.
• Brake horsepower varies directly with pressure
and speed.
• For speed and pressure constant, BHP varies
directly with viscosity.
Liquid displacement (with gas)
Volume displaced (without gas)
Pump power output (WHP)
SELECTION OF ROTARY
PUMPS
• Suction and discharge heads are
determined the same way as for centrifugal
pumps. Total head and capacity are used in
selecting the proper rotary pump from a
manufacturer's data or curves. Since
viscosity is quite important in the selection
of these pumps, it is sometimes better to
select a larger pump running at low speeds
than a smaller pump at high speeds when
dealing with viscous materials.
• As a general guide, speed is reduced to
25–35% below rating for each tenfold
increase in viscosity above 1000 SSU.
Generally, the mechanical efficiency of the
pump is decreased 10% for each tenfold
increase in viscosity above 1000 SSU, and
referenced to a maximum efficiency of
55% at this point.
Example/Seat work
• Determine the actual volume displacement
in GPM of a gear rotary pump whose
characteristics are mentioned in the
previous example above. The pump is
located 5000 ft above sea level with gage
pressure measured to be 40 kpag.
Moreover, 10 percent of gas was
entrained.
Assignment

• Determine the volume displaced and its


power requirement without gas entrained
in a two lobe rotary pump with
characteristics same at the problem
mentioned above. Slip percentage is 2%.
Pump trouble shooting
• Pump Troubleshooting Chart

Trouble Symptom Key to Causes

Pump fails to discharge 1,2,3,4,6,7,12

Pump discharges then stops 4,8,9,10,11

Pump not up to capacity 1,2,4,7,8,12,13,15

Pump noisy or vibrates 7,11,12,14,16,17,18,19,23

Pump takes too much power 5,14,17,20,21,22,24


Trouble Causes
1 Suction or discharge valve closed
2 Direction of rotation wrong
3 Lift too high
4 Supply level low
5 Supply level high
6 Pump not primed
7 Blocked lines
8 Leaks in stuffing box
9 Leaks in suction line
10 Vents blocked
11 Air or vapor in liquid
12 Impeller or rotor damaged
13 Speed to low
14 Misalignment
15 Pump worn or excessive clearance
16 Shaft bent
17 Binding of rotating elements
18 Cavitation

19 Worn or defective pump or motor bearings


20 Motor undersize
21 Specific gravity changed
22 Viscosity changed
23 Relief valve chattering
24 Stuffing box tight