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BRICK

ARCHITECTURE

In

Ancient Egypt

A. J. SPENCER

ARIS & PHILLIPS Ltd.


WARMINSTER, WILTS, ENGLAND.
CONTENTS

Abbreviations iv
Preface v
Introduction I

Part I

Chapter One: BRICK MANUFACTURE 3


Chapter Two: THE EARLIEST USE OF BRICK IN EGYPT 5
Chapter Thr ee: THE BONDING CORPUS 7

Part II

Chapter Four : FUNE~RY ARCIDTECTURE 10


Chapter Five: RELIGIOUS ARCIDT ECTURE 59
Chapter Six: ADMINISTRATIVE AND OFFICIAL BUILDINGS 83
Chapter Seven: DOMESTIC ARCHITE CTURE 94
Chapter Eight : FORTRESSES AND DEF ENSIVE TOWN WALLS 104

Part III

Chapter Nine: BRICK WALLS 112


Chapter Ten: FLOORS AND FOUNDATIONS 119
Chapter Eleven: ARCHES, VAULTS, DOMES AND CORBELS 123
Chapter Twelve: SOLID BRICK CONSTRUCTION IN MASTABAS AND PYRAMIDS 128
Chapter Thi rt een : SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS IN BRICK CONSTRUCTION 130
Chapter Fourteen: BONDING 136
Chapter Fifteen: SPECIAL BRICKS 140
Chapter Sixteen: BRICK SIZES 147

Appendix I: Metrology of Egyptian Brickwork 149

Indexes 152

Plates 162
ABBREVIATIONS

I. Literary

ASAE Annales du Service des Antiquites de L 'Egypte.


BIFAO Bulletin de l'In stitut fran cais D'Archeologie Orientale.
BMMA Bulletin of th e Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, N ew York.
Bresciani, Medin et MOOi Bresciani, E., Missioni di Scavo aMedin et Madi [Fayu m -Egitto] .
Rapporto Preliminare delle Campagn e di Scavo 1966 e 1 96 7.
BSFE Bulletin de la Societe franco ise d 'Egyptologie.
CdE Chronique d 'Egypte.
CRAIBL Com p tes rendus de L 'Academie des In scription es et B elles Lettres.
De Bock, Materiaux . . . Arch chret. De Bock, W., Materiaux po ur servir iI l'archeologie de l'Egypte
chretienne.
Gabra, Hermopolis Ouest. Gabra, 5., Fouilles de l'Universite Foua d el-A wal iI Hermop olis
Ouest [To una el-Gebe l).
E.M H. HOlscher, U., Th e Excavatio n of Medin et Habu , vols. 1- V.
JARCE Journal of the American R esearch Center in Egy pt.
JEA Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.
Jequier , G., Con tem porains de Pepi II. Jequier, G., Tombeaux de particuliers contem porains de Pepi II.
JNES Journal ofN ear Eastern Studies.
LD. Lepsius, C. R., Den kmiil er aus Aegypten undAethiopien. Abt. I-VI.
LD.T. Lepsius, C. R., Denkmiiler aus A egypten und A ethiopien; Text,
I-V. Edited by E. Naville, L Borchardt and K. Sethe.
Maragioglio and Rinaldi, Piramidi Menfite Maragioglio, V. & Rinaldi, C., L 'Architettura delle Piramidi Menfite.
MDIK Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archdologisch en Instituts Abteilung
Kairo.
MDO G
Mitteilungen der Deutsch en Orient-Gesellschaft.
MMAF Mem oires de la Mission Arch eologiqu e fran qaise au Caire.
Petrie , R oyal Tombs. Petrie, W. M. F., Th e R oy al Tomhs of th e First Dy nasty, I and
R oy al Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, [I.
PM Porter, B. and Moss, R.L.B., Topographical Bibliography ofAncient
Egy ptian Hieroglyphic Texts, R eliefs and Paintings.
PMJ Pennsylvania University Museums Journal
PSBA Proceedings of the Society ofBiblical Archaeology .
R ec. Trav. a
R ecueil de Travaux relatifs iI la philologie et l 'archeologie
egyptiennes et assyriennes.
RdE R evue d'Egyptologie;
Ricke, Hughes and Wente, Beit el-Wali Ricke, H., Hughes, G.R. and Wente, E.F., Th e Beit el-Wali T em ple
of Ramesses ll.
Ricke and Sauneron, Elephantine. Ricke, H. and Sauneron, 5., Die Tempel N ektanebos II in
Elephan tine und ihre Erwei te rungen.
Tytus, Palace of Amenhotep III. Tytu s, R. de P., Preliminary R eport on th e R e-excavation of th e
Palace ofA m enho tep III at Malqata.
Wb. Erman, A. and Grapow, H., Wiirterbu ch der Agyptische Sprache,
(5 vols.)
ZA S Ze itschrif t fiir .ifgyptische Sprache un d Altertu mskunde.

II. Other Convent ions

encI. Enclosure.
H Headers (in char ts).
M.K. Middle Kingdom.
N.K. New Kingdom.
O.K. Old Kingdom.
5 Stretchers (in char ts).
T Temple (in charts).

iv
PREF ACE

The aim of this book is to give a detailed account of the brick architecture of Ancient Egypt
-'= ~ to examine the constructional techniques which were employed to overcome individual
!:":hitectural problems. The study is divided into three parts: Part One is concerned with a number
_=general points, and contains chapters on brick manufacture and the early use of brick in Egypt,
...: well as an explanation of the Corpus of brick bonding systems. In Part Two an account of the
surviving brick monuments of Egypt is given, with special reference to technical and structural
ccnsiderations. This section is divided into chapters dealing with different types of buildings , and
:::e information gathered together provides the basis of the conclusions of this book. The conclusions
zre stated in Part Three , and largely consist of an examination of the constructional techniques
e=';Jloyed at different periods for various purposes, such as the building of walls, floors, foundations
~5 other structures. A discussion of the kinds of brick used, the bonding and the brick sizes is also
~ :lude d.

The information contained in this study has been derived in part from published sources and
" 5{j from observations made on site. The sources of the published information are stated in the
zc res: where facts are given without references the details were obtained by personal study in Egypt.
-=-':e brick buildings of Nubia have, for the most part, been excluded from detailed examination,
!:OJ are mentioned only in cases where they serve to illuminate the description of Egyptian monuments
~.- providing comparative material. In similar fashion, Coptic architecture is used only briefly to
zms trate the later trends in Egyptian brickwork, some features of which are already appearing in
?~o!e m aic and Roman structures.

For assistance in the preparation of this study I am grateful to Professor H. W. Fairman,


. K. A. Kitchen, Mme. F. de Cenival and Dr. B. V. Bothmer. My thanks are also due to the
= itt ee of the Egypt Exploration Society, for allowing me to use unpublished material from
" ',ci; excavations, and to Aris and Phillips Ltd ., for und ertaking the publication of this work in its
~ . ese n t form.
I:\TRODUCTION

Of all the sur viving monumen ts of Ancien t Egypt, the most famous are the great sto ne pyr ami ds of Giza , and the
sto ne-built temples at Luxor , Abyd os, Den dera and Edfu , These grea t works, prom oted by th e powerful forces of
fun erary belief or religion, were intended to last for ever, and consequently made use o f the most enduring materials
with little regard for expense or labour. However, the vast majority of Ancient Egyptian building was cons tructed more
rapidly and econom ically by the ext ensive use of sun -d ried bric k as the major material. A considerable am ou nt of this
bric k architecture still survives, but it is only a fraction of which must have once exis ted . Entire citi es have disappeared,
.eavin g only the templ e sta nd ing, a fact which has led t o a rather one-sided view of Ancient Egyp tian life . Brick build in gs
in Egypt will last for th ousands of years when buried in sand , but once exposed, suffer rapidly from the effects of wind
and rain. Blown sand quickly erodes away the soft mud-brick walls, and the occasional rain sto rms wash the bricks into
mud. In add itio n to this natural decay, th e brick buil din gs in Egypt have suffered grea tly fro m th e activities of th e
sebbakhin , who destroy the ruins for the sake of the nit rogenous earth of which they are composed. Even archaeologists,
working in the late Ninetee nth o r early Twentieth century, have tended to treat the excavation of brick buildings with
less care than they ap plied to the stone monument s. For example , th e enti re town whic h surroun ded the temple of
Dend era was cleared away witho ut record, in order to open up the temple , and a similar clearance was made at Edfu,
during restoration work on the temp le of Horus. J Few excavato rs have tho ught it worth while to record details of
orick bo nd ing, and the brick sizes h ave been neglect ed by man y .
Fortunately , this lack of work on brick architecture is not universal, and some excellent studies have been made on
th e subject by certain archaeologists. The most important of these contributions is that of a .H. Myers, 2 who devised
.! system o f recording the arrangements utilized in the various brick bonds by means of a Corpus, the essential features
of which are retai ned in t he revised and ex tended Cor pu s of brick bo nds given-in thi s study. Some of th e older Egypt-
ological publica tio ns have at tem pt ed to deal ex te nsively with th e subject of bri ck archite ct ure, an examp le bein g L 'Art
l e Batir chez les Egypt/ens, by A. Cho isy , which app eared as lon g ago as 1904. Unfo rt un ately thi s boo k, wh ilst it
contains some points of value, inclu des a fair amount of informati on which is inaccurate or over-simplified. The tendency
:0 over-simplify and to generalize concerning brick architecture also occurs in o ther publications, so that it is possible for
:hree separat e authoritie s, dra wing t he co nst ructional details of the same buil din g, (the bri ck vaults at the Ramesseum )
:0 produce th ree entirely different diagrams.' Howe ver , at th e prese nt day the positi on is mu ch improved , and many
mo re exc avators are including details of brickwork, in additionto o ther-techiti"cal analyses, as a regular feature of their
excavation reports. Neve rthe less, th e reporting co uld be furthe r imp roved , and ide ally I would lik e to see the foll owin g
details of brick buildings recorded as a matter of course, and other aspects o f the excavation described to a similar
stan dard:
I. The co mpos ition of th e bricks , and whet he r bu rnt or un burnt .
2. The dimensions of the bricks.
3. The bonding, pr efer abl y descri bed by means of a Corp us of bonds.
4. The distribution of any reed-m atting or tim ber tie-bea ms in the brickwork.
5. The nature of the mortar.
6. Det ails of any plaster.
7. Whe ther stamped bricks occur.
8. Any special usages, or bricks of special form.
My own study of the brick architecture of Egypt is intended to conside r in de tail the technical asp ects of brick
construction, and matters which do no t relate to the structure o f the buildings are, in the majority o f cases, not included
The individua l mon um ents are describ ed in Chapte rs 4 to 8, to illust rate the wid espread use of bri ck and the methods used
in vario us types of buil dings. Th ese chapters contain a body of infor mati on which must for m th e basis of any work on
Egyptian brickwork, comprising the facts which have been recovered from the excavation and study of the surviving
monuments. Since this informatio n has, up till now, been scatte red in excavation reports and other publications, I feel
that it is valuable to assemble it in o ne place so that the evidence concerning the techni ques o f Egyptian brickwork is
readily available. In the later chapters, the conclusions based on this material are stated, in an exa mination of the construc-
tion of particular archit ectu ral features. These conclusions, especially those concerned with brick sizes and bonding, have
value in esta blish ing the dat e to which vario us st ruct ures belon g, and it is t o be hoped th at the y will be im prove d by
further work on the subject.
1. Barsanti, A. , A SA E 8 (19 0 7) , 22 4-232.
2. Mond, R. & Myers, o.u, The B ucheurn; 1, 4 7 - 9 & Ill, Pis. CXII-CX V.
3. L,D. , I, 89 ; Baralae, E., ASA E 8 ( 19 07 ), 19 8-20 0 : Cho isy , A., L 'A r t de Battr ch ez tes Eg yp tie ns, 44 -5.
CHAPTER ONE: BRICK MANUFA CTURE

The mat erials used in makin g br icks in Ancient Egypt were Nile mu d, cho pped straw and sand. The se wer e mixed
in vary ing quantities to produ ce bricks of different characteristics. Th e co mm onest type of brick co nsists of mu d and
cho pped st raw with a small ad dition of sand, but variet ies regularly occur which are made up of nothing but sand and
gravelly desert soil.
The whole process of brick maki ng in Pharaonic Egypt was so similar to that used to day th at a full descri ption of
th e stages of production can be given.
Wet Nile mud is mixed with cho pped st raw and sand, pu shed into a wood en mou ld, and smo othed by hand. Th e
brickmaker th en loosens the mould fro m the brick and lifts it off t o leave the wet bri ck up on th e ground. Thi s proc ess
is repeated until th e who le area is co vered with nea t rows of bricks, with only the thickness of th e frame of the mould
be tween each. TI,e bricks are left to dry for abo ut thr ee days before beIng turn ed over, and by the end of a week they
are firm en ough to be stacked in a heap. Th e pure Nile mud shr inks by over 30% in drying, bu t th e sand and straw in
the bricks preve nt the formation of cr acks. Experiments with brickrn akin g in modern times have sho wn th at th e best
mixture of th e co ns tituents is one cubic metr e of mud with one-th ird of that amount of sand , plus 20kg of stra w. I
Bricks co ntaining fine sand, when well dried, can sta nd compressive st ress in th e order of 52 kg/cm 2, wher eas bricks
with the same amount o f sand, but also with straw, are less strong. 2
In mo de rn Egypt , the fellahi n will occasionally make br icks entirely by hand , dispensing with th e wo oden mou ld,
and it is q uite possible tha t this method was so metimes empl oyed in Pharaoni c times. That the majority of bricks were
made in wooden moulds, however, is without doubt, as this method is depicted in ancient representations, and some
examples of th e mould s have been fou nd.r' The se moul ds are ide ntic al to their mo dern counterpar ts, except th at th ey
have mortise and tenon jo int s at the co rners instead of nails. From one side a handle projects, by which the brickmaker
mani pulates th e m ould. No moulds have yet been found whic h were intended to prod uce the specially shaped bricks used
for arches, cornices and other distinct architectural features.
Of the evidence from ancient representations about brickmaking, the most valuable comes from the scenes in the
4
:om b of Rekh mire at Thebes. TIle pro cess of mixing the mud and maki ng the ro ws of bricks by th e use of woode n
mou lds is clearly shown, and the inscription accompanying the scene reads:

"M aki ng bricks t o build ane w t he storeho use of th e temple of Karn ak ."
Bada wy has argued that slJt db! should mean "to lay bricks" rather than to "make bricks," since the original
meaning of sa l is "to weave" or " to plait," which would agree with the Greek use of TrXwOuifxx; for the pro cess of
bo nding bricks in to a wall. S However, alt ho ugh the o riginal meanin g o f sal ribl may have been "to lay bricks ,"
there is ample evidence to show th at it also came to mean "to make bric ks" from the New Kingdom onwar ds. This
is de monstrated by the exa mp le from th e tom b of Rekh mire, quo ted above, whe re the scene clearly sho ws the
man ufact ure, not th e layin g, of bricks ; it is furthe r proved by th e frequent scene in fou ndation cerem onies showing
the mo ulding of th e first brick by the King. Since the titl e of this scene is invariably sal dbt , this can only mean
" making bricks" in this contex t. At Edfu this fou nda t ion ritual is accompa nied by th e inscrip tion : 6

"Making bricks at the four corners of the temple."


As he holds the brick-mo uld, th e King says to Horus:

.:ld I ~CJc= di~ LJ CV


" I make a bric k in order to bu ild your sanct uary." 7

I. Fathy, H., Go urna: A Taleo/ T'Wo Villages, 2 52.


2. ibid., 2 87 - 8. On the use o f straw see Carninos, R., L ate Egy p tian Miscellanies, 190 .
3. Pe trie , W. M. F., Tools and Weapo ns, PI.XLVll, 55.
4. Davies , N. de G., The Tomb 0/ Rekhrntre at Theb es, PI. LV II I.
5. Bada wy , A., ASAE 54 ( 195 7 ), 51ff., es pe cia lly p.6 4 .
6. Chass ina t, E., Ed/Oil, II, 6 0.
t. ib id., 6 1, & vo l. XlI, PI.CCCLXXII.
Since the King is actually holding the brick-mould, it cannot be said th at he is " laying bricks," as Badawy argues.
He gives an example of the earlier meaning of slJt from a Middle Kingdomstela, but either translation of the word
couid be read:

"Now I made this tomb in Abydos, of brick which I assembled." 8

Another Egyptian word used in relation to brickwork is c4cG


(Pip), 9 "to make (bricks)," which becomes
the Copt ic 1!WW1f'. Badawy also quotes a phrase from the Edfu texts referring to the preparati on of mud for bricks:

"I mix earth with water." 10

A papyrus of the Nineteenth Dynasty 11 contains accounts of brickmaking and records the number of bricks
produced by various workmen, but unfortunately does not state the length of time required to make the bricks.
In modern Egypt, a team of four brickmakers will produ ce an average of 3,000 bricks per day, but the rate of
manufacture in ancient times may have been slightly less, owing to the greater size and weight of many of the
bricks. The same papyrus contains an othe rwise unkn own word l;l.1l..=.Lt
g Jl taken in the worterbucn to mean
"to burn bricks," 12 This is possible, since burnt bricks were used in Ramesside buildings in special circumstances, 13
but the damaged state of th e text makes it impossible to be sure of the meaning of the word . References to brick
manufacture in other text s are similarly lacking in precise details; Papyrus Reisner I apparently records the prod-
uction of 65 cubic cubits of bricks per day, 14 and contains several words for "brick-clay" and related materials. 15
A demotic text, Papyrus Sorbonne 276, 16 refers to the use of old bricks for the rebuilding of a storehouse, showing
that the re-use of bricks was a common practice.

8. Lange , H.O. & Sc haf er, H., Grab una Denksteine d es M.R. , 20 733.
9. -Anastasi V, 3,1.
10. Badawy , A., ASAE 54 (1957 ) ,57.
1 1. Virey, P. , Parch emin Rapp ort e de The bes, in MMAF, I, 4 81-51Q.
12 . Wb., V, 1 56 , 7.
13. See below, pp. 44, 14 0.
14 . Simpson, W.K .. Pap yru s Reisner 1, 62 .
15. These words discus sed by Simpson, op. cit., 7 2, 75-7.
16. I am grateful to Mme. F. de Cenival fo r detail s of this text.
CHAPTER TWO' THE EARLIEST USE OF BRICK IN EGYPT

It is difficult to esta blish precisely when the use of brick for building began in Egypt . The earliest buildings of any
size are the First Dynasty mastabas of Saqqara and Naqada, and th e t ombs of Abydos. In these st ructures, and especi-
ally in the Saqqara mastab as, we see a highly-developed archit ecture makin g expert use of the building materials.
Previous to th e First Dyn asty , h owever, very little has been discovered to illustr ate the earlier effo rt s of th e Egyptians
in brick building, and the remains which have been found are not on any sizeable scale. The sophistic ated architect ure
of the Archaic Period seems, like so many thi ngs at thi s point in Egyptian history , to appear suddenly , fully formed.
Whil st th ere can be no doubt that influences from Mesopotamia helped t o promote thi s new outburst of buil ding in
th e early dynasties , the re is also evidence to sh ow that the inhabitants of the Nile Valley during th e Naqada 1I period
were no t unfamiliar with the large-scale use of brick as a building material. This evidence comes mainly from the slate
palett es, ivor y labels and mud-sealin gs of the age.
On th e fra gmentary Tjehenu palette in Cairo , a series of walled enclosures or towns are shown , in the pro cess of
being attacked by animals representing differ ent provinces. Such butt ressed defen sive walls could only have been cons-
truc ted of brick , and must have been of sufficient height and thi ckne ss to resist attack. Another exa mple occ urs on the
Narrner palette, where the King, in th e form of a bull , ha s broken int o one of these walled t owns. Th e mud -sealings
fro m the Abydos First Dyna sty tombs frequ entl y sho w oval enclosures of thi s type. Some sealings 1 show a more devel-
oped enclosed to wn or camp, where the surrounding wall is laid out on a rect angular plan in the form of the hieroglyph
[] hwt , which represent s a walled area with a gateway at one corner. 2 There is great similarity between the enclosures
represented on the seatings and the "Funerary Palaces" of Abyd os, th e surviving exa mples of which date from the
Second Dynasty . It seems likely, th erefor e, that at the time of the unifi cation of Egypt there were in existence sett le-
ments prote cted by fortified brick walls, probably of comparable size to th e Shun et ez-Zebib at Abydos, wh ose wall
is now 11m high and 5.30m thic k. If constructions of thi s size were present to ha ve been attacked by Narrner , then
th ey mu st also ha ve existe d during th e latter part of the Naqada II cult ure, alth ough no remains have as yet been fou nd .
The only town sit e to have yielded remain s of th e brickwork of Predyn astic time s is Naqada, where Petri e discovered
a tow n of th e Naqada I - II periods. The buildings were construc ted of bricks measurin g 29 x 11.5 x 7.5cm , and " showe d
carelessness about squa reness and angles.t' ' Unfortunately no specific archit ectural details are available about this Naqada
to wn, but Petrie's description indi cate s that the ruin s were of considerable extent.
At othe r Predyna stic settlemen t sites no definit e exam ples of the use of brick have been discovered, except for some
special bricks used in th e construc tio n of kiln s for roasting grain. These bricks take the form of long th in bars of baked
clay . and th eir use implies th at the Predyn astic Egyptians were aware of th e process of bakin g bric ks, alt hough th ey
never employed it outside thi s contex t. Grain kilns of this period have been fo und at Abyd os and Mahasna; th ose at
the latte r site employ burn t bricks up to 7 1cm in length . 4
The surviving funera ry monuments of th e Predynastic period mak e infrequ ent use of brickwork. Most tomb s with
brick-lined pit s whi ch were once th ough t to belong to the Naqada II period have been assigne d, on th e revision of
Petrie' s Sequen ce Datin g, to th e First Dynasty. The earliest bricked to mbs appear t o be th ose of Ceme tery T at Naqada,'
dated t o S.D. 50~ 70, t ogeth er with th e Decorat ed Tom b at Hierakonp olis.f which , it has recently been sho wn, 7 belongs
to the same archit ect ural type as these Naqada graves. The Decorat ed Tom b has been dat ed t o S.D. 63,8 therefore
placing it very close to th e time of th e uni ficati on of Egypt by Narmer, whilst th e Cemet ery T at Naqad a wo uld seem
to be of Naqada II date,9 but very likely running over int o th e early First Dyna sty. Brick is empl oyed in th ese t ombs
for lining th e walls, and also in some cases for th e const ructio n of a shor t int ernal cross-wall, which divides th e pit int o
two roo ms. Detail s of thi s brickwork are non-existent , except for the fact th at th e walls were appa rently abo ut 50cm
thick with plaster -coa te d surfaces. There is doubt as to the na tur e of th e roo fing of th e t omb s: F.W.Green first thought
that the Decor ated to mb h ad been vault ed, bu t late r revised his opinion and cat egorically sta te d th at th e roof had been

1. Petri e, W .M . F~ , R oyal Tombs, I, PI. XXV I, 58 -6 0, a nd II , ..1.XI, 1.


2. Ga rd ine r, A. H. , Eg y p tian Gram m ar, 4 9 3 , 6 .
3. Pet rie, W.M. F. , Na qada and Ba llas, 54.
4. Ga rst a n g, J . , Mahasna and Beit KlIallaf, 7 .
5. Pet rie, Naqada and B allas, 1 8 f f.
6. Q u lb ell, 1. E. a nd Green, F.W., Hi erak onpolis, II , 2 0- 1.
7. Kem p, B.1., J EA ., 59 (19 7 3) , 36 - 4 3.
8. Payn e, i.c., .TE A. , 5 9 (1 97 3) , 3 1.
9. Ke m p, 0[1. ott ., 42 .
of wood. 10 One of the to mbs at Naqada, numbered T.lS, is said to have consisted of a vaulted chamber built in
a pit, 11 but, as B.l. Kemp has pointed out, 12 this statement has to be treated with caution, specially since no
mention is made of vaulting in Petrie's field notebook. The only other interesting point concerning the brickwork
of these tombs is the possible use of a brick arch above a doorway in T.23, alth ough the evidence for this relies on
a scribbled note in the original excavation records. t 3 If an arch did exist, it would prob ably only have been a rough
corbel or gabled struct ure of two or three bricks, since the span of the doo rway was only 60cm. I think it unlikely
that the true arch or proper vaulting would have been used in this cemetery, when we have only a single instance of
the use of true vaulting from the more developed monuments of the First Dynasty, and no example of the arch unt il
the Third Dynasty.
The architecture of these to mbs shows that brick was in use for funer ary monuments in the late Naqada II period,
and must have been used for some time previously, since the brickwork is not unaccomplished and the builders evidently
were familiar with the material. At a slightly later date, in the early First Dynasty, brick lining is common in tombs at
Naqada, and occurs also at Mahasna, El-Amra, Tarkhan and elsewhere.
The orlgin of Egyptian brick architecture seems to lie in the main sett lements of the later Predynastic period. This
would explain how it is possible for an extensive use of brick to appear at Naqada, this being an important town, whilst
no brickwork occurs in the less urbanized communities of Mahasna or Badari, where the emphasis was apparently on
wattle-and-daub construction. 14 Probably further excavation at imp ortan t Predynasti c sites such as Hierakonpolis and
Kopt os would shed more light on the early brick architect ure of Egypt, and its relation to the forti fied towns sho wn on
the palettes and sealings. Certa inly, at the time of the unification of the country by Narmer, the art of building in brick
was well understood, ready to develop under the influence of Mesopotamia to prod uce th e magnificent panelled monu-
ments of the Saqqara archaic cemetery.

10. tota., 38 .
11 . Petrie, N eqaa a and Ballas. 24.
12. Kem p, op. ctt; 41.
13. ibid. , 41.
14. Garstang , J., Mahasna and B eit Khalla[, 6.
CHAPTER THREE: THE BONDING CORPUS

The only attempt to standardize the description and recording of the various types of brick bonding used in
Egyptian architecture was made by a. H. Myers in his publication of the Bucheum 1 and continued in his other
excavation reports. As Myers himself remarked, the formation of such a Corpus makes for a great saving in time
over written desc riptions of bo nds, an d it is a great pity that no-one has bo thered to utilize his syste m in lat er
works. Th is Corp us, although basically so und, suffers fro m a number of inconsist encies and consequently requires
some modification. The new system which I am about to describe was devised to eliminate the difficulties whilst
preserving the same underlying principles as used by Myers.
When a bond is described in th e old Corpus, three facts are emb odied in th e co de given to that bond. Th e first ,
indicated by a letter, is the type ofstructuce under examination - W for wall, C for corner, A for arch, and etc.
This is followed by a number which indicates the thi ckness of the brickwork, on the principl e that 1.0; one bri ck-
length, 1.5; one brick-length plu s one brick-width, and so on, Finally comes a small letter, which is the type letter
for th e arra ngement of brickwork und er considerati on. For example, bonds with altern ate courses of head ers and
stretche rs are given the letter a, whilst th ose with layers of edger-headers are labell ed c. Minor variation s on th e same
general arrangeme nt are indi cat ed by numbe rs aft er th e letters, e.g, WI.5a l. This rather co mplex description can be
simplified by dispen sing with th e first two parts of th e co ding, since in most cases these are not absolutely necessary.
It does not really matter to which struc ture th e bri ckwork belon gs when it is th e bonding which is bein g recor ded.
Nor is it always necessary to record the thickness of many structures, especially walls, since the bonding is, in most
cases, the same all through. It is only of real value to sta te the wall thic kness in this way when it is of special interest
or directly affect s the bo nd being used .
The result of all this is th e formati on of a new Corpus using a codi ng comprised of a letter and a number only,
the general arrangement being indicated by the letter and minor variations by the number. It can be seen from the
drawings th at all th e bond s includ ed und er o ne letter have the same cha racte ristic s: Typ e A den ot es a face bonding
which sho ws courses of headers and st retchers (no t necessarily in alt ern at e layers) , Type B has he aders and st retchers
mixed in the same co urse, Typ e C always employs edger-head ers, and so on for th e othe r types.
One of th e main defects of the old Corpus was its inability to deal with bon ds which imp art a different appearance
to the opposite faces of t he same wall. For exa mp le, by drawing th e secti on of bond WI. 5d, it can be shown tha t the
reverse face of any wall of this ty pe would have a face bond of two courses of stretchers alternating with one course
as
of headers , an arrangement which is given in the same Corpus 2 \\'1.5c_ Th e same con fusion appli es to bond
1I'1.5a 1 which gives an ap pear ance to th e reverse side of th e wall of WI .5c. Th is weakness of the old syste m was
one of the main reasons for modifyin g it. In the new Corpu s, these com plex bonds are classified by giving th e
relevant code lett er for each face of the wall, and writing th em together. Thus th e co de AC describes an arr ange ment
in which one face of the wall has the cha racter istic appea rance of a class A bond, whilst the other face conforms to
type C.
The classification of arch es and vaults by Myers is rath er unsat isfact ory.f In my own Co rp us, the bo nd ing of
these structures is recorded using small lett ers to distinguish them from the capitals used for other.brickwork. The
same principles of typing are used, the letters indicating the arrangements, but the use of a.b ,c, etc. must not be
taken as having any relation with the bo nds labelled A, B, c..., which do not refer to arches o r vaults. Arches consis-
ling of several rings of brick, of different arrangements, have two letters to show the bonding of the various rings.
In these cases, the first letter of the code applies to the upper rings of brickwo rk, and the subsequent lett er t o th e
inner courses. 4
Througho ut this st udy bon ds are referred t o by their nu mbers in the Corpus, to avoid repeti tive length y descript-
ions. In some cases the thickness of the wall is state d in terms of brick-lengths immediately afte r th e code for the
bo nding, e.g. A2(l .5). Th is syste m is pa rticularly useful fo r arches and vaults, where it is more imp ort ant to recor d
the nu mber of courses employed. Occasionally I state th e thickn esses of struc tures by th is meth od separately from
the bond ing; in these cases, for exa mple, "a wall with a thickn ess of 2.5," means a wall who se width is equal to tw o
and a half brick-lengths, It sho uld be not ed that th e drawing s all sh ow th e simp lest kno wn version s of each bond,
because a wall bo nded in (for example) A3 may be anything fro m two to tw enty brick-lengths across, bu t since the
bo nding patt ern is unaffect ed, only th e basic bond is dr awn . Th e drawin gs of all th e bond s so far typed are given on
Plates 1-20.

Mond, R. and Myers, D.H., The Bu ch eum, r. 4 7- 9, and 1lI, Pis. CXII-CXV. ib id. , PI s. CX IIl -C XIV.
,.
1.
Mond , R. and Myers, o.n., TI le Bucheum; III, PI. CXII.
3.
4. See Corpus drawi ngs of bo nds e x t and cd l.
CHAPTER FOUR: FUNERARY ARCHITECTURE

I. Early Pit-Tombs.

The earliest tombs to make use of brick have been discussed above, (p.5) these being those of Cemetery T at Naqada
and the Decorated Tomb of Hierakonp olis. These monuments are followed, in th e First Dynasty, by a large number of
tombs at Naqada, Tarkhan, Mahasna and elsewhere, which use brickwork for the lining of the pit. In small private graves
these lining-walls are usually half to one brick-length in thickness, and are commonly mud-plastered on thei r inte rior faces.
The simplest tomb s of this type have a single chamber in the substructure and were originally roofed with wooden beams
and planks. No brick superstructures have yet been found above lined pits of this kind, alth ough simple brick mastabas
were discovered by Petrie over unlined pit-graves of the First Dynasty at Tarkhan. I The construction of th e lining of the
graves differs littl e from one site to anothe r. Where the brickwork is only a half-brick in thickness, the bonding has of
necessity to be XI . Examples of this type are found in grave 1006 at Tarkhan, 2 1643 and 1525 at Naga ed-Der' and
20.i.l at Tura, 4 but very many more examples occur at these and other sites. Other graves have a lining double this thick-
ness, and altho ugh in some cases the brickwork is still composed only of stretchers, the majority show more att empt at
bonding. At most cemetery-sites of this type th e bond used is AI, i.e, alternate courses of headers and stretchers, but at
EI-Amra and Naga ed-Der A8 was most frequent. The alternation of three courses of stretchers with one of headers seems
to have been particularly prevalent at the latter site, so much so that for thicker walls the rare bond s A5 and A7 are utilized,
in contrast to the A2 or A3 adopted at all other sites. In the majority of cases the bricks were mortared roughly with mud
and plastered over, but at Naga ed-Der Reisner records that no mort ar was used, and the brickwork relied solely on the
mud-plaster for cohesion. s This mud-plaster is usually from one to thr ee centimetres in thickness.
Furth er examples of small brick-lined tombs are found in the subsidiary graves which cluster around the large funerary
monuments of Abydos, Giza and Saqqara. Few structural details of the brickwork are available for the first two sites named :
it is only possible to say th at all the Abydos subsidiary graves, and those of Giza mastaba V, were lined with brick and roofed
with wooden planks. Much more informati on is recor ded from th e satellite burials of the First Dynasty tombs at Saqqara,
which will now be considered:
The individual graves around Saqqara tomb 3503 6 arc lined with brickwork, bonded XI(O.5), and plastered internally.
(Fig.I) The roofing is formed of two logs, laid longitudinally over the pit, with planks across them above. Some of the
graves had one course of brick laid over the wooden roof, a feature which sometimes occurs in this type of tomb in the
provincial cemeteries, examples being foun d at Naga ed-Der, El-Arnra and EI-Ahaiwa. 7
In the reign of Uadji the subsidiaries of Tomb 3504 were constructed by digging a trench and dividing it up by cross-
walls to form rows of small graves. 8 This technique is also used at Abyd os and (in part) around Giza mastaba V. The
bonding employed in the lining and cross-walls of Uadji's satellite graves is unfortunately not recorded, but It is known
that the lining-walls were one brick-length thick and coated with mud plaster. The graves were roofed with planks and
reeds, above which stood superstructures built of brick and filled with rubble. As can be seen in th e drawing (Fig.2), the
sides of these small mastabas are bonded Al and the roof consists of a slightly vaulted layer of stretchers . This vault is not
self-supporting, however, as it rests directly on the internal filling, a feature which also occurs in grave 2039 at Tarkhan .?
Subsidiary graves around tomb 3506 10 also possessed low superstructures, but in this case they were constructed of
mud. The substructures were lined with brick, bonded AI (I.O), and some had a cou rse of brick above the wooden roof.
The most interesting of all the satellite burials at Saqqara arc th ose around a large tomb dated to the reign of Ka-a.
(3500) 1 1 Unlike the graves discussed above, these do not have a brick lining to the pit, but they have the best-preserved
brick superstructures of any graves of their type so far discovered, and these superstructures show an advance in architec-
tural technique. The usual wooden roofing used in all other examples of subsidiary graves of the First Dynasty is here
replaced by an inclined vault, built against the enclosure wall of tomb 3500. This vault, the earliest certain examp le known,
corresponds to typ e dl of the Corpus. Above the vault a small mastaba was built, also of brick. The brick casing of this

1. Petri e, W.M.F. , Tar knan 11, Pis. XU· XI V


'2. Petri e, W.M. F. , Tarkh an 1 and Memphis V, 8.
3. Reisn er, G .A.,Naga ed-Der, 1, 20-1.
4. Ju nke r, H., Pnedhof tn T urab; 16.
S. Reisn er, op etc, 27.
6. Eme ry. W.o. , Great Tombs o f the First Dyn asty, II, 143 -15 8.
7. Reisn er, G. A.. To m b D evelop ment, 17.
S. Eme ry,op. ctt., 12-3.
9. Petri e, W.M.F., Tar khan II, PI. XV I
10. Emery. W. o. , Great Tom bs of Ole Firs t Dynasty, III, 46-9, PIs. 4 5-9.
11. ibid. 102 and Pis. J 16, 1'20.
Fig.] Cross-section of subsidiary Fig.2 Sup erstructure ofsubsidiary
grave of Tomb 3503 at grave of Tomb 3504 at
Saqqara: Saqq ara.

Section

mastaha sta nds on a lo w pedestal, an d is only half a brick in thickness, th erefor e co nsisting entirely of str etc he rs. At th e
top of the masta ba, which is of a vaulte d shape , the brick s rest on th e sand fillin g. (See Fig.3) Th ese im portant graves
show that th e inclined vault was know n by the late First Dyna sty and was in use in the Mcm phite area to cover shor t
spans. It seems proba ble tha t in Upper Egypt the vault was not introduced until mu ch late r.
Th e use of br ickw ork in to mbs was extended d uring th e Fir st Dyn asty to include cross-walls in the substructure, there by
d, dividing the pit int o a numb er of com partments. An early exam ple of th is is seen in the 'Decorated Tomb' at Hierakonpolis, 12
discussed above, which is divided into two parts by a short wall built o ut from one side of th e chamber. At a slight ly lat er
date, the subs truc tu re is split int o tw o, th ree o r five co m part ments accordin g to the plan s given in Fig.4(p.12) Thes e types
have been fo und at El-Amra , 1 3 Naga ed-D cr, 14 and Tu ra. 1 5 Th e cross-walls are generally found t o be th inn er than th e
linin g of th e pit, and th e two seem never to be Inte rbo nded. Instead, the lin ing was co nst ruc ted first and th en th e thin
d:
fed Fig. 3 Sub sidiary Grave of Tomb 3500 at Saqqara
Cross Section
La ng Section

I, ,I >
-
II:'·,
'.

LJ '
inte rna l walls were added, merel y butting up against the sides of the pit. Most ofte n all the brickwork is coated with
mud -plaster which helps to conso lidate the unbonded co rners.
1 2. Q u ibc ll, J.E. and C rcen, V.W., Hier a tco npotisIt, 1'], L XVII
1 3. Mciver. D.R. an d Mate, A.C., Et-Arn r ah and Aby dos. 1'1. IV
14. Reis n er , G. A. Naga eaocr, I, 2 7ff.
1 5. Jun ker . H. , Fried/lOt in T ural" 18- 20.
Fig.4 Cross-Walls ill Small Graves.

1 ...._ .. 3 . . ._ ... 4 ........


The thinness of the cross-walls results fro m their being built en tirely of st retc hers , alt ho ugh in some of the larger
tombs at Naga ed-Der 1 6 th e walls reached a thic kness of 1.0 and wer e bonded AS. These examples are mor e advanced
than the simple bric k-line d pit in that th ey have stairway entrances fro m one side, a roof of wood and bri ck , and were
originally cove red by a nich ed masta ba su perstructur e.

2. Corb e l-roofe d tombs of th e Secon d Dynasty .

Alth ou gh we still have to examine the to mbs of the First Dynast y at Abyd os and the panelled mastabas of the same
perio d at other sit es. I have in cluded here a descrip tion of certain Seco nd Dyn asty to mbs since th ey are a direct develop-
ment of th e early wood-roofed graves discussed in the previous sectio n. The substructur es of the cor belled tombs are
still built in the same fashi on as those of th e sim ple First Dynasty graves, with three or five ro om s, the latt er being more
frequent . Stairway entrances descen d into the pit from the side and are flanked by the thi n retaining walls of bric k. The
wooden roofi ng of {he earlier graves is replaced by a roof for med of cor belling in brickwork to form a false vaul t. Usually
a sepa rat e corbel sta nds abov e each roo m of the subs t ructure and the br ickwork is built up over the to mb into a solid
mass. On evi den ce recovered fro m t omb N.15 14 at Naga ed-Der, 17 the supe rst ruc t ures over th e corbelled burial chambers
are shown to have been bric k mastabas wit h simplified palace-facade pan elling, enclos ed within a bric k wall. Som e tombs
of this ty pe have been fo und at EI-Amr a 18 but no diagrams of the brick cons truc tio n are available from thi s site. By far
the greatest n umb er of corbelled to m bs, however, occ ur at Naga ed-Der, where the cons truc tio nal det ails we re so comp-
letely recorded that th e best pr eserved exam ples can be desc ribed individually.

N. 1584. 1 9
Three chamb ers of the pit of t his tomb are roo fed with separate corbel-vaults , the inner faces of which have th e
appearance of Al bonding, but behi nd the face the bricks are all laid as heade rs. Each course of the vault proje cts
approximate ly 3- 4cm beyo nd the course im mediately below, and th e roof is joined at a heigh t of 1.35 metr es. The
co rners of the corbels are mad e ro unded by laying the bricks in a radial plan, and all the walls are coated with m ud-
plaster. The stair way ent ranc e to this to mb has n anking walls of stretchers (bondin g X I(0. 5) and the doo rway int o
the sub str ucture is roofed wit h woo den beams, upo n which th e co rbelling rests . A co urse of bricks o n edge is included
in one of the cross-walls of th e pit with the purpose of co mp ensating for di fferen ces in th e level of the groun d.
2o
N. 1586.
Five in dividu al co rbel vaults, which merge into a mass of brickwor k above, co ver the five chambers of the substruc-
ture. The vaults, which are plaste red int ernally, have gra ined
Fig. 5 Section of Vault
corn ers unlike those of tomb N.1584 . Example s of gra ined
Tomb N.1586
vaults occ ur also in tombs N.1 51 1. 1513 and 1626. The int-
ern al face of the co rbel sho ws th ree layers of st retchers alter-
nating with one of headers, but the solid mass of th e structure
is co mposed, as usual, of headers only. Above th e en trance
the bri cks rest on th e wooden roo fing of th e door at the base
of the sta irway.
There are several tombs of similar size and st ruc tur e to the
two described abo ve, but in none is the brickwor k so well pres-
erved. Some de tails of their construction are given in the tab le
on page 15. Furthe r examp les of th e use of co rbel roo fing are
found in the smaller to m bs of the Seco nd Dynast y at Naga ed-
16. Re isner, op. cit., 34-5 . Exa mp les ar e Tom bs J608 , 16 2 1 & 162 4 .
17. Reisn e r, G.A. , Naga eu o-r. l. 45. 19. Reisn e r, o p. cit., 5 2- 3 a nd PIs. 2 9· 30 .
18. Mciver, D.R. an d Mace, A.C ., El-Amrah an d A byd os, 34 . 20 . ib id., 4 1- 2 an d l'ts. 32-3.

12
k_ T::~~ are stai rwa y to mbs wi t h usually only a single chamber in the subst ructu re. Most of th ese graves have groined
_ :£. :: rJy \". 16 19 and 1 6 ~ 2 sho wing the radiating of th e bricks used to pro duce ro unded comers.i ! The co rbelling
'"' :. :-egins at the th ird or fou rth course of th e walls of the pit, and qu ite ofte n th ese walls show th icken ing at this
: : .:- ;:-o\ide a fi rm base fo r the brickwork abo ve. (See Fig.6) The bo nding of th e face of the vault s is rat her irregular
in th ese small graves, but th e backing is invariably built o f hea ders.
Base of corbel to sho w Mud plaste r is used o n all th e brickwor k. Two tombs from Cemetery
thic kening of walls. N.3000 are th e best preserved exa mples of this gro up . Their co nstruc-
tional details are as follows :
N.3014. 2 2
The ro ofin g consists of a gra ined cor bel made up en tirely of headers,
which bon d irregularl y at the angles. Th e vault spri ngs from th e thi rd
course of th e subst ructure walls and co vers a span of 0.95 met res. In
th e buri al chamber th e cross-walls are bonded neithe r with th e main
walls nor with each ot he r, bu t great quan tit ies of mud -plaster have
been spread over th e joint s.
,; - _ ~ : 3

-=-.::.:s :omb is co nst ructed with bricks measu ring 24 x 12 x 6cm. largely unrno rtar ed . but covered with plaster. The
_- 5::=of the corbel has heade rs o n the face, whe reas th e East side alte rna tes hea ders an d st retche rs fo r five out of
sever; .ourses. This has caused the West side to have a greater de gree of curv atur e th an the East, maki ng the ju nct ion
. '- . t wo sides markedly off-ce nt re. (See Fig.7, below) Internally, the vault is piasteres and groined, bu t in th e thickness
- tz.e crfckwo rk th e co rner bondi ng is very irregu lar.

.- :? Section of corbel, tomb 3022


at Naga ed-Der:

7 -:.= use of the corb el-vault t o cover th e substru ct ure of these tom bs represen ts an advance ove r the earlier wooden
- ~..:.. ~
. ut sho ws J probable ignor ance o f true vaulting in Upper Egypt at this date. A disadvant age of the system is
- l :3.:-ge amount of brickwork has to be cons truc ted behin d th e face of the vault as a cantilever to th e weight of

, erlapped co urses. The bricks used at Naga ed-Der averaged 28 x 14 x 7cm. Co rbelling in brick seems to be
;:d to Upper Egypt in the Seco nd Dyna sty, practically all the exam ples co ming from Naga ed-Der and El-Amra.
cs " IS and 669 at Qau were apparentlv also corbelled , but no de tails of the co nstruc tion of the se tom bs are
~ =;L :~ The corbel-vault recur s later in s~all graves of the Four th and Fift h Dynasties. but with out the entrance

"''' y present in the earlier ty pe. (See below, p.29)

Abydos Cemetery B and the Archaic Tombs of Umm el-Qa'ab,

C -= to mbs of Cem ete ry Bat Abydos are dat ed to the ea rly First Dyn asty, and are a larger version of the brick-
.:: ;-it·grave discussed above in Secti on J. Unfor t unate ly , very little in formation has bee n published about th e
~ .... ~..... ork of these to mbs, alt ho ugh the linin g-walls of th e pits were o f considerable thickness. Apart fro m the fact
: the walls were plaste red with mu d. th e only o ther deta ils availab le are th e sizes of the bricks in t om bs B.15 an d
- -e , These are given in the ta ble on page 14 . TIle roo tin g of the tom bs was made of wood , in some cases suppo rted

tervals by uprigh t posts.


~_-=re is rather mor e infor matio n available abo ut the const ructio n o f the large royal to mbs or ceno taphs a t Abydos.
_- -.c gives a list o f the brick sizes fo r the variou s tomb s,25 and the measuremen ts arc stated in the summary o n
> P. Fur ther detai ls of the brick co nst ruction can o nly be obtained from th e pho tograp hs published by Petrie
,=_y JI Tombs of tire Earliest Dy nasties, vol umes I and II. Th e to mbs take th e form of a brick-lined subst ruct ure
_ -":-:-.:! into several roo ms. the roo fing. and, in many cases. th e bur ial chamber, being made of wood . Reisner's the ory
- . ertain of the tomb s were roo fed with bric k cor belling 2 6 ·has not found gene ral acceptan ce and seems unlikely.
= )5 1 "ases the facts concerning the bric k const ructio n are so fe w th at they can be summa rised in a ta bulated form
~: -elo w) but the re are so me detail s fro m ce rtain of the to mbs which can be stated individually .

~ Re isne r, o p. ci t.• 59- 6 1. 24 . Bru n ton, U., Qall 11/11.1 Bad ari, I, l 2-3.
iN cL, 7') , 80 and Pis. 6 4-5. 2S. Petrie, W.M . F., R o ya l T ombs, II , I S.
: 3. in« , 77·8 und 1'1. 62. 26 . Reis ner, G.A. , Tomb De velo p m en t, 3 5 5.

13
Tomb 0/ Udimu : The bonding is ty pe Al th roughout the lining of the pit, but in the fourteenth course fro m the
base the bricks arc laid on ed ge o n the South and West sides o f the to mb. to adjust the differe nces in level. All the
walls were originally mud-plastered.
Tom b 0/ S emerkhe t ; Th is tomb is remarkable in having the brickwork of the lo wer part of the walls bonded in C1,
which is very ra re at this period. In the highe r courses the bon d becomes AI with occasionallayers o f edger-headers
for levelling. Anot he r example of a ty pe C bon d in the late First Dynasty occurs in mastab a VII at Aim Roush.
exc avated by Montet. 2i
Tom b 0/ Ke-a: The bric kwork her e is so irregular and rou gh that no distinct bond can be iden tified. Petrie considered
that the careless natu re of the brick work was d ue 10 the Iact that the defec ts would have been co ncealed by the wooden
lining of the chambe r. 28

SUMMARY

Site & To mb Dynasty Bonds used Brick Size (em) Notes

Naqeda:
T.15 Pre- XI
103 7 Pre- 23.5 x 11 x 5.5
Tarkha n:
4' 23 x 11.5 :\ 7.5 Plaster 2.5cm
195 AI 25 x 12.5 :\ 7.5
4 14 XI Plaster used.
1006 XI 23.5 x 11.5 x 7 Plaster 2.5c m
M I1It I1SI1I1:
11. 120 I-II 26. 5 x 14 x 5.5
H.12R I- II 'on edge' 26.5 x 14 x 6.5
Il l 29 I 'on edge' 24x 11.5x 7.5
El-Amra:
b.S I 25.5 x 12.5 x 7.5
b.33 I X I ( I-O) 25.5 10 2S long
b. 137 11 Corb el of headers.
b. J78 11
Hierakonpo lis:
100 ( Dec. Tomb) Pr e- Xl ?x9 x9 Floo r paved wn h
23:\ I L 5 x 8 bric k.
Tnra:
20.i.! X I (0.5)
QUlI:
44 3 1- 11 26.5 x 11.5 x 7.5
45 5
1803
I - II
I- II } 25.5 x 12.5 x 7.5

509 I- II
516
SIR
I- II
I-II
} 24 x 1 1.5:.. 6.5
518 co rbelled.
159 2 l- JJ 23x IO x 7.5
1742 I- II 28x 14 x7.5
A by dot:
BJ 5 I 22.5:.. 11.5 x 7.5
8.19 I 24.5 x 11.5 x 7.5
Djer I XI 24.5 x 12 x 6.5
Mernen I 22.5 x 11.5 x 6
Udimu I 24 .Sx 12 x 7.S
Adj.ib I 25 x12x7
Semcrkhe t I CI . A I 23.5 x I I x 6.5
Ka-a 1 Irregular. 25 x 12.5 x 7.5
Pcn bsen 11 24xl l .5 x 7
Khasckhem ui 11 26.5 x 12.5 x 7.5
\ 1<",t,· , . K ,·", / 7 ( 19 38 1. 11rr. 2R. l'd ri,' , R"J'ul r",,, I,,:. I. 1s .
'"
14
Sil~ &. Tom b. Bonds used Brick Size (em) Notes

-~ ( 3-0 <"'1":
· t" ' - I Mud plaster on all
. :- - I brickwork. Only
I X I(D.5) average brick size
I given , @. 18 x 14 x 7
I
I A8(irregular)
I AB(I.D)
I AI(l .D)
I AS . X I
. ': ~ . I AS . AS
II XI(D.5) This is the hond of
e ; .:. II X l(D.5) the cross-walls.
...... -- 14 x l1 x 6 Corb el is orheade rs.

"""
X I(D.5)
· - ' ':' X l(D.5)
:0: : A5( 1.5)
X.: ssra.
50..: .:":" gra ves
· - :~ :::~ s 3503 X I(0. 5) Plaster Inside.
350-1 21 x l 1.5 x 6.5
3506 A I( I.O)
(~ : e l) x.w.
.. Serapeurn. AI( I.D) 14 x 14x 7.5 Average sizes.
22 x 11 x 6.S Bricks line th e pit.

-• The Palace-Fa cade ~b SI 3b:l .

::: ~ hi gh level of co mpetence which the Egypt ians sh owed in their brick architecture du ring the Firs t Dyn asty is
res; :..:.splayed in the large panelled mastabas of the period. Since this st udy is concerned with the structu ral and
!e='=": ~ .:!.1 aspects of b rick architecture this is not the place for a discussio n on the origin of the palace-facade . Suffice
- c S-l~ thai this sty le o f building seems to have been one of the many influences whiclt Protodyn astic Egy pt ob ta ined
....cc-; ~ksopota m i a.
Lnfort unatcly. the published report s on the ex cavation o f early masrahas are not all o f the same st andard, and from
.:::":'"": ~, sites. there fore . th e informat ion abou t cons tructional de tails is limi ted . The panelled mastab as of Naga ed-Der,
_:=. ~ ~ wor ked out with meticulou s care. were so denuded th at barely a single co urse o f brick remained . Thi s study
~ th erefo re consider the following tombs.
-.e mastaba at Naqada, nscrthcd to Netth-hot ep.
.. ~~ ;'3. Tombs 2 185. 303 5. 3036, 30 38, 31 11, 33 57, 347 1, 3503, 3 504, 3 505. 3 506,3507.
Tr....'"•.1I1 Tombs 1060, 2038, 2050.
~ _ Roash rnastaba VII.
G.....:. mast aba V.
1:-. addition to this list there are tombs of the Second and Thud Dynasties which revive the palace-facade, somet imes
.-:- "...,r the Ea.~1 face o f the mast aha. These arc :
:i: ~ ",..:::J. Tombs 240 5 and 3070.
Ga . :. mastaba T.
T:.~ brickwork and associated str uctu ral details o f each o f these tombs will now be described sepa ra tely.

T1r ~ Xoqa da JIastaha .

l:: ~ large palace-facade lomb ascribed to Nett h-horep at Naqada 29 is the earliest example of this ty pe of funerary
- . cncnt so far discovered. The early da ting is suppo rted hy the fact tha t the burial chamb er and subsidiary rooms
:l .: ; ends were not sunk into the gravel, as in all later mastabas o f this ty pe, but stood on tlte grou nd surface. The
~ - ~ si the lo mb consis ts of five chambers, the cen tral o ne of which was that used for the burial. Bet ween these rooms
; ::.~ ou te r wall of lhe mastaha are sixt een magazines. who se cross-walls are interbo nded wit h the ext erior wall o f
Burc h,,, d l. / A S, 36 (111 98) , Iliff.

IS
the lo mb but not wi th th e hlock of cha mbers in the cent re. Th ese cha mbers appear 10 have been laid OUI in cubit
measurcmcnts.P '' The bric ks used in th e tomb are of the follo wing dimensions :
29 x 13.5 x 7cm 26 x 13 x Scm
26 x 12 x 7cm 25.5 x 12.5 x 7c m
Fo r the intricate niche ccnsuucuon o f the facade smaller bric ks were employed, measuri ng 17 x 9 x 7cm thereby
making the task of the builde rs easier when cons truct ing niche s of a speci fic size. Un the face o f th e rnastaba lite bricks
are frequemly laid as stretc he rs, and, in so me parts. as three layers of str etchers alterna ting with one o f headers. However,
the th ick ness of the main walls, beh ind the out er face, is composed enti rely of headers placed togeth er without ta king
care to o ff-set the line s of the join ts. Bricks on edge oc cur rarely in The masonr y. being used oc casionally to even up the
levels of the courses,

The Saqqara Mast obas


3357
T his large ruas t uba J I of th e tim e of Aha is enclosed within two enci rcling walls, bot h of which were co vered with
whi tene d plaster, Th e outer wall is bon ded A11(3.0 ). a for m of bonding not found in any other mastabas of the First
Dynasty. The inner enclosure wall is built in the more common A3 bonding, except that the joinl~ arc no r staggered
as they are in later periods. Th is habit of no r brea king the continuity of the joints b common at thi s lime . especially in
these Archaic tombs.
The walls of the lo mb itself average ~ .5 0 m across and consis t of three sec tions . The se are ( I) 311 o uter pan in
which th e niches ofth e facade are built. Cl the cen tral mass of the wall. and (3 ):1 thin wall in a differen t bonding
:-1.::1: l~ "" :'lll j the mstc e and serving as a lin ing oi C). (Sec Fig.S) The first of the se sections, the panelled facade, is
: 0 n > :~ LJ ::" '; If. this tom b of the same size bricks as the rest o f the buil ding. altho ugh half-bricks are used in some of the
r;•..: ~~ .:- \\e · rurhe-. The projections which occur bet ween the recesses arc bon ded int o th e bo dy of th e rnastaba. Behind
::":$ .:~e r.e l ~::.:ed i..l.:e th e '; OIC 01 th e wall is co mposed enti rely o f headers. laid in th e manner o f tiles. with all the j oint s
::: cn e. In the tenth and sixteenth courses ab ove th c grou nd level layers o f sticks were placed between the bricks to
lssisl the bo nding. These lie transversely in the wall and average j cm in dia meter, set in rows Scm apart. J2
Again st the inner face o f this cent ral pari (If the wall is a lining wall b uilt in C5 bo nd. which may have bee n inten ded
to cove r the poorly-bo nded brickwork beh ind it.

Fix.S Sections of mau abe wall. tomb 3357 3

1
'i n. L( ~ "i
Wi thin this superstruc ture were a series of' magaztnes buill above the pit. The dividing walls of these magavincs
were bon ded C5 and did not interb ond with the main wall s nor with each othe r. T he reason why th ey were n ot bo nded
into the masraba i\ thut th eir cc nsrrucnon co uld not lake place un til the burial had been completed. as th e on ly access
to the bu rial pit was from above. Tl ICSC magazinev would have been hastily buil t within an already existi ng supe rstr uct ure.
The substructure of the to mb was roofed with wood en beams and plan ks. and the details of this rooft ng have been
desc ribed hy Eme ry. 33 The bea ms and planks were onl y le i hal f a bric k-length into the walls of the pit. and probab ly
because of th is the beams arc set close together (every l Scm) to dist ribu te the weight of th e roo f an d t o preven t the
beams CUlling into the b rickwo rk.
All the bric ks used in the st ruc ture were of a uniform size 13 x 1"2 :\ 7c m.
J4
3471 ( RL'if{ll o{ Dj('r /
The palace-facade of this rnasta ba is of the same type as that of 3357 and is constructed in similar fashion. In th e
co re of the walls the bricks alte rnate tw o layers of headers wit h one o f str etchers, witho ut brea king the join ts. JS Layers
o f st icks occ ur, as in to mb .U57, hut it is 110 1 known at what level th ese si kh WNe inser ted. Th ere is no lining on the
inside of the main walls of this tom h.
T11 e walls of th e magazines in the superstructu re presen t identical fea tures to those of 335 7, havin g the same (5
hond ing and no in tc rbon din g with th e mastuba 01 with each o the r, The use of th e bond ( 5 is ext ended to the walls o f
the subst ructure, and th e roo fing beams arc again set ha lf J brick-length in lo th e walk
.1U. Se e ;\I' r"·,,di x I In< a d iu 'us",,,,, u f U,,' o"·l ru l",,",,.
3t. I,m"r)', w.n., H,,"'AII(J. 1008.
31. 1:m,·ry. W.D.. H""'AI,,,. 15. 34, I .mer y, \\'.B.. G"IJ( Tomhs j'/lh,.l,"jrsl DrlllJs1.v, 1. 13-7. 11.... 1·).
)). ihi<J... 17. 35. Th e Ie<; hnill u~ b )' w t' ic h the jo inls ar e ,rl u ·",cd In br k h ..-ork is ~ ll nwn "'. "bruk i"gjoinl".

16
There is a problem con cerni ng th e size of bricks used in this tomb. Emery records a measurement o f O.~9 x O.07m. 16
..:-..:.:h canno t possibly be for the length and width of tho: bric ks. but is mor e likely to be for th e length and thic kness,
.eavt ng th e width unkno wn. Conseq uently. the size can be assumed to have been 29 x x 7e m. but as a leng th of 29cm e?)
:; evcepuonally lung at !his period. the measu remen t mu st be regarded as dub ious.

:: ~_;: R eign ol Oj('r)


This tomb was not rep oned in so much detail 3S the First Dyna sty masta bas discovered by Emery. and so little can
-~ Q IJ. of its struct ure. TIle size an d style of the tom b arc very similar to 347 1. descr ibed above. and the palace- facade
J7
::...;; th e same ty pe of nich e co nst ruction. Unfortu nately. th e bric k size is not given in the rep ort and the photograph s
r-e nOI distinct eno ugh to sho w de ta ils of bo nding.

'3 I Reign of Dier; ascrihedto Merit-Neith]


_~.;: .
Tho: const ruct ion of this masla ha J lI sh ows it to have been built J uring the reign of Djer, since it is identical in st ruc-
: _ ~: to to mb 34 7J . TIle main walls have the same arrangement o f brickwo rk as used in that tom b , and the proportions
. : the recessed facade are ill agreement. Both the walls of the magazines and of the pit are bon ded C5. Th e b rick size is
:-.• r ;i\ en by Emery. and I co uld no t obta in It , since the tomh has by now been denuded down to th e rock .

~~.: ,_1..1 t Reign of Uadii j)'J


.-\n enclosure wall surrou nds th e to mb, being 0.95 metres thick and built in bon d AI. The bo ndi ng o f the mastaba
.::;.t;i consists of th ree layers of st retc hers alt ern ating with one layer of headers. the bricks being laid like tiles with open
. cn s. The re is a lin ing wall on th e inside of th e superstructure. built in AI bonding with reeds between every sixth
4o
• .ase of brickwo rk. The facade has niches of the same pat lern as tomb 34 71.
The magazine walls are bon ded ,\ 3. and eachrnagarin e is lin ed with a laye r o f stretche rs on the inner face o f its walls.
T-:~ presence o f th is lining makes the cross-walls appear to bo nd in to each o the r, although in fucr there is no real bo nd ing,
.lJ sho wn in the diagram below .
wood was used for the roof and l100r of the substruc tu re, and also for facing a series of brick pilasters wh ich adorn ed
.:.. ~ walls of the burial cha mber, 41 These pilaste rs originally had deco rative st rips.of gold foil applied 10 them . Their
• -nstru cuon is illu stra ted in Fig. IO. where it can be seen how th e edge of th e wood en floo r ru ns beneath th e pilaster.
-::: ~ woo den facin g of the pilaste r was faste ned to beams built into the brickwork. on e at floor level and an other nine
~ __ ~,~, above.

when th e tomb was plu ndered the ro bbers sci lire to the b urial chambe r, with th e res ult that many of th e bricks were
-,;;,:tJ red. Alth ough the resto rers of the tomb made use o f some 0 1" these burnt bricks, th e innovation was not gene rally
.l: :>pted. and mud-br ick remained th e sta nda rd building material of Egypt.
The bricks themselves measure 2 1 x 11.5 x 6.5cm.

F(r:.9 Brick work uf m aga::im' lvall.t. Fig.fO Wood-faced pilaster.


TO/ll h 3504. Tomb 3504.
Section :

Plan:

_; J35 t Reign of Udilllll ) 42


In the core o f the ex terior walls, the bucks are all heade rs. laid with ope n jo ints runn ing right throu gh the mass.
A.; JlTIst the inne r Face of these heade rs is a lining wall of stretchers. one bri ck-length in thick ness. The out er sides of
:::~ main walls have the usual niches. but the co nstruction of th ese is facilitat ed by th e use of specially small bricks
-= ~ .. suring 17 x 5 x Scm. f ile pro po rtion s of the large niches differ from those fou nd in the tom bs d iscu ssed abo ve,
;. ~·,: n g 3 greater wid th across the inner recess.
:;-. I .m.·r~, u p. r ic ; 11. /oIio.. t in l,," ," (1. 2'1 ~ O.7 m.
:: ~. V " ihd l, J . ~ .. A".,h" kM" u " b..... I S· 6 . 1'I,- V.V II ~(l ibid. , 'l..
::'-. l . m ~r~ . w. fl., ( ;".,<11 l'",,, b.. u/ l lII' Fir." D )'''''_'' \', ll. J :29- 1J Il, & 1'1... xx XVIII-X LV I ~ 1. IbioL . I t ,
:; 4. ;h i' L . 15· 1:1 ,,,,,1 1'1,,, I-X V 4 2. I·.me r l·. w.B.. Th,. T mn b of lkmlJk<1, 3-'J.

17
In the magazines there is no bo nding at the corners of the dividing walls, nor do the walls bon d with. the mastaba
itself The bon d of these walls seems to have been Al or A2. Above the magazines was a roof composed of beams and
planks with five courses of b rickwork laid on to p of the roof. These bricks are laid with ope n jo int s in alternate layers
of he aders and stretchers.
The walls of the pit are retained by brickwork o frath er irregular constructio n, with. co urses o f stretchers, headers
and edger-headers in no stric t sequence. Except for th e palace-facade, the tomb was built of bricks measuring 23 x
13 x Scm.

3036 (Reign of Udimu] 4 3


Both the enclosure wall and the tomb itself are construc ted of bric ks 24 x 10 x Scm in size, bonded AI . ~I o s t walls
had reeds laid be tween every sixth course. H There is no lining wal! on the inside of th e superst ructu re in this tomb.
T he palace-facade is much simpler and shallower than that o f tomb 3035 or the earlier tombs. and no special bricks
are used in its cons truc tio n. 015
Within the superstruct ure arc magazines divided by crosswalls built in A I b onding. These walls interbond wit h each
other at the corne rs. but not with the main walls of the lom b nor with the sides of the pit . The burial pit itself is roofed
in a different way from any other of the Saqqara First Dynasty tombs. by using bricks. for the roof. Wooden beams. 30c m
in diameter, cross the chamber, and are set so close togethe r that the gaps between them are spanned by bricks. This roof
was then consolidated by anot her co urse o f brick laid over the first. Below Ihe beams is a ceiling of wood en planks, 14c m
thick , with the ir edges set into the brickwork , as sho wn in Fig. I I . A similar use of bricks for rootin g occurs in tomb
N.164 7 at Nega ed- Dcr. for which see Reisner, NQKQ ed-Dcr, I, 19, especially Fig. 10 .

Fig. I I Roof ing ofpit. Tom b 3036


at Saqqara.

350 7 (Reign of tkiimu. ascribed to Hemeith] 46


The main walls of the masteba have three layers o f h eaders alternating with on e of stretchers, wit h reed matt ing
47
every lifth or sixth ocurse. There is no lining wall on the imide of the main walls. The cross-walls of th e magazines
are bon ded with each ot her at th e corners. and with the rnastaba itself, sho wing tha t they were built at the same time
as the main walls of the tom b. None of the magazine walls pass over the burial pit, but Ihey join on to its reta ining wall.
This leads us to the view that the only access to the burial chamber after the building of the to mb was from directly
above, th rough a brick-lined pit which penetrated the tumulus struc ture upon which the magazine walls stoo d . The roof-
ing o f the burial chamber could on ly have taken place after the burial. and must have been comp leted in the co nfined
space o f the pit ( :5.25 A 3. 15m) Once the roof was in place the tumulus could be completed in its cent re to cover the
substr uct ure. It seems rather str ange to see the builders confin ing themselves to work in such a narro w spuce , instead of
leaving the constr uct ion of the magazines until after the Interment. as they did in allthe earlier mastabas. Th e only altern-
ative to this view is that the enti re supers tructure. includ ing the main walls of the tomb. was built aft er the bu rial. Emery
states 48 th at the bondi ng of the magazine walls was ,\8. but from the published phologlaphs H it seems to be too irregu-
lar for classifica tion. 111e tu mulus WJ S cased '.'lith a single laye r of bricks laid n at. so
The bricks measu red 24 x 11 x Scm. including those o f the palace-facade. whose niches are of a simpler type than
usual, omitting the small niches in th.e sides of lite o uter recess. 5 I

3506 [R eign of Udimu ]


According to the pub lished report s2the main walls are built in an alterna tion of three cou rses of headers to une of
st retc hers. with. reeds every fifth course. Wh ilst the face of the walls have this arrangemen t in parts. I found that the
thickness of the wall was co mposed en tirely of headers laid toget her with very little mortar. TIle inside faces o f the walls
have buttresses every four metre s en the long sides, lind every two met res on th e short . These arc 0.8510 wide ami are
bonded in to the mastaba . The palace.facade Uses special bric ks. ranging in size fro m 14 x 7 x 6.5c m to 15 x 7 x 70n.
This size occurs also in Mastaba 1060 at Tarkhan,SJ and is p robably intend ed to be 2 x I x I palms.
Tomb 3 506 has 110 magazines within the superstruc ture. which WJS filled with sand.
01 3. [ me r,.. W. B., C u at Tombs of tile First Dyna sty. 1,1 1-5 s, Pis. 14- 7. ~ 8. ib id.. 76. 4 9. sota; 1'15.. 9 1· 3- SO. i l>id.. 71.
401. ibid.. . 7 5. 4 5. i/lfd.. 7 3. 4 6. Em er y, o p. etc. III . n ..7 &. 11, . 8 ~ 94. 51. una; PI. 85. s r . ibid.. 37-4 1. & Ph.. 4 0. 6 5.
4 7. Em er y, W. B.. Grea t To mhllif rile Firsr DY"4S ry. Ill . 76. $ ). I"clri". W.,'d.. F. .. nd W ~ in WlI I III , C.A-, Ti1,llh.." J de "" ",phis V, i4.

18
3038 (R eign of Adj-ibJs4
Only headers are used in the main walls of the mastaba , and no small bric ks are employe d for the facade. The nich es
r-e oi the same type as those of Tomb 3~71. :-';0 det ails are available of th e co nstruc tio n of the steppe d mound over the
~ ;,.:i :J.l chamber, bu t the cross-walls within the superstructu re are known to have been bon ded A I, whilst th e walls encl osing
::.e pn were of type .-\2•
.An interesting fea ture o f th e lo mb are the bric k-built granaries, which are roofed ove r by corbelling in the brick work,
~ -. ~ .:o:ltin~ the ou te r su rfaces ....i th mud. The brick size is unfortunat ely not given.

•? J JJ (R eign of Adf ib) 5S


The mastaba walls at e b uilt of he aders , wit h an inner lining wall of stret che rs. Buttresses occur alo ng the inside of
this ...."3..l1. and there arc no magazines in the su perstr uctur e. Instead, th e pi t is divided tnto seven roo ms, but t he handing
;-the cross-walls is not recor ded. The facade of the mastaba uses the same size o f bricks as the rest of the structu re, being
: 0 .\ l~ x Zcm.

_~5 0j ( R eign of Kaa ] se


This is a large rubble-fill mastuba with oute r walls built in AI bo nding. At every sixth course of bricks, reeds arc laid
tra nsversely th rough thc walls. s' TIle facade has th e usual niches on th e North , South and East sides, but sim plified 0 11
:.'l ~ west. Th rough out th e- tomb th e bric ks are 23 - 4 x 10-1 x 7cm in size.

The remaining mastabas in the First Dynasty cemete ry at Seqqara do not ha ve the palace-facade, but instead have
~ offering niche at th e South end of the East face. These tom bs are discu ssed belo w, toget her wit h o ther plain
ma stabas o f the Archaic Period. in Secti on 5. Fu rt her examples of pala ce-facade masrabas. however, are foun d at
TldJtan. Giza lind Abu R03:>h.

The mastobas 0 1 Tarkhan.

There arc three palace-faca de mast aba s at Tarkh an, all approxim ate ly dat ed to the feign of Uadji. The deta ils are
-':> follows :

JIj IjO 58
The bond ing of the main walls see ms to be intended to alterna te laye rs of headers and stretc hers. but the re are
-tany irregularit ies. Stic ks and reeds are bid bet ween the cou rses of bric kwo rk to assist bon ding. S~ Wit hin thi s su per-
stru cture lire dividing-walls. bonded A I, which lire not built into the main walls. The bric ks are 23 x 10 x 7cm in size.
with a variation of ±. O. SCIll, whilst for the niches of the facade smalle r br icks at 15 x 7 x 7cm arc used. The recess
_ ~t Sourb cf tile centre of tile East face has a wood en 1100T co mposed of five plank s of wood, the oute r one o f whic h
runs under th e sides of the niche.

_~'J5 0 60

This is a filled rnastuba and consequent ly has no magazines in the supe rst ructu re. Two stzcs of bricks were used .
. :H' of :!4.5 x II. S x Scm for the bulk of the tom b. and another o f 17.5 x 8.5 x 6.5clTl specifically fo r the palace-
:.:.: ;.tde. In general plan and design this mastaba is very similar to num ber 2038, describ ed below.

: ljJ8 6 1
The bricks of this tomb were umforrn th ro ughout the structure measu ring 25 x I :! x 7.5c m. The fourth recess
' re m the Sou th end o f the mastaba. on the East side, has a wood en floor as in to mb 1060. No derails o f th e bonding
~f the ma in walls are recorded.
In the East corridor 01 th e lomb two subsi diary graves were found. 62 having sligh t ly vaulted superstruc tures restin g
-n 3 sand filling. The " rick covering. made of stre tche rs b id alon g th e axis of the vault. was stro ng eno ugh to be self-
supporting when the sand filling ha d been removed, sh owin g ho w a true vault co uld be produced by acciden t. 6 )

!,':'. l-m ,·r y. \\f. R.. err" t T o mhs (I! rh .. Finr Dyu ast.". 1,&2·" $; T'1l. 2 1· )5.
; ;. ibid., 'I s· ' and I~ .. l 6.1
;0). "-me ry. " p. ci t., III , S· IO &. I'b<. 2- 22 .
s ", i bi<L. II.
~~ I'cl ei" , \V.M. I. &. W :l inw ri ~hl . G.A •• ()l~ ci t•• I Jrr. &. /'1. XV· Xt X
;'1. ibi'L , 14 " nd 1'1. XVI
':'0. l'dric , W.M . F. • Tllrkl"'" II. 5· 8 and I'I!>. XV, XVII I
~l. ,11;d., "'5 ''' ' d 1'1•. XV. XV lI l
":. I'c u le. W. .\ l, l'., 1"l1rl(l'IIJl I I. 4 · S. 63. ihid., J>I. XV I

'9
Mastabo Ya f Gi: a.

This large panelled mastaba, dated to the reign o f Uadji, was partially excavated by DaressyM and finished by
Petrie. oS Few facts are recorded abo ut the bric kwo rk, bu t the brick size is known to be 1 1 x 10 x 6cm. Datcssy
states: .. u s briq ues se nt generalement couchdes dans le sens de la longuer..." hy which he must mean that there
were mostly st retchers visible o n the wall races. Detailed measurements of the facade were made by Peine . and these
are discussed below in Appendix I.

Palace-Facade Tombs 0 1 Abu Roasti.

Mon tet excavated a number of to mbs at this site, o f which numbers I, II, and VII were panelled mustabas. He gtvcs
little detail in his report 6l> aml only in the case of tomb VII is any inform ation (Ill the brickwork given. This mastaba
had niches alo ng the faces of the same type as those o f Saqqara tomb 3507. TIle style of the mast aba dates it at the
curliest to Udlmu and at the latest to Ka-a. All Interesting and unusual t ulck bond is used in bo th the tomb itself and
in the encl osing wall. This bond is typ e eE l of the Corp us. and uses headers and stretchers on their edges altemutiug
with courses of bricks bid fla t. The laying of bricks on edge is very un usual m this period. except when used in Isolated
groups 10 adjust the levels of the cour ses. In this tomb , however, the bricks arc deliberat ely and regularly laid on edge,
in a style which usually occurs only in the Roman age. It may be significan t that there is only one other large monument
of the First Dynasty w'hich employs regular layers of bricks on edge. this being the tomb of Semc rk het at Abydos. 67
A point worth not ing is tha t the bricks have to bc made with the thic kness equal to half the breadth to achieve the bond
I' El . .....hereas the usual ratio o f breadth to thickness is 3: 2. The brick Sill.' itself is no t given in the report.

Revival of Palace-Facade ill Dynasties II and Ill.

Apart from the First Dynasty tombs so far described. the re are certain mastebas o f the Second and Third dynasties
which revive the use of the palace-facad e. The style persists into the Fourth Dynasty at Meydum. but th ere the niches
arc of a simplified form, 0 11 The se examples from ~leyd u m arc dealt with in a later section. The othe r tombs 10 be consid-
ered here are Gila T, of the late Second or early Third Dynasty. and Saqq ara 240 5 and 3070. bo th dated to the Third
Dynasty.

Giza Mauaba T l>'l


TIlis is a very large tom b measuring app roximately 55 x. 28 melres. It is enclosed hy a thick wall, built of bricks
whose average dimensio ns are 24 x 12 x x.Scm alt ho ugh some examples were do wn to 20 x 10 x 7cm. In the
mastuba itself th e size of the bricks was 14 x 12 x R.5em. like the larger ones of the wall. TIle palace-facade used
special b ricks measuring only 15 x 7 x 6.5cm. No details of the bon ding arc available.

Saqqara Tomb 2405 (Th e Tom b of Hcsy] 70


The niched Facade is limited ttl the East face of ' he mastaba and enclosed by a corrid or chapel. The brick sizes
are the only structural details recorded. being 2 1 x 13 x ('?)crn for the mavtaba and 14 x 7 x 7cm for the recessed
panelling. As in all niched to mbs a coat 01plaste r covered the facade. in this case being zcrn thick.

Saqqara Tomb 3070 7 I


As in the tomb of Hcsy. the panelling is enclosed in a corrido r chapel on the EaST side o f the mastaba. Special
bricks measuring l Ox 5 x 5cm are used for the niche const ruction. However, the niches in the antechamber of the
South chapel are made by a differen t tech nique. This involves the use of pre-cast mud d abs fastened to the rnastabu
by means of wooden plugs. 72 11le same material was utilized to make th e lintels which occur over the otrertna niches
iJ
of Archaic mastebas. Emery stales tha i the mud ", :IS reinforced with S!lips of linen and dried unde r pressure. h UI
how Ihis pressure was applied is unkno wn.

04. .~ SA.t::. 6 ( I Q 0 5 ). v-rr,


6 5. I'<-lri .., W. M.r-., G.....I, & R "f"'~ 2-3 ~" d l~s. I I. Vt
6 6. K",,,,t 7. (1938). I IH.
6 7. Scc ~ lo"v~ , 1'. 14.
nil. K..i' I" ·I . (j. /\., T",,, h l),·",.I" p m {"u r, ~ 2 2·.1.
69. Cov' n gtull . o.. A SA c' 6 ( I Q(lS) , 19 3 f r. & 1''' l rk , 0l,.cir•. 7 & PI. v n
7U. Quiiwll, 1.1"" 7'1I ~ POlll b of f i<'_.-". " anim, !'l ~ . I· V I. 72. Ihld., I I.
7 1. Em er )', ,I f:A 54 (1968) , /1-3 73 . b t", r y, W.Il .. Ardw ;c /,y,'p l, 18 2.

20
F(~. 12 Pre-Cast niches. Saqqara
Tomb 3070.

SID IMARY: PALACE·FACADE MASTABAS

Sire & Tomb Bond, main walls Cross-walls Brick Size (em) Notes

Xaqada:
mastuba A l l , A7 29 x13.5 x7 End . wall bend A3
26 x13 ;(8
26 x l2 x 7
25.5 x 12.5 x 7
17 x 9 x 7 (i\ iehes)
Saqqam:
3357 All headers C5 23 xl 2 x 7 Sticks betwee n
3-:7 1 Llayers of he aders: C5 29x '? x7 courses.
1 o f stretchers.
~1 85 Nc information availabl e.
3503 2 layl"rs ofH to I o f S C5
3 5~ A7 A3 2 I x l 1.5 x 6.5 Encl. wall Al
_~03 5 All Ileaders AI . A2 23x 13 x 5 Reeds every 9t h course
17x5:1.5
.~O3 6 Al Al 24 x 10 x 5 Encl. wall Al
.~ :'O 7 3 1nyers of H 10 I o f S Irregular. 24x l l x 5 Reeds every 5 -6 co urses
.~ 5 0 6 A7 14 x 7 x 6.5 Reeds every 5th course
15 x 7 .\ 7
3038 All Headers AI ,A2 ? x l l x?
31 II AllHea ders 26 >..12x 7 Simple niches
3505 Al 23--4 x 10- I x 7 Reeds every 6th course
Tarkhan:
1060 Irregular AI Al 23 xl 0 x7 Sucks & reeds used.
~O :' O

:038
Gi=a
24.5 x 11.5 x 6
17.5 x 8.5 x 6.5
15 x 12 x 7.5
}
Sand-fill mastab as.

"
A bu R(){ull:
21x lOx6

\. JI e El End . wall also eEl


Palace- Facade s tastabas later than the First Dynasty.
Gi:a:
T 24x12x8.5
15 x 7 x 6.5
Saqqara.
~JO :'i 21xI3x ? Solid brick rn astabu

3070
.,
""
14.\ 7 x 7
IOx 5x 5 Small bricks for niches.

21
5. Archaic Mastabas of Plain or Two-Niche Type.

Palace-facade disappea rs OIt the end of the First Dynasty , and th e sta ndard maslaba of th e remainder of the Archaic
Period hils plain walls, us ually with a No rth and South o fferi ng niche. Examples o f this type begin to ap pear in the
late First Dynasty at Saqq aru. most dating fro m the reign o f Ka-u. The most imp or tant of th ese is Saqqara Tom b
3500; 4 lh e subsidiary graves of .....hich have been described ah ove. on pages 10- 11. The o the r to mbs of this grou p
are 3120, 3 121. 33 38 and " Tomb X" ,7S m e last being a solid mastab a. As the informat ion about th e bric kwor k of
these tom bs is rat her meagre. it is all given in tabular form on page 25.
The following general observations may be made about the const ruction of mastab as of the Seco nd and Third
Dynasues--, They are usually compos ed of a th ick ou te r wall of bric k. with a ru bble or mud fillin g. Small tombs.
howe ver, are frequently made of solid brickwork, and th is me thod of const ruc tion is extended to large masta bas
76
in the Third Dynasty for exa mple Saqqara 240 5. The comm on, almos t universal, bonding uf the main walls is
type A2 or A3, whilst 1\6 occurs less frequen tly. The use of the se bonds mean s th at the grea t mass o f th e brick work
is composed of headers only , laid perpend icularly with respect to the face of the wall. Th is leads to th e forma tion o f
a diagonal jo int through th e angles of the mastab a. (See Fig.13)
Fig,13 Comer bonding i/l
ty pical mastaba.

Many to mbs have layers o f edger-headers showing in the bric kwork, these being used for levelling. The use of
bricks on edge raises th e level of the co urse by about acm with b ricks of this age, the reby enabling the builders to
compensate fo r slo ping gro und or irregularity of the ho rizo ntal join ts. This way of dealing with changes in level was
used in Egyp tian bric kwork at all peri ods. The bricks are most often composed of black mu d and chopped straw , but
there is also frequent use o f bricks made from dese rt raIl (desert gravel). These co ntain just su fficient mud to he ld
the gravel together. and have a distinct pale yellow colour. They are most com mon in th e smaUer mast abas at this
period, but arc used fo r all S i 7;C ~ of tombs in th e Old Kingdom. The size of the bric ks is very little different from th at
used in the First Dynasty, although there is a tendency to wards a slight in crease. )lost frequen tly the bricks are 22-
26cm in length. In nearly all C3.)CS the brickwo rk is cove red over with a coa t of white ned mud-plaster. This plaste r
contains a great amo unt of chopped straw f Arabic libn) to give it pro tectio n from weath eri ng, Mud is ab o used for
the mortaring of the join ts. alt hough someti mes raj1 is ut ilized for this purp ose. The mo rta ring is carelessly do ne, and
is confined to th e horizon tal joint s.

Naga ed-Der.

The Secon d Dynasty co rbelled to mbs at this site have already been described (p.12); thei r superstruct ures are known
to have bee n rnastabas hu t har dly any brickwork has survived. There are a number o f small mastabas with :'Iiorth and
Sou th offeri ng niches at the site, examples being ;-';.4 77 1, 5302 and .J506. 77 Th eir const ruction is very unifor m. the
walls being built in type X l or A6 bo nding, and the bricks averaging 26 x 12.S x 7cm in size. Most o f th ese tom bs have
vertical outer walls. h UI some have a slight hatter on th e face. In early exam ples this batte r is obtained by leaning the
en tire wall in wards from the base. but later by step ping the bricks inward slightly every second co um. 78

Beil Klwlla{.

Tomb KJ. .
This is a very la rge (86 X 46 rn) solid brick mastaba dated 10 the reign o f Djose r. 7 9 Prac tically all the bricks are
laid as head ers. alth ough it is likely th at the original face would have showed alternate co urses of headers and
stre tchers, these having weath ered away. TIle brickw ork W3$ laid in sections fro m the exteri or inwar ds, finishing at
7-:r.--rmu r . W. Il., G~lI. t TQmbs Qfr l,r Flnt D y 'I IUt.I'. Ill . 98- 102, an d I'ls. 11*- 1 20. 7 5. Ibid.. I. 10 1· 129.
76. S.... Qui h ..l l. J.F"., 7"" Tomb Qf flr sy. 77. M<lc.., A.C., N rljrll ..d./JCr. II, 22· 24 . O l h"r nx . in C.. mer er v SOO 3r.. N. SH.
511S & 689. ~ e Il...;"n er, G.A., NIlj{IJ .. d-Drr. til, 2 20, 224 , 24So6. 18. Mac e, (>1'. el f.. t 1.
19. t; arsta n8 . S. , .\1~" u.m1J ~"d Edt K h lJllaf, lI- lt. I'I•. VI_V I!

22
the stairway and shafts. The cons truction of th e brickwork in secti ons, separated by a clean joint right through the
mass. may have been to allo w the bricks to dry out, but is more likely to be connecte d wit h an in te m alt umulus
structu re as existed in Saqqara Tom b 3038. An import ant innovatio n occur s in th e descending passage of the tom b,
as this is roo fed by a bric k vault, resting at its upper end on a brick arch. This is paralleled by ano ther example fro m
8o
rcmb K} at Beit Khallaf The arc h is co rnpcse d o f bricks on edge (ty pe c I) and is a single cou rse in thickness.
Tomb K2 8 1
like tom b KI, this mastaba is built in sectio ns and has a vaulted stairway passage. It is dated to the time of
Sanakh t and is a lwi n rnastab a with North and Sou th shafts. The vau lt over th e stairway is built in inclined courses
Hype dl of the Corpus) and rests against an arch of type d (0.5 ). In some cases th e b ricks of the arch have been
shaped into the req uired wedge-form by chipping or by adding mud. 82 Th is is the earliest well-at test ed arch so far
discove red in Egypt .
The other large mastahas at Bcit Khallaf are not repo rted in det ail, but to mb KS had a corbel-vaul t over the
descent to the substructure. 8) It is strange that cor belling should be used here whe n true vaults were being e mployed
in the nearby to m bs KI and K2.

Reqaqnah
11 4
Twu tom bs at t hls site da te fro m th e Thi rd Dynasty : nu mbers Rl and R40. Both o f the se em ploy the typ e
cl (O.5 ) arch over th e desce nding passage, and R l h3S vau lts used in co njuncti on with the arches. 8 5 Th e ex te rior
faces of masta ba R I show alte rnate co urses of hea de rs and st retche rs, so the thick ness bond ing is mu st prob ably
A2 or A3_

Tura.

Tomb 2 7. \\'.1
This ts a sand-filled mastaba with a bric k-lined sha ft. 86 Th e walls of the pit are bo nded with two lay ers o f
st retchers to one of he aders. and some bricks on edge are used for levelling.

Saqqara.

C111 i ~ is the largest cemetery of the Archaic Peri od, hu t it is uufonunately only pertly published . Quibell excavat ed
a large number o f tom bs of the Second and T hird Dynasties, the majouty being rubble-fi lled brick mastab as. 8 7 The
hrick bo nding in these tombs is no t too regular A I , A2 o r A3, the choice be tween the last two being dependent on
the thic kness of th e wall. Some tombs also make frequ ent use of bond A6. which is the same as A3 except that the
st retcher course is doubled. ~ 111S1 of th e to mbs arc built of black mud-brick but some of the smaller r nastaba s use toj/-
bricks, examples being '2 1J I /2, 2149 , 2 166 alit! 23 70. The cons tructional features of th e Archaic mastahus at Saqqara
arc Stl uniform that they can he co llect ively described: The brick work was invariab ly co vered over wil h whitened mud-
plaster, from 2 to ocm in thick ness. although a few to mbs usc yello w plaste r made from lull. Mortar was placed in the
ho rizo ntal joints only, and is far more frequent ly co mposed of tafl than of mud. Layers of reeds 1)(;I,:U r bet ween the
brick co urses in many tombs, and are laid bo t h along and across the axis o f the walls. The shafts and stairways o f the
masta bas are often strengthe ned and re tai ned by bric k walls. bon ded AI , and the stai rs themselves are some t imes built
of brick , each step bei ng formed of a layer of headers over a laye r of Siretche IS_ In other cases a single course of brick
on edge is used for the slept The sizes o f the bricks are fairly close ly grad uate d in th is cemetery , as the examples be low
illustrate:
24-- 5 x 11 :\ 7-&m
24- 5 x 11.5 x 6.5
26 x 12- 12.5 '>.: 10
22.5 x 12 x 8
21-2 x IO.5 x 7
20x I0.'>.:7
2I x lO.S -I lx6
KH. r: am lll l l~. I.. 77,~ TI ,ircl I:ifvpriall {) y ",u t y . 1'1.. 14. 1i14. G ars lall l;, J•• n, ~ Tlli rcJ £Xypriall DJ' nan y . 11 · 3. J'l •. tVA UII<J R.
iii!. C a r<ta np.:, J" M alt a.l ll a and s etr K ll al/ a[. 1 1-2, 1'1s. XV ll -XV llI 8S, ma; 1'1s. 5,6 a nd 14.
8 2. Ga n t a nr. J " TI, .. Third Eg.l'l" ill ll D)'" a.• ry, J ~. t 4. 86. J un ke r, H.. Fr/edit "!'n T"ral~ 25· 6.
IU . {;u " tung , J . . MIl I' ll sl1 r1 and Rdl K l lI/llaf, I S, PI. X XV. f1 '. Q ui t-ell, J . F., A rdw lc M au abas, p assi ,, ~

23
Here the sizes all fall between 20 and .: ! 6cm for the length. whilst the breadth varies less. from 10 to I ~ .5cm . Bricks
seem 10 have been o f iI fairly uniform small size th ro ughou t Egypt at this date, and these figures may be compared
with a range o f brick lengths covering 24- 28cm at Qau 8 11 and 24- .::!6cm at Naga ed-Dcr.""
Aparl from the great mastaba-tombs of the Archaic Period. small vaulted graves were discovered at Saqqara by
Qutbell, 90examples being QS.2 l .::!5 and 1 126. These are covered by a brick vault, built in c 1 bonding, and a single
course in thickness. TIle gaping joi nts between the bricks on the ou tside o f the arch were filled with potsherds. These
arches arc of the same ty pe as those in the mastabus at Dei! Khallaf and belong to the same dynasty. Arches are used
only over sho rt spans at this date; that o f Q5.2 125 covers O.9 2m.
The table below summarises the deta ils of the tombs described in Section 5 and includes supplementary
info rmation fro m cemeteries which do not merit individual lreatmenl.

SUMMARY

Locatio n Bonds used Brick Size (em) Notes


Beit Khallaf"
KI A1 or A3 28xI2.5'l:9 Vault of type dl and c l arch in shaft.
K2 d I vault and c I arch in shaft.
K; Corbel-vault in shaft.
Reqaqnolr:
RI Al m A3 c I arches and d I vault in shaft.
R40
cl arch in shaft .
Tura:
17.w.1 1 layers of S to J o f H Edger-headers for levelling.
Qau:
419
483
485
50. 24 x 11.5 x 6.5 These dimensions arc from subst ructures
55 1
of tombs at Oau, included here for
562
comparison.
829
402
443
484
; \4
8;5
81 6
} 25.5 x I 1.5 x 7.5
to 2(1.5 x 11.5 ,\ 7.5
All these tombs are dated to S.D.79- 84.

852
1%2
1738
1742
3112
} 28x l 3x Hto
28 lo; 14 xf)

25.5 x 11.4 x 6.5 Dated by vase fragments 10 lle rcpsekhemut,


Naga ed-Dcr:
4 506 2 1ayers o fS to lof l l
5 147 XI
5104 AI
528 XI 24 5 x 13 4>:.6
A rmant:
I.::!07 2J xl h 8
~6x 13 x6
~6 x 11.5 x 6

tlR. Ihunl Dn. G•• e ar. a lld Badarl. I, I ) .


119. Mot«. A. C•• Nax a ..<J.-lk~. II . 10.
90. Qu ihe l1. o,," cu:.. 1'1. XXX It

24
Location Bond s used Brick sizes (em) No tes
Saqqara:
3500 Class A 22 x 12.9 x (?) Sand -fill mastab a.
3338 Al 24 x l l x 5
3 120 AI 22 x l l x 8
3 12 1 AI 22x l lx8
Tomb X Al 24 x lOx5 Solid bric k tomb .
':::30 7 2S lon g.
2 173 0 27x I4 x8.5 taj7 bricks
'::: 172E 22 long.
303 0 A2 or 1\3 22 x 11 x 9
3050 A2 , A3 some A6 24 ~5 x 12 - 12.5 x 7-8 tafl mor tar. Edger -headers for levels.
35 18 1\2 , A3 21 2 x 10.5 11 x 7 Reed layers in brickwor k.
He/wan' Som e Type A bon ding in mast ahas. Plaster over brickwork. No other information available.

For more infor mat ion on the h rickwork of archaic mastaba s at Saqqara. see the chapter
by A.J. Spencer on the brick architectu re of the site. in th e final report of the rece nt
exc avatio ns by the Egypt Explora tion So cie ty. ( Fort hco ming)

6. Brick-bu ilt Tombs of the Old Kingdom and First Interm edia te Period.

111e mas taba con tin ues as the standard type o f tom b th ro ugho u t this period, but many exa mp les arc made of sto ne
and have no brickwork in the ir structure. Mastabas b uilt wh olly or pa rtly of br ick are not, ho wever, uncommon an d
the usc of vaulted chambers is greatly extended in bo th superstruct ure and subst ru cture. Corb el-vaults arc also common
for coveri ng the bu rial, but, unlike the corbelled graves of thc Second Dyn asty, these have 110 stairway entrance to th e
substru ctu re. Th e features of th e bric k constructio n are illustr ate d by the descrip tions of pa rticu lar mon uments given
below.

Giza.

At the West extremity of the great ceme tery of sto ne mastabas West of th e pyramid of Khufu , there lies a gro up of
sma ll brick tomb s which were excavated by Fisher. ') I These are rubble-filled mastabas with br ick casing-walls and sha fts.
The bri cks of the ou ter walls arc s tepped inwards slightly <I t ouch course to give a batter to the face. or alte rn ativel y , thi s
is produced by thicke ning the wall towa rds its base. ( Fig.14) Amon g th e earlier tom bs th e bric ks have sizes of 35 x 17
x 11.5cm . or as little as 28 x 15 x cern. Later. bricks up to 44 x 22 x l Scm arc used, alt ho ugh th e avera ge is less than thi s.
TIle casing walls are one or one and a half brick-leng ths in thickness, and are bo nded Al or A2, as are th e retaining walls
of the sha fts .
(0) (b)
FiJ:.1 4 Types of brick casing-walls, Giza

All the ex posed brickwork was originally co aled with mud -plaster , which in m any cases is of a yello w colour in this
ceme tery. Arches of type c 1 arc used a bove doorways, an d d l or cd I vault s co ver the ch ambers in the superstr uc tures.
Some of these vaults arc especially interes ting because they are built wi th speci ally-formed hnc ks, with rounded moul dings
on their edges, to imit ate the app earanc e of a primitive vault of reeds.92 For this r.eason the plast er on the un dersides of
the va ults is usually pain ted red, the colou r of dr ied reeds. Examples of these " reeded" roo fs occur in tombs G.209 8 and
30.B. Further use o f special vaulti ng bric ks was found in some tombs excavated by Abu Bakr in 194 9 - 50. 9 3 Tw o of the
mastahas discove red ha d bricks shaped to copy reed vaults , and in aile case, the to mb of Nefcri. these bricks were employed
to bu ild a very flat arch, not the semici rcu lar vault generally fo und in Egypt ian arch itecture. The se special br ick s are disc-
usscd in Chapter 15 and the details of tu e arches in wh ich they occ urred are included in Chapter 11.
Some examples 01" dom ed roofin g are known from the Giza cemet ery. The to mb of Seneb had J chamber covered by
a dome '14 for me d of cou rses of st retchers in circles, tilted inwards by raising the outer edges wit h chips of st one . Conseq u-
enlly r11C circles decrease in diamete r as the height increases. an d also incline inwards until th ey mee t ar the apex . A simila r
roof was usud in t ile rnastuba of Nefer i, in wh ich was the flat arch me nti one d above .
'11. l'ish ~ r, C, Tilt· Mill'" C~ ",e t'"'J' at Giza. 9 3. Ah u liakr, r.'xc<I"<ltiUllJar G'i~a 1949- 1950, 110· 1
92 . F i,hC'r , C. , up. cit. , I>~ ,,,,,1 1 16-7. 94 . ~: n !: e1tJa " h , R .. A ncien/Egyptian Maso",y . 18 6 . & J u n ke r. H .. Gi .a V, )D-J.

25
Some brickwor k occu rs amon g the stone mastabas at Giza in the co nstruction o f ex te rior offering chapels. .....hi.:t
roofed wi th vaults of ty pe dl , In tumb G. I 203, the well-preserved Nort h wall of the offering roo m had fo ur \~ina.:-.
formed of slits in the brickwork five to seven co urses high . separated by parti tions half a brick wide. 95 A similar .
was found in G. 1406. Oth er examples of exteri or brick-buill chape ls occur in G. 120 5. 2 100. 4 360. 4460 and others,

Tura

In the ce metery at Tura some closed corbelled graves were fou nd. 9 6 bdonging to t he Fourth o r Fifth Dynasty.
An exam ple is tomb I O.pS . which has lining-walls consisti ng o f fo ur co urses of stretchers. above which are anothe r
four co urses of brick for th e vault. These are laid as heade rs with a thi ck coating of mud on the outside. (F ig. I S)
Grave 27.v. 1 was also of this ty pe.

Fig,J5 Section of tomb l O.p.5 at TUFa.

Abusir

Around [he temple o f th e py ramid o f Neuse rrc are severa l b ric k trun bs of the Fifth or Six th Dynasties. 9 711lOSC
of the Hfth Dynasty origi nally had ex ternal vaulted brick chapels. such as occ ur at Gila . The la te r graves co nsist of
small brick maste bas with th e burial chambers roo fed by dl vaults, Dther vault ed tombs occur ne ar the Solar Tempi.:
of Userkaf. 9 8 sligh tly 10 the Nor th of the py ramid field ; these graves employed vaults of ty pe c l ( 1.0 ).

No rth Saqqara

Brick is used in the construction of various type s of to mbs at Nor th Saqqara. in so me cases for th e entire struct ure
and in othe rs only as a casing arou nd a sto ne core. There are a numbe r of examples of'th e latter use in mast abas oi-
Fifth Dynasty ; the in ner parr o f the solid superstructu re is built of roug hly-luid stone blocks. aroun d which is a c ~
of brick abo ut a me t re in thickness. leaning inwards against the stonework. The bricks used for the cas ing are very
m ade of desert tafl and usually measure 28 x I ~ x 9 to 30 x 14 x Scm. although larger sizes can occu r. The bonding
the brick wor k is generally of the A2 ty pe. and black mud-plaster is very co mmon ove r Ihe surfaces. Som e tombs h~
num ber of simp le niches in the East face, and broken-off stretchers are used occasionally 10 simplify the co nstr uct !
of these. 9 9
Brick is used in conj unction with sto ne in cert ain to mbs for purposes ether than making an oute r casing for the
mastaba . In many instances the posit ion is reversed. and the casing is stone-built whilst th e inner core is of b rick.
Exam ples of th is occur in the Teti and Unas pyramid cemete ries. where brick is also frequently used for vaulted
roofing and lining shafts. TIle descrip tion s of indi vid ual mastahas given below show the characteristic po ints of th e
brickwork in the different forms o f t om b.

Teti Pyra mid area.

KIwi. 10 0
The to mb is small. with two chambe rs roofe d by d l vaults fo rmed o f a single cou rse of tap -bric ks measu ring 26.5
x 13 x 7crn. TIle largest span b 1.35m.
Dcsi: 1 1,1 )

This lo mb also has two vau lted chambers, th e vau lt ing being ty pe cdl (1. 0 ). The plaste r on the underside of the \'!'!
was paint ed red. a feature not ed 1IIso at (i i·n . (Sec above. p.2S) Ail ihe bric ks measure 22- 4 x 12 x Scm, and they are
bonded very rou ghl y and irregularly in the o ute r walls. Over th is poor brickwor k is a thi n coat of grey mud-plaster in
'H . Reb" ... . G.A.. Hi~""'y "I ,/I .. C I:lI.'V<'c-1Vpolis. l. I K8.
9 6. JUIl k" •• " ''; ('<11'''1 1.. Tu ' tI"- 20.1. & l1s. · x VU-.'( VIII
97. Ru r.:ha rdr. L . C",/>dc-" A.",tIl dr~ "lJ" ix~ N n.$t" ,.... 109· 1 34. \ -1 1· 156. ::l fld ... .. 20 -7.
98 . K... k" . II.• D.l., s""" .." / d llgt rm' d.-., A' O" i!:s Usc-,iu/. I. 34.
'19. 1'0' m ore in fu t m Hl on u n the h, ic kw or k in l um h, of l hi ~ l ~ p~ . ~ " " t he 1"."' l l ~ a l i {)" q u o l~, l ,m page 2 5.
10 0. S:!ad. Z. Y.. A S A e 4 3 , 4 5 ~_6 . \ 0 l. Or io "" n. E. • A SA E' 43. 505---(, a n d "F" on pla n.

26
which lines have been dra wn to imitate the appearance of well-bon ded courses of headers and stretc hers in alternation.
This is an inte resting example oi an attem pt by th e builde rs to hid e had internal work under a fine facade, and the tech-
niqu e is illust rated in Plate 46A.

Unnumbered mastaba West of the Tomb of Mereruka:


A large masraha, no w mostly bu ried , was excavated hy ZY. Saad at this site , 10 2 and it is of interest because of the
dimensio ns of the mud-bricks of which it is b uilt. Th ese are 52-3 x 26 x 19cm in size. which is certainly int ended t o
be 7 x 31h x 21h palms, o r 28 x 14 x 10 co mmo n digits. It is interesting to note that the tom b of Ka-em-heset, which
lies only a few met res to th e sou th of th is mastaba , also used bricks of th is size, an d furt hermore had pillars co mposed
of bric ks a cubit square (53 x 53 x 23 cm ). 103
Fur ther info rmation on tombs in the Te u Pyra mid Cemetery is given in the tab le on page 34 .

Unas Pyra mid area.

Tomb of /la/shfe/. 104


Brick is used for the bod y o f the mastaba, whilst the walls of the internal chambers were lined with stone. The bricks
are co mposed of mud containing limestone chips and potsherds. and are laid in A2 or A3 bo nding with reeds between
the co urses at irregular int ervals. There is very litt le chopped straw in the bric ks, whi ch measur e 31 x 15.5 x Scm. On th e
~otth side of the lom b th ere are thr ee arches in the br ickwork; two are d ummies for the sake of symmetry. but one leads
by an arched tunnel to th e bur ial shaft. Th is tu nnel is roofed with an arc h of type c I (2 .5), a form of bon ding also used in
the oth er arches, bu t they have two courses of bricks in place of five. The spa n o f the mai n tunnel is I.SSm, an d its stde-
walls are built nf srretchers,

Tomh oflmpi 10 5
TIle b rickwork of this to mb has been greatly eroded. but enough remains to sho w tha i the bricks were simil ar
to those used in th e mastaba o f Haish tef having potsherds and sto nes included in them an d being 32- 3 x 16 x I lcm
in size. They were laid-in mo rtar fo rmed o f loll. an d in A l bo nding. but no reeds were placed bet ween the courses.

Tom b of MelllL 106


Against the East side of this ston e mastaba is a mass of bric kwork, bonded A2, an d con sisti ng entirely of taj7-bricks
measuring 30 -1 x 14.5 x cern.
Keirer. 10 7
Bricks of dark grey mud , 27 x 13 x Scm in size, are used in this lo mb. The ha nding is A I and is rat her ro ugh, the
irregular gaps in the wor k be ing filled up with gravel and plastered over with mud.
Built ugutnsr this tomb is anot he r mastaba whose owner is unknown. The bricks here are larger, at 36 x I S x I 1- 12cm.
and arc bon ded A2 to some degree. Some parts of thi s brickwork are very ru ugh and use brick s on edge or lumps of
mort ar to close the gaps.
There arc a num be r of smaller mastab us in the Unus Pyramid Cemete ry which have remains of bric k co nst ruction. an d
details of th ese are included in th e summary 0 11 p age 34. The use of bot h mud - an d lafl -brick . the class A bond ing, and
th e employment of mo rtar mad e fro m tafl are ch aracteristic features of these tombs.
A few brick tom bs at Saqqara sta nd away from the Old Kingdom pyr amid cemeteries, t o the Nor th an d West of th e
St ep Pyr amid enclo sure, lite most Interesting of these, fro m the stru ct ural viewpoint, being the mastaba of Sebekemkhent. I oH
ntis is built enti rely o f yclluw (aj7·bricks measuring 33 x 16 x 12cm . bo nded Al in th e thinner walls and A2 in the th ick
masses of brickwork. Reeds occ ur between th e bricks, laid both transversely and longitu dinally in th e walls, five co urses
apart o n the No rth side. On the West face of the tomb is a door roofed by a c 1 arch of a single ring of bric k; an ot her arch
on the East side is also c l but is two courses in thickness. A vault of ty pe d l is used to cove r one o f the internal rooms in
the supcrs truc tu re. Some at te mp t has been made to point all the jo ints on the faces of the walls. but in the inner work
the mort ar is rou gh and limited 10 th e hor izonta l in te rstices only.
Two bric k mastabas u an d in the area j ust North -East of the famou s to mb o f Pt ahhotcp, bo th built in A3 bonding.
The bricks co ntai n nu merous inclusion s of sto nes and potsherds, just like the br icks of cert ain to mbs in the Unas Pyramid
Cemetery . Both n f these mastabas originally had mu d-plaster 0 11 the o uter surfaces o r the waIls to a thi ckness of 1- J.5cm.
The brick sizes arc given in the table on page 3~.

10 2. S~~"' . A SA H 4 3. 452 a nd i'l. XX XVII !,.


Ill.'. Q " l.....l1 . J.E. & llayl<·r. A.LO. K., rot P)·ram il1.. Nn..,lr se ». 19· 20. 10 6. SUd. 1. Y., u p. <:1t.. 6 87-69 0.
104 . Su d. /~ V.. ..-SA F. 40 ( 1940 ). 68S~. 10 7. h " p<K;lloR, ~ Spe ocer• .-'.J.. O rim uzlia 4 3 , (1 9 14),1'1. L
IO!'. 1'<... pc";li un•.'ICC S ~n cer. A. J., Orit'" r~/;" 4 3 (1 9 14 ). t'I. L l Oll. La uer , J.I'•• A SA E Sl (l9 SS ). ISS· 9 a n d SS f U SS). 2 0 7· 5 1.

27
South Saqqara:

Th e tombs of Sout h Saqqa ra. dating mostly fro m the Sixt h Dyn asty, make extensive use of brick vaults t o roo i :!ir.
cham bers, bot h above an d belo w ground. Two mastaba s excavated hy Maspcro. 109bdunging to Rokh u and Xen ki.
have a st rong bri ck va ult ove r the burial cham ber, in one case three courses in thickn ess, and in th e othe r fou r. In '
examp les the bond used is ty pe c l .
Th e tombs discovered by Jequicr I I 0 around the pyramid o f Pepi II are of similar form. A brie f list of the main :
of bric kwor k in the se mastabas will show t he ty pes of vault ing in commo n use.

,U 1II. ( Tomb of Mit I II


TIle descen ding passage is covered by a bric k vault two courses th ick, and another vault , of fo ur courses . stands
the roo f o f the bu rial chambe r. Th is latt er is to take the: pressure o ff the stone ro ofi ng of the chamber . Th e larger
is built in ed t bonding, the inner inclin ed rings suppor ting the bricks above .
jU v. 111
TIle pits give access to burial cha mbe rs roofed with vaults of typ e dl.

,1L Vl t1 3
TIle sub stru ct ure has br ick relieving arche s over the stone roo fs. wh ilst at ground level are rwo roo ms wi th vaulted
of typ e c1(3.0).
' 14
M. VIl
Brick relieving arches cover the Slone roo f of the burial chambe r.

A-LX ll S
Th e pit co mm unicates with the bu ria l cham ber by me an s of a passage roofed with a cl{4.0 ) vault .
The rem aind er of the to mbs in this cemetery also make mu ch use of brick arches and vaults. Comm on bo nd s em
for these arc c l or cdl , with mu ch mud -plaster covering th e bric kwork. The walls of the m asta bus ale usually bonder
or A2.

Dostmr.

Th e group o f tombs just North o f th e pyramid of Amenemhat II. and datin g from the time of Sneferu . is cornprsee
small brick masta bas. some of which were face d with stone . I 16 TIle only feature which can be no ted is the f requen t
of brick vault s to roof th e ch ambers in the superstructure. No det ails of th e cons truc tion o f th ese vaults are available,
to Tomb J a bric k wall was discovered. h uilt on a wavy plan like th e encl osure walls of certain Middle Kingd om py
De Mor gan dated this wall as co ntempo rary with the mastaba s, 117showing that thi s mod e o r co nst ruc tio n was not a
featu re of the Middle Kingdom only .
The o ther mas ta bus o f th e Old Kingdom at Dashur, those Sou th of th e py ramid o f Sesost ns III. also show the use
of arches and vaults . Tomb 7 of tha t grou p ha s a nu mber o f sm all ch am be rs roo fed wit h vaults o f type c2{O.5 ). t I S

M eydllm.

A series (If mas raba s at Meydu m were originally built with plain walls with Nor th and South niches. but we re la ter
mo dified by the addi tio n of an c ute r Coat of brick work , which . besides retainin g the main niches, added sim plified
panellin g on all four sides of the tom b. 119 Details of the co ns truc tion of this pa nelling are no t reco rde d , exce pt for
some brick sizes fro m tombs 16 and 17. 120 These measu reme nts a re stated in the ta ble on page 34.
The substruct ures of the Meydum to m bs are largely built of stone, bUI a few ma ke use o f th e brick arch to cover
the ent rance passage. In num ber 3'13 of Rowe 111 the vaul t co nsists o f four rings of brick . but the bon din g is nut
11 1
clear. Tomb 552 used an arch of type d . resti ng on stone walls as sprin ging, and spanning abou t two mcl res.

109 . Ma, p. ro. G.• M M AF 2 , 19 4- 6. 1 16. n- \ 1""311. r., F aull/,·s ~ D 4('11 0ll' . I H94 ·S. 1· 2 3.
110. l . <ltl ier, G.• C<mr"mporo i"s de J'~plll. p"SSi>'L 11""1. i" id., 3.
I l l. it>id. , 9-23. 118 . i/'oid.. Mars- JOl in 1894 . 13-4 .
11 2. ihid..300 1. 119. !'e1rie. W. J.1 . L . Med ''''L IS.
113. ibid.. 31.40. 120. I'e trk . W. M. F.. .."k y J"", " "d M''I1.phls f ll. 17 a nd 12.
1 14. Hq u i ~ r, (, ., o p. d r.. 4 0054 . 12L lI.e ;" ,,,·r. To m " D..\~·["p"" ·,,t. 108·9.
II s. Ibid. , 62·6. a" d I1l'. 73. In. e u: 2 0 9.

28
Som e of the mastabas in this cemetery had timber ties built into th e brickwork in irregular fashio n. Th ese lies
-;.-t~t no t nccessartlv st ratetulc es. but had bra nches running off in various di rections. so muc h so that Petne at
::~:;t tho ught that a'n enu re IIeC- had been built into the structure of the tomb of Rahotep .l 13

Dara.

At this site. near Manfalut , 3. masraba cemet ery was discovered 12 4 containing so me ext remely large tombs of the
.n e Sixth Dyn astv.
.vtastaba ofJd i 125
.-\ lar ge square tomb within an en closu re wall, wit h multiple shafts and a chapel on the East side. The enclosure wall
seems 10 be intended to measure 100 x 100 cubits. whilst the mastaba is 50 x 50 cubits , Th e in ternal chambers are
covered by d I vault s. tha t over th e bu rial ch amb er bein g ten courses thick. Over the doors and passages c l a rches arc
csed. fro m 2- 3 co urses in th ickn ess.
'Edif ice M : 126
This was once th ought 10 be a dest roye d py ramid , but it is in fact a large square mast aba of 130 metres (250 cubits )
along eac h side. A tunn el en te rs through the North face and co nti nu es as a descending ram p with arches o f type c l
-ver it .11 inte rvals. The entrance tunnel is roofed with :J very strong cx Z arch , wit h eleven cou rses of brick re maini ng.
128d
\\eill states that a funh... r five courses had been lost from the in\i de ,1 27 but Pillet , writing in th e same rep or t . oes
no t menti on this. TIle two au thors also diffe r ove r the construction o f the arch , Pillet stati ng tha t ea rth centring was
probably employed, but Weill claiming that no centring was used at all. In this respect I consider it cer tai n th at the
former opinion is correct. since an arch of this size and of this bo nd could not have been built without some fonn of
tempo rary support during co nstruction.

Reqaonah.

There ale several tombs of the vaulted and corbelled type in this cem etery . so me enclosed by walls with offe ring
ruches. whilst o the rs were simple graves in the sand. Tomb R.56 ha d a corbel-vault similar 10 th ose at Naga ed-Der.
binh mai nly o f headers mor tared with mu d. 129 In graves R.5 9 and 251 the co rbelling was rounded to imi tate burial
under a pot. 13 0 (tl l\ aga ed-Der 77 1. below ) Th e lowest course o f bric k is laid on end. ....-itn horizontal layer s above,
A thi ck coal of mud cove rs the corbel to help solidify the structure .
True vaults were used in to mb s R.SO and 110. 131 the for mer being enclosed by a wall with an offering nic he. Th e
vault of R80 is bu ilt in incline d co urses ( type d l ], wh ilst tha t of R. II O corresp onds to ty pe ex I o f the Corp us, The
mnct ring of st retchers has a half-b ric k at the apex to fill up the space. I n
A more un usual co vering for the burial occurs in R.66. in wh ich th e lined pit is roofed by a flat co ver of bric k. l J3
This is made of two bric ks cantilevered out from the edge of the pit , as sho wn in Fig.16.

S aga od-Der.

Ib c Old Kingdom tombs at this su e consis t o f small rnastabas wit h a simple South niche. the walls being construc te d
.n :\ I or X l bonding. In some cases these mastaba s have th eir shafts reverted wit h brickwo rk.
xfore inte resting, from the pOIII I of view o f the brick co nstr uction. is th e freque nt use of the co rbel va ult to co ver the
pn or burial. Som e of the corbels are small and rou nded. im itating the po t-burials which are com mo n at this period. There
are also some graves which use a tru e vault ove r the buri al inst ead of corbelling .

.\: 645, 134


TIle maslaba superstruc ture has outer walls bu ilt on a foundation layer of b ricks on edge. to even up the level o f the
ground. TIle pi t is hn ed wit h ni ne courses of st retchers. which inter bon d at the angles. Resti ng on these linin g walls was a
corbel-vault of eleven courses. bu ilt alm ost en tirely o f head ers. and cow-red over with mud. The bric ks were radiated
Jround the corners to produce 3. vault of oval shape.
I ~ ). I't lri ... W. :l.I, l '.. ,1I~" m, 16- 129. G ars b n , . J.. T I lt' Tllitd f.:6ypnll" V y"oLI fy. pt. 14.
t ~ .a. we m. R. s: Pin e l . \ L . Dara. 130. ibid. . PI. 27.
I !S. ihld. , 93ff. 13 1. ibid.. 1'1. 23.
I ~ 6. w..iII. R. .t Pill t l , ~I ., DaM, 7ft. D 2. tota ; 1'1 _ 14.
I ~7 . sua , 9 . In . ( ; a"ta ll~. J•• Th .. Thir d Egyp ri all D.I·/Unry. 4 6 an d PI. 23.
1 211. Ihld.. 11 9. 134 . R,.i<",-,r, G ,,\.. Naja td-IJ~r. 111. 242 an d PI. 28.

29
Fig. J6 R eqaqnah R. 66. Fig. } 7 Naga ed-Der N. 645.

,
)?;7;O,O, ,7.,O/",o,o,~,";:}
rO
N. 760. 13 5
111is is a small mastaba standing ove r a bric k-lined pit . ro ofed with it corbel-vaul t. The lin ing consists o f five coc:ys
str etchers on one side and six on th e othe r, so the vaulti ng sta rts at a different level on th e opposit e sides. Th e corbel
five cou rses high . covered with mud, and has m ud-mortare d joints . On the top of the vault rested th e gravel filling oi
mastaba.
N. 771. 136
The buri al is covered by a large pot , an d it is over thi s pot tha t th e brick corbel was con st ructed. Fo r this reason a
circular vault was built . by using radiati ng circles of headers fo r the upper courses and rings o f stretchers below. The
de tail s of this arran gement can be seen in the secti on in Fig. 18. TIle vault was coated ex ternally with mud , and srccc
beneath a small mastaba.
Fi;:.J 8 Section uf N. 771

I .• •
", .

N. 781 and N. 787. 13 7


Th ese two to mbs have mas tab a superst ruct ures above corbel-vaulted burials and are similar to one another, excc?I-
I38
lite wooden co ffin 0f N.787. In bo th tombs the co rbelling rests on the bric k lining of th e pit, and m uch mud-plac e
coven the brickwor k. 111e de tails of the brick arrangement arc shown in Fig. 19 , where the corbelling is shown to be
of he aders. In the case of N.781 , the vault is topp ed by two laye rs of br ick on ed ge. laid straight across the radiating
below. This featu re is also fo und in N.79 I, 139 which is o f ..ery similar form 10 the se two to mbs.
14 0
N. 985.
The superstructure is dest royed but the grave has a well preserved corbel-vault. covering an area of 1.56 x O.9Om. T:
const ruction of the vaul t is rathe r irregular; it consists most ly of he aders, with occasional stre tchers here an d there. T
courses on th e North side arc laid on edge in ord er 10 equ alize the levels. An oval shape is imparted 10 the vault by
radiating the bricks. th e wide join ts so produc ed being filled with chips of limestone and mud. The u pper 5- 6 courses
are mud-plastered o n the exterior and are co vered by the fill o f the pit. Below the vault is a chamb er lined with six
courses of he ade rs in Xl bonding. upon which the corbelling rests.

13 S. Kel,n" •. G.A-, op. <:it . 25 1.


136. ibid. , 1 52 a nd ... s, 3 0- 1.
I J 7. ibid., 2S3 , 25 5 an d PI. 31.
I3 R. {bid., 2SS.
1J9. ibid.• 157.
140_ Ibi~n "r , G. A-. op. cit . 2 63 "nd ...... 1 9- 30.

30
Fig. 19 Sections orx. 781 and S . rsr
N.78 7

N781

"

Fig.20 Sections of N 985.


" W·E
n
UN_S"

III

~
!lil
'v

Some of the t ombs at Naga ed-Der in the Fourth and Fifth Dynasti es replace th e corbelling seen in the exa mples
described above by tru e vaulting. This occurs in N.578- 9, 790 , 792 and 994. The form of the vault in N.790 is not known
since it had co llapsed, but the excavator s surmised that it had consisted of stretchers (i.e. ty pe x I ). 14 t The vault of N.79 2
was rather irregular; it used two stretchers combined with two bricks on edge to fill up the space. 14 2 Over the arched roof
was a coating o f mud. In grave 99 4 , the vault had been o f two co urses. resti ng on
Fig.21 Section of N 994 a single layer of brick on ed ge as a springing. 14 3 If the headers of the up per co urse
went right across, then this would be an ex ample of ty pe bxl ( 1.0) .
The tombs N.578- 9 have rather bett er-built vaults than th e above ex amples. 14 4
m;- - -- - T -./7 7'"
f Around the pit was a lining, formed in both cases of three courses of brick laid as
stretchers on edge, upon which the vaulting rested. The arch in N.578 consists of
two stretchers and a central header, as shown in Fig.22. In N.579 the construction
is the same, with the addition of a second course o f brick, entirely stre tchers. above
the first.
All the bricked tom bs described here from Naga ed-Oer belong to the Fo urth to
Fifth Dynasties. After the Fifth Dynasty the use of brick in the tomb diminishes
and is usually restricted to the blocking o f the burial ch ambers.

Fig.22 Sections of N5 78 and N5 79.

N.5 79

I-H . Re isn er , G. A... o p; ci t., 257. 14 3. ts ta :2 64.


I·n . ib id. , 25 8. 144. ihid., 222.

31
Dendera

A number of brick masta bas wer e ex cavat ed at thi s site by Petr ie 14S but the information co nc erning the bri ckw
is limited. The only points describ ed are the use of an arched tunn el in th e t omb of Adu I and th e pre sence of a d
in tha t of Merra. The arched tunnel was used as th e passage t o th e burial pit, and is pre sent in other Sixth Dynasty
mastabas at Dendera and elsewh er e. 146 In the exam ple found in the tom b of Adu I, the tunnel is roofed with a d l
vault in th e intern al part , with an arch of type cl at each end . Petrie says that the arch is four co urses thick , althoes
th e drawing 14 7 only shows three.
The dom e in the tomb of Merra, 14 8 built over a shaft , is not a tru e do me, but ra th er a cir cular corbel-vault co .
of superim posed rings of stre tche rs of decreasing diame ter. Most of th e weight of each co urse rests on the bricks
it , and even at the apex the dom e was no t trul y vaulted . This techniqu e recu rs in bri ck pyrami dal tom bs of th e Xc
Kingdom.

Edf u.

MJ.
This tomb, belon ging to a per son calle d Sabni, is a brick mastaba co nt aining vault ed roo ms in th e su perstruc tu re.
Th e ex te rior has a slight batter pro duced by step ping ba ck the courses of bricks a little, an d th e walls are covered wr
whitened mud -plaster. The bon din g on the faces of th e walls sho ws alt ernate layers of headers and stretchers , which
alm ost cer tainly mean s that th e bon d used is A2 or A3 as in mo st mastabas of this peri od . Vault s for me d of incline:'
co urses of bri cks (type dl) are used over the rooms in the superstructure, and the bricks thro ughou t the tomb me
30 x 15 x 8cm . ISO
There ar e several othe r ma stabas at Edfu which belong to the Sixth Dynasty ,151 as does the prece ding example.
they are so similar to the tomb of Sabn i that indi vidu al descrip ti on is not necessary . Th e main point s abou t their
st tuc t ure are given in the summary table on page 37 . A few interesting differences are found in so me of th e tom bs.
such as the arched doorway at the entrance to the burial cham ber of mastaba C.1. The arch is bonded cl an d is th ree
cour ses in thi ckn ess. 15 2 Th e gable-ro ofed br ick co ffin built around the bod y in to m b NO XXV I, of the Fifth Dynasty
is also worthy of note, (See Fig.2 3) Simi lar ( 0 th is tomb is th e buriai un der a co rbel-vault in NO III, 1 54 which resernl
examples of th e same form at Naga ed-Der and Tura. The corbelling of th e brick s ta kes four co urses to join abo ve the
grave, and mud-plaster co nsolida tes the oute r surfaces.

Qau, Matmar and S maller Ceme teries.

At a num ber of sites th ere arc remain s of brickwo rk in the substructures of tombs and small graves, where all t race
of th e mastabas which once stood over th em have van ished. Th e use of bri ck in these graves is therefore co n fined to
the variou s methods of co vering th e buria l pit , and the most co mpreh ensive series of bricked graves occur s at Qau.
Brun ton divided th e tomb s in to ty pes, 1 5 5 of which numbe rs 6 to II are fro m the brick ed pit s, and th ese arc shown
in Fig.24 . Very man y of the se types of graves were fo und at Qau , beginning in the Fou rth Dynas ty, becoming corn m
in the Fifth, and pr acti caily dy ing out in the Sixth. Aft er this date b rick is used only for the bloc king of th e buri al
cham ber. Types 9 and 9 A occur at Matmar 1 5 6 and Mosla gedda, 1 57 and at the for me r site the re is also a new ty pe us~
1
a vault of fd l form over th e burial. 158 Typ e 10 is found at Matm ar but not at Mostaged da. and 9 occur s at Armant. =-
Nine graves from Abydos 16 0 had a ro ugh brick co vering over the burial, in most cases built as a cor belled struc tu re
against th e side of the pit. Thi s is probably to be regarded as th e an teceden t of Brunton's ty pe 7, which replaces the
cor bei by a haif arch.

Fig.2] Sec tion of Tomb N O XXVI at Ed/ u,

145 . Petrie, W.M.F., Dendereh, passim. 153 . i bid. , IlJ (1 9 39), 7-9 .
14 6. E. g. th e t o m b of Haishtef at Saq qa ra , above, page 27 . 1 54. ibid.,I1I (19 39),3 1-2,&fig. 17.
14 7. Petrie, o p.c it., 9 and Fro n tispiece. I SS. Brun to n, G., Qau and Badari.I, PJ.XX IV .
14 8. ibid. , 1 S. 156. Brunton, (j ., Matmar, To m b Re gist e rs.
14 9. Michalowski, K., Tell E d[OIl, I (19 3 7 ), 25 ·3 3. 157. Brun ton , G., M ostagedda, I'l. L XlIl.
ISO. Micha lows ki, K., op; cit., 26 . 1 5 8. Bru nton, G. , Matmar, PI.XI X.
15 1. tma. , 25 -58, & Ill, 1· 6 0. 159 . Mand , R. and My e rs. D.H. , Ce meter ies of Arman t, 20 .
15 2. tota.; II ,(1 9 3 8), 177 -80. 1 60. I'eet, T.E. and Lout, W. L.S ., Cemeteries of A by d os, III . 1: -

32
1 " l ~:n~ lOriM' " plI oli ,],od in (!.:u "nd rlQd~rl I [I r. ,I{Q' " "" , ' ''d ,1/",w,·,', I,!" ,'.m"'" , .,<0'
numbl"r 0' b",' ,j,,,
'
uk", (,on, ,I..
~" "« in Ill,'''' " m'tork~ Jr."," '''.0''''.'''''"'' ,,.
.l i'l<" " " ,, 1 ,'OJ , ", ly"J ,n O " pl<l J"
Tke " we ",10'"" ."" 1' ,,,, , ,yn L!><.";, of tho m'Jor foo",, « o( hrl,' " , I,i'", ' " I" I" ,I,. f""" ..
y ", o". " rn,,, I, uf L],<
0\,'Kln, .J" m , ,,d ft,,,
l" l" ",,~ i'" J'" i.x!. Sorn. infO!,",l lo" fro ," , ,,,,II « "", ,, rt,, ~'hjd, h,,, n,,' I",," .I'",u>\ <<1 in
rh, k'" '' " du<l, d c.m

Flg.24 Fo"'b Tyl''' "' aa'",


Type . S<>; twn l)<,,,; p'io ,,.

\J 1., IJI. d <O\'" ",g built "" fioo< of plt

, hJ l-Iol f-"d, of , I ty p' o

Uf H" ,()()( o( b,l<' ' nd w:<lll "f ",.t'Cl,.fl,

~J ' I Y,ult ow , ]ow , ,,I.·will, of " ,..tchm.

OA 1iJ G.>bJ," ,,,,,fhULIl on "J<·w. ll.

" 1{)f S< L~, d "' u l ,, ~I ,'.ull.

" 1(')J So ,,,,,i ,,,,I,, <I ,,,il

SU~I~L\R Y, FOURTl J -TENTH lJY:"AST IES,

bonds U",d

Gi:J:
:'0 81 36 x lE . 1l.5 Y. lIuw pl.m,.
:' 086
:'093
:!6x I 2 ,8. ~
3h I8 ,J)
l"lI>i"¥ u,
bric k,

4h 21'1 5
AI A, 41h 17 , l S Y. lluw pl., t: ,.
n . l h l t.S
M .15 ,17 , 12
209~ N .t:!~lJ Sop",",1 h,lok' fOt ,'oolt
3033 29. lS .~q I n t ,rl ""kl" ~ bri, k. for ,', u lt
.18 xI9 ~17
GI203 B,td "h. ~.L
S<..,. h 24 x U< 7.S Don,. ,,,,,fOV<[ one room.
30xl 0 , 7
I'" d ~1 Fbl . n:h u",d to 11I ppOrt ",ul".
Mom .~ ': A J c l Arch with mooldoJ od!". reJ poJntod
A~hoIlLo t"P 25~ ~ x 12----4 ~ 7_10 V, ullc J cm ril ul ,
'1,r,,; A2 " 30 ~1, II , '1- 10 A" h uf ,,,,,"iol
brick... Dome roof.
T"", '
IO.p.S Cu ,b,] uf lL" ti.".
=7.\-.1 Curnel uf h" der>.
Brick Sizes(cm) Notes
Location Bonds Used

Ahusir: Brick casing.


AJ 32x 1Sx 9 .5
Djadjaemankh
Userkaf-enkh 30 x 13 x 9
32x ISx.9.S
Princesses tombs
Small Vl th Dyn. graves cl d l 26x 13 x 7
N.Suqqara :
(TeH area)
dl 26 .5x13 x7 Taft bricks.
Khui Fake b onding in plaster.
A l cd l 22 -4 x 12 x8
Desi
M, rn A2 2 8 x 14 x 8
Mast aba A A2 AJ 27 x 13 x 7
Mastaba E A2 AJ 27 x I J x 7
3S-6 x 17- 9 x 11-2 Taft mortar.
Kaem senu
Kaemheset 52x 25 x20
53 x 53 x 23 Squa re bricks for pillars.

Anonymou s tomb
N. o flast A2 A3 52-3 x 26x 19
(U nas area)
3 1x 15.5x8 Arches of type cl.
Haishtef Al AJ
Al 32 -3 x 16 x I I Taft mor ta r.
lmpi Bricks on E. o f tomb .
A2 30- 1 x 14.5 x 9
Mehu
Ka-irer A I & irreg. 27 xl 3 x8
A2 AJ 28 x U .5 x lO Taft mortar.
Peh-nefer Taf l bricks. d I vault over room.
Adjoining last A2A3 24x12x8.5
Re-Khuf A2 A3 33x l6xll
(Elsewhere) Tafl brick s. c l & d l vaults.
Sobkemkhent Al A2 33 x 16x 12
34x 16x 12 Brick casing.
Kaemheset A2 A3
2 Tombs N.E.
3 1 x 15 x 12 whne-ptast ered faces.
of Pt ahh ot ep A3
29.5 x 14 x 10
S.Saqqara: Arch 4 .0 thic k .
Rokh u cl
Arch 3.0 thick.
Nenki cI
Relievin g arch over chambe r.
M.m "'I Vau lted chambe rs.
M.V. dl
Va ulte d 3.0 thick.
M.V1 d
Arched roofs.
M.VII Vaul t 4.0 thi ck.
M.x. cl
c l .xx l vaults comm on.
N.eerne te ry.
Dasnur:
Cern. N. o f pyr. Gerreral use of vaults.
of Amenemhat 1I
Cern. S. of py r. Vaults & arches, c2 in to mb 7.
of Sescstris III
M ey dunL'
23.5 x 11.5 x 7.5 -
16
24x 12 x $
39 .5 x 18.5 x 12.5-
17
4 1 x 22 x 13
Kaf r Ammar: Average figures.
O.K. cern. 26 x l 2x8
29 x 14 x 9 Average figures.
32.5x16x9 Average figu res.
Location Bonds Used Brick Sizes (em) Notes

Gurob :
167 23x 11.5 x7.5
369 29 x 14.5 x 8 Brick como.
517 28 x 14 x 7.5 Brick lined.
Sedment:
1253 35.5 x 18 x 7.5
1255 35.5 x 18x9
1257 33 x 16.5 x 6.5
126 1 37 x 16.5 x 7.5
Dora:
M cl cx2 30x l5 x8 Many arches & vaults.
p cI dl 30 x l5x 8
Qall:
678 xl 29 X 14.5 x 6.5 Tomb type 7 (See page 33)
1123 gabled 33 x 18 x 6.5 Type 6
3125 Xl 32x 15 x7.5 Type 8
1105 XI , xl 33 x 16.5 x 7.5 Type 9
1141 XI , x l 33 '< 15 x 7.5 Type 9
1142 XI , xl 33 :< 15 x 6.5 Type 9
1/ 45 XI , x l 32 x 15 x7.5 Type 9
1164 XI . x l 33x l5xlO Type 9
9 15 gabled 32 x 15 x 7.5 Type 9 A
98-1 gabled 33 x 15 x6.5 Type 9 A
1090 gabled 33 x 16.5 x 6.5 Type 9 A
1150 gabled 30.5 x 15 x 7.5 Type 9 A
61 1 xl 30.5 x 16.5 x 6.5 Type 10
1102 xl 33 x 16.5 x 7.5 Type 10
532 xl 32x1 4x 7.5 Type 10
654 c1 33xl5 x l0 Type I I
3 105 c1 29x 15:< 6.5 Type I I
1602 28x 14x 7.5
1044 32x 15x 7.5
1658 32 x 15 x 6.5
3422 29 x 14x 6 First Intermediate graves: brick
4815 30.5 x 14 x 5 blocking of the burial chamber.
4822 30.5 .'1. 15 x 9
7514 33x l5x9
7563 30.5 x 16 x 9
498 1 33x 18 x7.5
.Halmar:
830 xl 32x1 5 x7 Type 9
839 ,1 30x15x6 Type 9
849 xl 32.5x15x7 Type 9
850 ,1 3 1x 15 x7.5 Type 9
856 gabled Type 9 A
865 gabled 33x17x 7.5 Type 9A
4 15 3 1 xl 5x 6
427 30x l 4x5
575 3 1",1 4 x 6 First Intermediate Period bricked
graves.
632 32x1c5x 6
3042 3 1 x 15.5x6. 5
5309 3 1 x 14.5 x 7

35
Location Bonds Used Brick Sizes(cm) Notes

Mostagedda:
532 gabled
689 X I , xl 3 1.5 x 15.5 x q Type 9.
Naga ed-Der:
N.645 XI Corbel of headers.
N.760 XI Corbel of headers.
N.771 Circular corb el.
N.78 1 XI Corbel of headers.
N.787 Corbel of headers.
N.79 1 XI Corbel of headers.
N.985 XI 26- 8 x 11.5 x 7- 8 Corb elled.
N.792 Al A8 Vault in pit.
N.994 bxl('!) Arched pit.
N.578 Irreg. Arched pit.
N.579 Irreg, Arched pit.
N.739 Al A2
N.788 Xl
N.nO Al 30 xl5x 8 Door blocking.
N.893 32 x 10 x 10 Retaining edge of shaft.
28 x l3 x7
Reqaqnah:
R.59 Circular co rbel.
R.251 Circular corbel.
R.56 Corbel of headers.
R.66 fl at brick roof.
R.80 d I vault used.
R. II O "" I Vault 1.0 thick.
Abydos:
9 10 28 x 13 x 7.5 Serdab roofed by dome. Vth DF-
DI I7
01 18
0 125
OU O
Ol 47 Bricked pih:- corbels and s=J!.
D149 vaults.
01 82
01 84
0 253
Dendera:
Merra Dome ever shaft.
Adu I cl Arched tu nnel.
Arma ll1:
1310 cl 29.5 x 14.5 x 10 Arched over.
25x l 1.5x9
1323 35x l 5x9
28 x 14 x 7
1330 25x 12x 7
35x l7x6
30 x 15 x 10 (vault)
29xl 3x 8
26xl 3x 8
1354 34 x 12 x6
Edfu:
M.I Al dl 30x 15x 8 Whi te plastered.
~\.lI AI dl

36
Location Bonds used Brick sizes (em) Notes

~LI V Al 30x l4x 8


\LVI AI Pointed vault.
~I.VlI Ineg. 32xl5x 8
~I.Vl n 30xl5x 7 Yellow plaster.
~ l.IX AI 30x l4 x 10
\I.X 30x l5xlO
C.I A t cI Arched door.
~O.XXV I Al sox u x s Brick cof fin.
'0.11 AI Sand-fill mast aba.
~O. III Corbel of headers.

7. Roy al Pyram id s o f the Middle Kingd om .

TIle funerary monu men ts of the earlier kings of the Elevent h Dynast y at Thebes had brick pyra midal supe r-
str uct ures of modest proportio ns, that o f lnyotef Il being about 15 metr es square.16I These to mbs are mentio ned
in the Abbott Papyr us as having been in spected in the Twentieth Dynasty. and the description given confirms th em
to have been pyramidal to mbs. Manett e d iscovered the py ramid of Iny otef Il , but it was destroyed to its foundatio ns
and no det ails of the brickwork are available.
In the late r Elevent h Dynasty, stone was used to b uild th e roy al tombs. the mos t famous example being the
tem ple of Mentuhotep \I at Dcir el-Bahari. This great mon ument co nta ined two tombs, one behi nd the py ramid and
ano ther in the cour tya rd (th e Bah el-Hosan). the lat ter being block ed with bricks measuring 37 x 17 x 12em.
For tu nately, much more remains of th e pyra mids o f the Twelfth Dynasty . Those belo nging 10 Amenemh al I and
Sesostris I at Ltsht. and Amenemhat II at Dashur, were co nstruc ted of stone and therefore are no t include d in th is
survey, bu t the const ructio nal details o f th e bt ick pyr amid s are given below.

Sesostris 1/ ( LaI" III ). t62

TIle py ram id is co nstructed of bric ks measuring 45 - 9 x 22 - 5 x te em. 163which are all laid perp endicular with
respect to the nea rest face of the pyra mid. Walls of limest one run th ro ugh the diagonals of the st ructure. with cross-
walls betwe en them, ther eby dividing up th e area into separate compartments in which the bric ks were placed . and
a casing of limestone o riginally covered the surfaces of the brickw ork . (See Fig. 25, p.38 ) Aro und the py ramid is an
enclosing w:!I1 , built in A2 or A3 bonding, with layers of reeds bet ween every fourth course of bricks. The dimens ions
of the bricks ill this wall arc the same as those of th e py ramid itself.

Sesosm s III t Dashur l: 16 4

A calc ulat ion of the volume o f th is pyramid leads to the result tha t 24Y.!. million bricks woul d have been used in
its construc tion. 165 The average slzc o f these bricks is 42 x 21 x 11.5cm but variations occur fro m 39 x 19 .5 x l l cm
to 4.1 x 22 x l Scm. 111ey are laid in even rows of headers with ou t any bond ing. and wit h only a layer of sand between
the courses. The stone casing of the pyramid reste d partly on the previo us cou rse of casing-bloc ks and partly on the
brickwor k. which was bu ilt up in steps behind the limesto ne. (See Fig. 26) It seems most likely th at th e cour se of
stone blo cks was laid First. then the brickwork built up inside it to the same level, followed by the laying of the next
course of stone, and so on. until the structure was com plet e. Some of the bricks bor e marks similar to the qua rry marks
seen on the masonry of sto ne pyramids, an d De Morgan suggeste d that th e marks denoted the p roduc ts of different
royal bric kya rds. 1M',
To the South of the pyramid en closur e there was a boat grave in a large tre nch in the ground. This trench was
coveted ove r by a d l vault, ten co urses th ick. with the inclined rings of bric kwork resting on the end wall of the
trench.
Sescstrts III had ano ther to mh at Abydos. cut into the rock . The oric k-built te mple of tbis monum en t is desc ribed
in Chapter Five.
161. ~: dw .. r"'~, 1, 1::..5., T!l~ PY'llmlds of Egy p t, 2 12. 164. 1><: Morlan, J., F n",11"s,) Dachou ~. Man-Jutn 18 94, 41- S0 .
161. " cl r'"" W.M.F., [-ll!llm 11, P<Jsd.... 16S. ibid. . 47 ,
163. Ap p ro x. "' im ~"Ji o ns. fr u m ulIt", dr~",;n ll- 166. ibid. , 4 9.

37
Fig.25 Structure of the Pyram id rlg.26 Section of Casing. Py ramid
ofSesostns II. of Sesonru III.

Brick Stone

......",...--1 . ..

. ..

Ameuemhat III {Dashnr],

De Morgan states th at this pyramid had the same basic conu ucticn as that of Scsostris III, but he gives no =-
The sizes of the bricks are given in Mariette's Les Mastabas de L 'Ancien Empire l 6 6 as having a fair amount of
th e examples being: 33 x 18 x ll cm. 38 x 19 x t zcm, 35 x 17 x I l cm and 40 x 20 x IOcm.

Amenemnat III [Hawara ]:

The bricks of th e pyramid are 45 x 22.5 x 13.5crn in size, and were laid in sand in most of the structure . ?-
...a
the building of the pyramid, they had been splashed with a yellow wash whilst stacked, 10 prevent any being s:
A great arch was built above the roof of the burial chamber, through the mass of th e pyramid. to relieve th e
on the stone roof. This arch consisted of five courses of bricks and was of type cx2. Below the arch the bricks
longer laid in sand, but had mud mortar in the horizontal joint s. Petrie points out that the weight of bricks of~
used here is 40 -50 pounds. I 7° which means tha t they must have been set into place fairly slowly and carefully.

N eferuptah (Jlawara).

Since Pet rie found a sarcophagus and an offering-table inscribed for Neferu ptah l 71 in the pyramid of Amen
Ul, it has been assumed that she was buried in her father's tomb. But recentlr a separate pyramid has been disc •
belonging 10 this princess, not far from that of Amenemhat III at Hawara. 17 The only derail recorded about ~
brickwork uf this structure is the size of brick employed, being 46 x 24 x l a crn. l 73

TIll: Py ram ids of Ma:glllmelJ.

The two pyramids of Mazghuneh are so similar in const rucrion to that of Hawara that ~ ac kay ascribed tl:~
IN
to Amenemhat IV and Queen Sebekneferu on this evidence alone. At the Xo rth pyramid the superstructur e !:.!I
ent irely vanished, and the only brickwork of note is a retaining wall around the site. consisting of two thin wills
A I bonding with rubb le filling between them to form a single thic k wall.
The South pyramid was buill of bricks measuring 46.5 x 23.5 x 12.5cm. laid as headers from the faces with
in the joints. Around the pyramid is a wall built on a serpent ine plan. I 7S formed almost entirely of stretchers. VI
dimensions range from 30.5 x 15.5 x 9.Scm. to 32.5 x 17 x to.Scm. The thickness of this wall at its base is only
4 1.5cm.
Most of the royal tombs of the Thirteenth Dynasty are as yet unaccounted for. hut Iwo pyramids of this age
discovered at Saqqara by Jequier, 176 One of these belongs 10 king User-bore Khendjer, but the ident ity of the
of the o ther pyramid is unknown.

16 7. n e Mor la n, op. ci t , 87. 171. hno" N.• TIlt Di.Jco ""~y of N "f"nlptah.
163. ~brico ll". A... t t l m<Utabru d t 1'''tI<:,I.." Emput', 57 1. 17 1. Fa "" . N.. op. elL, 2.
16 9. »co lrl.., W.M.F. , Kalru", GUl'Oba" d H lI""'f'Il, 14. 1 7~. Pe tri e, W.M. F. & Macka y, E•• Till! Lc.byrl" rll, G..r: eh & .lla:
170. Ibid., 6. 175 . Ibid., 11.XXX Ix.
171. Ibid. , IS & 1-'1. V. 176. Hq u lee, G., D el'x Py~amjd", de Mo y"n e m pl ,,·, pll ssl",.

38
Khendier.

TIle py ramid is cons truc ted in the usual manner , with the bricks laid as headers on layers of sand . One bric k ,
found loose . bore an inscription giving a da te, 177 just as da tes OCCUr on the maso nry of the stone pyramids at
Saqqara and Dashu r. The average size of the b ricks is 4 2 x 2 1 x l l cm .
An outer wall of br ick. of which no details are given. surro unds the pyramid . and within the enclosed area is
ano ther wall. in this case o f stone. Near the base of the sto ne wall Jeq uier fou nd tr aces o f a wall of the sinuso idal
type, 17 8 as exists at the '-b zg}luneh pyramids (Sec above ). This led Jeq uier to suggest tha i the sinusoi dal brick
wall was built to keep sand off the site during the construction o f the bu rial pit. and was replaced by a more imp res-
sive stone wall if time pe rmitted. 1'79

Unkno wn Pyramid (S. Soqqarat.

TIle bri cks of t he pyram id arc all laid as hea ders, and present some variation in size. as the following exam ples
show: 40 x 2 1 x i 2cm, 44 x 22 x IJ cm, and 42 x 23 x l Zcm.
Ahove the poin ted ro of of the burial pit is a b rick relieving arch of typ e c l , four courses thick at its edges an d
live in the cent re. 1 8 0
There is a serpentine enclosure wall around the py ramid sta nding 10 a height of 2 metres on the North side , and
6 5cm thick at its base. 181 It is built mos tly of stretchers. with headers inserte d infr equen tly at irregular int ervals,
an d the face is coated with rnud-plaster. Near the South-East angle the re is a st airway to the 101' of the wall. 182 The
bricks are smaller tha n those o f the pyram id, bei ng 34 x 17 x Scm to 36 x 18 x Scm.

8. Other Brick-Built Tombs o f t h e M id d le K in gd om .

Th ere is little materia! fo r the study o f brick architecture fro m cem ete ries o f the Midd le Kingdom . partly due to
the freq uency of rock-cu t to mbs at this period, and pa rtly to defici encies in the repo rting of excavations. Sites which
give only slight informati on are no t discussed here. all the facts available being stated in ta bulat ed form at the end of
th is sect ion.

111 the cliffs aro und Delr el-Bahurl arc a number of tomb s of the Eleventh Dynasty , having passages and ch am bers
cut int o th e rock. 18 3 The facad es, ho wever, were faced with th ick masses of br ickwork on eac h side of the entran ce,
and in so me cases b rick was used also to line the int ernal passages. A sloping face was im parted to the facade by
steppi ng back th e br icks sligh tly at each course and th en coating th e surface with mud plaster to a thi ckness of 3c01.
This plaste r was or iginally white ned with gypsum. Th e facade Wl S th us forme d of a thic k wall of trapezoidal section,
with its rear sur face against the rock. In most cases th is wall is composed en tirely o f tr an sversely laid heade rs, so th at
on ly the en ds o f tlte hr icks are visible on the exter ior. One tom b, numbered 5 13, 184had th is mode o f constru ction
on ly in the upper half of th e facade. whilst the lower section was built in A l bonding. th ereby redu cing the angle o f
slo pe o f the face. The br icks arc usually co mposed of grey mud. and measure 30-32 x 15- 16.5 x 8cm. alth o ugh some
examples were smal ler, for ins tance in tomh 512. where they range from 28 x 15 x 7.5cm to 29.5 x 16 x 8.Scm. Any
mor taring of the joints is ro ugh ly do ne. occas iona lly with mud but mo re often with tap. Most of th ese tombs have an
approach in fro nt of the facade. flanked by walls of whi te-plastered bric kwork. The bon din g of these walls is nearly
always At. but in a few cases A2 occurs. In areas where the rock was of poor quality and liable to crack, the passage
of the to mb was reinforced by a lining formed of a br ick vault of type dl a single course in thick ness. 18 S
It is in these Eleventh Dynasty tombs that funerary co nes first ap pear, used in a single or double row over the
facade. These co nes have no inscriptions but are 3 purely deco rative special fo rm of bu rnt brick. Th e most plausible
suggest ion as to the ir origin is that they rep resent the ends o f the roofing-logs of an Egyp tian ho use. 1 86 a theory

1'77. Ibld., 29. 182. Ibid.. 56-


178. if>/d.. 1'1.IV. 183. PM I. pun ll. 6S 0 and !'fan V. A IM)8MMA XVlIl ( Dec. 1923 , II). 11-20.
179. J C 'l ui ~,. 0 .. up, cit. S6- 1 84. Win lock's Il u m h~rinll. " 3 14 of P,U
180. i hid., 6S & I'I. XVIll I ~ s. Example o ccursfn lum b 51l o f Winl o ck.
1~1, Ihfd..56. 186. Wlnl uck. BAIMA XX lI (h b. 192 8 , II) , 7.

39
which is supporte d by the dep iction of roofing-beams carved in stone over th e en trance to the tomb of Khnu rnhc tep
(I at Beni Hasan, 181
Fur ther tom bs of t he Eleventh Dynasty occu r on the lo wer ground in Asasif, a recently discovered example beir.~
th e lomb of a certain lnyotef whic h lay be neat h the causeway of the tem ple o f Tuth mosis III in Deir el-Bahari .155
Details o f the brick construction of this lom b arc given in the table on page 4 2.

Qartoh.

This cemetery has brick-bu ilt tombs with vaul te d ch ambe rs sunk in to the ground until the ro of is just under the
surface. 189 The vert ical walls bu ilt aroun d the sides of th e ch ambers are bon ded Al or A2. an d the m ud-bricks, in !!
excep t tombs 2 and I I , measure 25 x ] 5 x 12cm. In num ber 11 th ey reach 44 x 22 x 14cm , whilst the size o f bricks
in th e vaulting o f lomb 2 is no t stated. 19 0 One unusual brick was found in tomb 9 with a m oul ding do wn one edge:
pe rhaps it was a re-used brick from a comlce. 19 1

Fig. 2 7 Special brick from Tomb 9 at QattalL

[-~
-
Since drawings o f all the vaults are no t given in th e repo rt it is difficult in so me cases to be absolut ely sure of the::
constr uctional details. The list below states the type s of vault ing used in each to mb , an d where the photographs do
not sho w sufficient detail the ent ries are marked with a query :

Tom b. Burial Cha mbers : Arches over doorways.


Vaults.
I bd l (2.0). d l( I. S) c l ( 1.5)
2 ,d l (6.0) (1)
3 d l (?) (?)
4 d l (O.S)? (1)
10 (? ) c J( 2.5)
11 d l or c l 01(2 .5)
12 (?)(2.0) (?)
14 cI (')

The to mbs 5. 6 and 8. absent from the above list, were sim ple pits devoid o f any brickwork. l 92 It can be seen tha t
the incline d vault (type d l ) is common over fairly wide spans, sometimes in conjunct ion with an up pe r course of
brick laid differe ntly. In th ese cases th e inclin ed first course, whic h itself was built withou t centring. would act as a
centri ng for the ring o f b ricks laid over it. In all th e vaults a co at o f mud plaster covered the in terior surface of the
brickwork.

Abusir,

A n umbe r o f Middle Kingdom graves were built around th e mortuary templ e o f the pyramid of Neuserre. most of
the m bein g stone to mbs with brick approaches. 19 3 A few (for ex ample, mR .20) h ad vault ed burial chambers. the
roo fs bein g inclined vault s o f type d l , one course thick. wit h sto nes used 10 fill the gaps between th e bric ks. As an
exam ple of the brick sizes used in the cemete ry, the measu remen ts 28.5 x 14 x 9cm an d 38 x 19 x 12.5cm may be
quo te d fro m to mb m R. I. 194

187. Ntw bt rr r , P, E. , 8 t''' ' HaJa" . I, Pl. X XII.


188. Arn old. D., 0..1 Grab d t'$ J,.;jr.f: d ie A rchir" kr"r.
189. Gau l hi..r , H. er aL, F o ..m l!J d t' Q oJ tt-Jh, passim.
190 . Ibid., 8.
19 1. Ibfd., 27.
192. Gau lhi er, I l , er ai , Po"III~J d e Q<lffolh, 23
19 3. Sch J r..r, H.. Prlrnt'1frlIbt'r ~m TQ tr,. ,rm~1 df:J N rr 'J<'rt't. r s rr.
194. Ibid.. 19.

40
Dashur.

The gro up of Twelfth Dynasty mastabas which lie to the North of th e pyr amid of Sesostris ID seem to have used
brick vaults for th e roofing o f the passages to th e burial chambers. In only one case is the brickwork reported in any
detail: 19S tomb J 7 h ad a corridor roofed by a vault of typ e d I , which rested at its end on an arch of rather irregular
construction, the bricks being laid mostly on edge except for o ne !:rid fiat across the apex . 196

Riqqeh.

Bricks were u sed at Riqqeh mainly for retaining the sides o f shafts or descents to the to mbs, the chambers them-
selves being eithe r sto ne-built or cui int o the roc k. The builde rs had m uch trouble with veins o f loose sand in the rock
which had to be held back by brick work. Engelbach gives a vivid descript ion of one of these ret aining walls being pushed
over by the pressure of the sand, 197 and suggests tha t three enorm ous bricks found in Pit 305 may have been made as
an expe rimen t to see whet her it was possible to h old back the now. The bricks in question me asured 7 1 x 3 5.5 x 30cm
and must have weighed well over a hun dredweigh t each. A more normal example of the brick sizes in use in the cemet-
cry is 4 5.5 x 23 x l 5cm in tomb 300. 19 S Some of the sha ft s at Riqqeh were found t o be capped over with a bri ck dome
or circular corbe l, whilst one example had a vault. 199 The pu rpose of this is not clea r, but it may have been for security
from thieves, or co nnected with the problem of th e Joose sand.

Abydos:

Despite th e great amoun t o f exc avation which has taken place at this site there is a lack of lnforrnaticn about the
tomb const ruction, especially for the Middle Kingdom mon uments. The large vaulted tombs which Man ett e restored
with pyramida l supe rstru ctures he da ted to this period, bu t an examinatio n of the results of later excavations m ows
that he was mistaken: The type of to mb shown on Plates 66-67 of Mariette's A by dos /l is of a style belonging to the
Twent y-Sixt h to Thirtieth Dynasties, and the ty pical Middle Kingdom tomb was differen t, with burial chamb ers at
the botto m of a shallow sha ft, and a small mastaba on the sur face. 200 A few details of the construction of these
mastabas can be given. They were usually squ are, with a slight baile r on the face, and had small o ffering chambers
within them. In most cases the roo fing o f this chamb er has gone, but there is one instance of the usc o f a vault and
another wh ich may have been corbelled. 201 In masta ba N, found by Peet,202 the entrance was by means of an arched
passage o f type c l , an d probablythis was generally used. The above information is derived from Cemetery S of Peet ,
in which the best-preserved mastabas were found. Tomb s of Middle Kingdom date also occu r in the North Cemetery ,
04
dug by Peet, 203and in Cemetery G of Petrie/ bu t their superst ructu res were denuded and consequently no brick-
work is available for study .

Edf"·

The Middle Kingdom tom bs at this site make frequ ent use o f the brick vault to cover the burial apartment s, and
in most cases the chamber is reached by means o f an arched doo rway from a shallow The arches are universally
of the cl type. one course thick, four exam ples of this being found in to mb XXV. 20 Above the cham bers the vaulting
r:
could be either d l , as in tomb X. 206 or cx l , as found in tomb XXVIII-XXIX_207 A commo n size for the bricks is
30 x 15 x 7cm, and th ey were laid with a coating of mu d-plaster.
Small graves were also discovered, 208ju st long enough fo r an exten ded burial, walled around with four courses of
stretchers, and covered by an x1 vault of a single course of brick.

19 5. n e Mo rgan . J•• " olllll t:s 4 lJ<lch",,,, M:n s- Juin 13 9 4, 3 1· 2. 202. Pee l , T. £., 0 ,," cit , 3 7.
196. I bid. , 32, 1itt-6 2. 20). Ibid., 54.
19 7. .....Iri.... W.M. F. &. fn gd "ft ~ h , R., Riq q .-l, a nd M rm p h is V/, 2. 204. Petrie, W. M . F•• A bydo~ 1, 34-4 0.
19 K. ib i d.. , 4. 2 05 . Mie hal""" k l, K., Tell t ;rJloII. 111 (1939), 8 5-8.
199. Ib i d., 7- 8- 2 06. sua , 9 3-9 .
2 UU. !'eel. T . K , C,,"'ett:rlt:S uf A hyd,,~ 1I, 3 Sff. 2 07. Ibid" 8002.
2 0 1. sua ; 31. 2 08. Ihld. . 9 1.

41
Kuban /ell.
10 9
Tombs have been found at the sites of Kubanieh No rth and South which are similar to the type used at Qatu.:..
although somewhat smalle r. They consist ofvaull ed st ruc tu res sunk into th e ground, with b rick side-walls and roo - ..
The vault s here are bu ilt of on e or tw o co urses of brick in x 1 bon ding and th e side-walls are u sually a single brick -
in thickness. As the width of the graves is only one or two metres the thin vault s are qu ite adeq ua te. At Kubanieh • .
the size of the bricks was 30-3 x 15- 6 x 5.5 - 7 .Sc m , 2 10 whilst at th e South ern site they varied fro m 3 1 x 13 x ~
211
to 3 S x 17 x 1Ocm.

SUMMARY: MIDDLE KIJl;GOOM TO MBS.

Brick Sizes(cm) No tes


locatio n Bonds Used

T11t'bes.'
28- 29.5 x 15- 6 x 7.5 -8.5 Facade all he aders..
5 12 111 Al
Taft mortar.
Al 30-2 x 15- 16 .5 x 8
513 Facade all headers,
AI 30- 2 x 15-6 x 8
510
loyotef 1t ) A2 A3 31-2 x 15.5-1 6 .5 x 5.5 -7
35-6 x 16-8 x 8.5- 10.5
Cemetery of bric k vaulted tombs enclosed by a wall . (Detail s not available)
Buoonts:
Abustr: Bricks laid in mu d mort ar.
28 .S x 14x9
mRI Vaulted chambe r.
dl 38x 19x 12.S
mR .20
Saqqara: Brick bloc king.
Gemni em hel AI 40 x 20 x l 5
Arch roof, 9 courses thic k .
17
11 4 <X2
22x l lx7 lined shaft.
91
Dashur: Vaulte d passage.
17 dl
Riqqen:
4 5.5 x 23 x 15
300 Exception al bricks.
71 x 3 5.5 x 30.5
305
La/1I1II :
36x 18x 9
608
39.5 x 20 x 11.5
90 5
Harageh:
33 x 16 .5 x9
6
33x 16. Sx l O
13
40 ,S x 20 .5 x IS
172
A by dos: Al c1 Arched pass age an d dome d ro om.
Mastaba N
Ceme tery of brick vaulte d tom bs, using x I vaults.ZI5
El·Kab:
Ed/ It: Vaulted chambers.
dl 30 x l5 x 7
X 4 doors with c I arches.
XXV of
30x15x 7 Va ult ed cham bers.
XXVIII·XXI X X l , cxt
ct . d l
K li baniC'li :
(North ) Nubian \tK.
Irreg. 30 x I S x 5.5
19.1.6 vaulted chamber.
21.f.2 dl
Vaulted chamber.
10.g. 1 Xl , Al , d l
30 x 15 x 7 Egy ptian M.K.
l 1.k.2 lrreg.
v aulted chamber.
14 .1. 1 AI , xl , c1
20 9. , ...n",r, H.. Fri~dl,of~t1 ...", ~I-K"I>4" i",h ,"·ord,"'"" S"d.
2 10- J unk " . H.. Frl~dllDt<:r' VO " el-Kubtlfll~h Nord. 4 1- 50 .nd 1 5 3-6 0. 2 1). An>nl<J. 0. , IN" C , .. b d~, ' .. iit.t: df~ A",'rf,..~t1".
11 t. J u nkol'f. H., Frl"'dh(l]m ,..m d ..K II I,.",k h Su d, 166-9. 2 14, [l\n"' l~d b~ Quibtll. t:a~t of 1"i l 'y u m i d
212. Wlnlox k', n urnbe rin,- 115. s.-..Cdt;4S (1 970), 4 ().44.

.,
Locati on Bonds used Brick sizes (em) Notes

(Sooth)
23.r. 1 AI , XI , x l Vaulted chamber.
28.q.2 XI , x l 35 x l7xlO Vault 1.38m high.
31x13x 9
24.t. 6 AI, XI, x l 32xl 6x 9 Vaulted chamber .
24.l. 1 Al 28x l5x9 Brick-lined pit.
27 x l 6 x 8

9. TIle Second Intermediate Period.

Most b ranches of Egyptology lack informatio n ahout this period, and brick architecture is no exception. Such facts
as can be assembled from individual sites are given here, and a few more det ails are added in the table on page 44.

Tell Da 'ba.

A number of small graves o f llyk sos date have been discovered at this site, consisting of x l vaults sprung from low
side-walls built in AI bon ding. 2 16

Fig.28 Tell Da'ba grape.

Daslwr.

In the peribolos of the py ramid o f Amenemhat III a deep pit was found 2 17 containing the lomb of king Jw-!b-rr
lIor, whose position in history has been disputed. Prob ably he is the seventh king of the Thirteenth Dynasty, named
J I \ .. ib-rr in the Turin Canon. Th e fact th at seals o f Amenemhat III were found on some of his funerary equipment 218

does not date the b urial to the Twelfth Dynast y, as the pries ts of th e pyramid complex would conti nue to use these
seals long after the death of Amcnemhat III. Unfortunately, De Morgan gives no deta ils of the bricks in this tomb, so
it is no t possible to see whether these are the same or diffe rent from those of the pyramid of Amenemhat III. The
interest of the tomb, from the st ructural viewpoint, centres on the arches which are used over the chambers. One of
these is of type x I, whilst anothe r is o f the un common type fl . TIle lat ter is used as a relieving arch to take the weight
1 19
off a stone lintel. Another arch of the same form occurs in a wall of brick abou t hall-way down the shaft.

Sedment.

In the Secon d Intermediate Period graves brick is used for lining th e pits or making brick coffins with vaulted tops,
similar to the type used in the Fifth Dynasty at Qau.120(See above, page 33, type 9 A) The brick sizes at Sedment form
a fairly d ose group, ranging from 34.5 x 16.5 x 7.5cm to 38 x 18 x JOcm ,221

11 6. Bid ak, M., MDIK., U. (1 96 8), 9(1..99 and a.x x V.


21 7 , 1>... Mo rgan. J., Fcnlllk :rl Dilehou " .Ifa~u;'~ 1894, 8 8-9.
118. ibid. , 105.
2 19. lhid. . 89.
220. P~ lri ,'. W.M.F. , S ed",,"",. I, 1&-7.
22 I. Ih id., IS ·Y.

43
Edtll.

Three tomb s of th e early Secon d Inte rmediat e Period at Edfu ha ve vault ed chamb ers of typ e x l but no other
det ails of in terest are no ted . 222
Despite th e presence o f to mbs o f th is age in o ther ce meteries, such as Esna and Saqqara, virtually no details of
the brick construct ion are available. Some graves at Tell el- Ya hudieh 2 23 had vault ed br ick covering, probably
similar to those found m ore rece ntly at Tell Da'ba, which may mean th at this ty pe was not uncommon in the Delta
during th e Hyksos period.
At Theb es, th e tombs of th e kings of the Seventeen th Dyn asty stood in the Asastf region, 224 but the y ha ve been
so co mpletel y destroyed that t heir stru cture cann ot be examined. It is kno wn, however, that they h ad pyramidal
superstruct ures o f bric k, the cons truction of wh ich would in all pr obabili ty have been very similar to the New KingdIIc
tom bs of the same form~2S

SUMMARY - SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Location Bond s Used Brick Size s(cm) Not es

Yodud ieh: x l? Brick vault ed graves.


Tell D Q'ba: x l , A1 Vault ed graves, of Hyksc s date .
Dashur:
Ho' A I, x l Unusual type f'l bo nd in arches .
fl
Sedment:
1253 35.5x 18x8
1257 33 x 16.5 x 6.5
1261 37 x 16.5 x 7.5 Bricks used for lining pits and
1274 38x 18 xlO makin g co ffins .
1277 34.5 x 16.5 x 7.5
1218 37 x 16.5 x 10
n ,ebes: Seventee nt h Dynasty brick pyramid -to mbs.
l:.alu:
IV ,1
V ,1 } vaulted cbambe rs.
XXVII 'I

10. New Kingdom Tombs.

Although the cemetery at this site is mainly of the Late Peri od. there are also a num ber of tom bs of Ram esside
datc. 226 T hese lake the fo rm of undergrou nd chambe rs, probably vaulted. leached by mea ns of shallow pits.
exam ples deserve spec ial mention, since th ey are buil t en tirely of red burnt bricks. One o f these , number 35 , date s
from t he Nineteenth Dynasty , whilsl the othe r, num bered 21, belo ngs to the laic Ramesside age. H 7 ln the la tte r
22 8
lomb the bricks mea sured 34 x 16 x (?)cm and were laid irregularly without morta r.

2 21.. Mkh.l o.....k.i, K. , T~U Edfo l4, n (193 8 ), I9S .


223. Perri" . W.M . F.. Hyk~t ami I 'rtu/ir" Cirif"t. 10 - 16.
224. Winlock.H.E., inJEA lO( lQ 24 ), 2 17fr.
2 25. f OI us mp le,.1 Diu ' sh u' . Nsg.a.
226. h lri... W.M .F., N ebe8l1f: h in Tanis. II. 111·9.
121. eu; 19.
12 8.. Ibid., 19.
Tell el- Yahudieh

Graves with brick lining and gable roofs occur at Tell el-Yahudieh in the Twentieth Dynasty, and continue with
litt le alteration down to very late times. (See below, ~aie 53) The New Kingdom graves are walled around with
stre tchers laid on edge and covered by gabled bricks, 2 as illustra ted in Fig.29 . Within this brick st ruc ture th ere is
generally a potte ry coffin containing the burial. HOThe graves lie beneat h tumuli formed o f irregular blocks of basalt,
a single one of these supers tructures sufficing to cover several burials. 23 1 A number of brick measurements from the
cemetery are given in the char t on page 48.

Guroh.

A number o f graves with bricked subst ructures h ave been foun d in a ext ensive New Kingdom cemetery. 232 the
different forms of b rlckwork being sho wn in Figs. 29 and 30 . The first type there illustr ate d is an attempt to repro-
duce the form of a coffin in br ick, with the lop covered by a gabled roof. A similar structure is created in typ e F,
with the sides composed of large bricks standing on end, in place of stre tche rs, and the space above spanned by
single b ricks laid na t. Typ es B and D both enclose the burial behind a half arch of b rickwork. the bricks bein g laid
as in cI arches, and covered over with mud. Examples o f the brick sizes used in these graves are given in the table
on p age 48. where they can be seen ( 0 form a fairly ho mogeno us gro up . th e large size 38cm in length being the
most commo n.

Fig. 29 Ramesside Grave, Fig.30 Types of Graves. Gurob. 233


Tell el-Yahudieh:
A

B D

A bydos:
lor
The to mbs o f the Eighteenth Dynasty are beginning to make use of the brick vaulted chamber which is so chara ct-
23 4
eristic of this site in the New Kingdom and later. These burial chambers are const ructed in a pit, so that their
rooflevel is just below the ground su rface. and en try is gained by means o f a shaft about two metre s in depth. The
doorway from the shaft t o the chamber is spanned by an arch of type cl and the roof o f the subst ructure consists
of a vault of stretchers (type xl ), usually two o r three courses in thic kne ss. 1J ~ Probably there ....as a mastaba built
on the ground surface over the vault. but no preserved examples have yet been foun d. The use of this type of to mb
continues throughout the New Kingdom and develops furth er in both subst ruc ture and superst ructu re in the Twen ty-
Second to Thirtiet h Dynasties.

229. Grif fith, F. Ll., in Na vlll.., E.. MOlmd of lire Jew, 4 2.


23 0 . tota , 4 2 &. PI. X IV.
23 1. ihid. , 4 4.
232. Br un t"n. G.. GI'~O" pu...si,,~
2.ll. T h ~ 1~·p~S arc l h"~,, o r HrUU1" n. S.." op. etc. PI.X Vll l.
234. "r
P.. ~ t, T. !::., ('p m ..t erk r AbydO;t, HI . Ch apler IV.
235. sua; 2 9 .

45
Anoth er fo rm of tomb was also used at Abydos in the New Kingdom, having all the appeara nce of a small tempk.
236
with an o pen fo recourt and inner roo fed ch apels. Like th e un de rground vaulte d graves, this type begins in the
Eighteen th Dynasty and lasts throughout the Late Period . The actual bu rial chamber was cut in the gravel and rea~
by a pit from th e ch ape l, In some examples the roo fing of th e inne r cham bers was partiallr preserved , sho wing it to
have been formed of bric k vaults. as in New Kingdom tombs of similar form at Aneiba.23 Fu rther pa rallels occur i:::
th e mortuary ch apels of th e Twentieth t o Twenty-F ifth Dynasties which st oo d be hind the Ramesseum 238an d the
temple of Medin et Habu at Thebes. 239 th e latt er group being reconstructed by HOlscher with vaulted roofs. 240 C~
quentIy, th is type of tomb was no t restrict ed 10 Abydos but was fairly widesp read in the New Kingdom, with min or
variati ons from one site 10 ano the r. The fo rm of the vaulting used in the Abydos tombs could no t he discove red due
to thei r poor slat e of p reservation. bu t it wou ld most pr oba bly have been that com posed of incli ned rings of brick-
work, (type dl ) since this is the form m ost comm only em ployed at this period. At Aneiba this ty pe of bonding w'2.$
ce rtainl y used. sinc e special bricks derived from th e roofing were found to measu re 42 x 19 x 7cm, 241 bric ks of these
proportions being the standard type used in th e construction o f d I vaults.

Thebes.

From the structural Viewpoin t, the m ost inte resting tombs at this great site are th ose situated in Deir el-Medina
Dira abu'l Naga. Some tombs o f Sheikh Abdel Quma use brickwork fo r the faca de or for making a co urtyard outside
the entrance, but this bric kwork is rarely reported in de tail since it has no special points o f interes t, being co nstructed
in common Class A bond ing covered with whi le plaster. The interest o f th e tom bs of Deir el-Medina and Dira abu'l X
sterns from the use of brick vaults an d pyramidal supe rstr uct ures, and these two groups will now be descri bed separsr

Deir el-Medma.

The small tombs of Deir el-Medina make universal use of th e brick vault to roo f both the bu rial cha mber and the
chape l, th ese vault s being co nst ruc ted in eithe r d l o r x l bonding, th e fo rmer being mo re common.2~2 wh ere the roci
is two courses thick th e course s are o ften inclined in opposite directions. a te chnique also used at the Ramesseum.
Special bric ks are emp loy ed fo r th e vault s, wi th a thickness o f Scm and grooves on thei r faces to provide a better k~
fo r the mortar. These bricks are mad e with o ne side slightly longer tha n the ot her so as to ta ke a wed ge-form mo re
43
suit able for the co nst ruct ion of vaults, and at th is site the y are always 35 x I S x 30 X Scm in size.: A num ber of
othe r specialised form s o f brick nave bee n found,244 having been use d for cornices in the tombs; these are discussed
togethe r with th e special bricks from o ther sit es, in Chapt er 15.
Borchard t has shown tha t som e of the Deir el-Medina tombs ha d beam s of wood und er th e vaulting, running beth
th e length and br ead th o f the roof, and th e lomb of a cer tain lrinefer was provided with a cent ral column of wood
su pport these beams? H He sees a symbolic reason for the pr esenc e of the ro ofing beams, derived from the imitation
o f earlier struct ures made of woo d. This suggesti on is proved by the fact thai som e tom bs which have no woodwork
246
imi tate its presence in the painted deco rati on , th e broad ban ds along and across the roo f represen ting th e bea ms.
However, Bo rchard t ca n find no explana tion fo r the presence o f the column in the tomb of lri-Nefer and co ncludes
that it must have had a struc tural functi on. 247 Such a support is totally unnecessary fo r a vault of the type used here.
and it seems mor e likely that the woodwork is conn ec ted wit h the Egyp tian co nce pt of th e tom b as a dwelling-house:
the column and beams wou ld be bu ilt into the sepulchre to make the resem blance between ho use and tomb mo re
apparen t
The supe rstruct ures of the to m bs consisted o f sm all brick pyramids built over a vaulted chapel, in front o f which
was a cour tyard entered th rou gh a pylon-like gateway . 148 A part ially preserved exam ple of one of the pyram ids was
found over th e tom b of Nakh t-Min, which mows thai the y were constructe d in A2 bon ding, corbelled inwards to
crea te the slo ping faces, and cove red with plaster .249 Above the vaulted roo f o f the ch ape l WJ.S th e hollow in terior
of the pyramid, in some cases partly filled with gravel. The doo rs to bo th chapel and cou rtyard were surmou nted by
cornices. 25 0 which could be made of special bricks designed for the purpose . Often the walls of the cou rt were built
of rough sto ne, but th ose of th e chapels were mo re commo nly of brick, bonded A I and plast ered in tern ally . Examples
of the brick Si7.eS arc given on page 49 : th e gene ral dime nsions arc around 3Q.....-3Sc m for the length . bu t larger bricks
re-used fro m the roy al mort uary temples also occur.
ii;."Mcl "~ r. D. R. &. Mace. .cc., £/.A",,.,.IlIlIl<J A byd<l$, 70. 243. Bru y ~r". a. &. Kuenl z. c; L~s T"",hcs dl." ""·4lch,·MI" er d ·A rl-.' -
237. SI.,jndortr. G.. A"ib<l. n, 42·7 lin d PIA ". 14 4. Bru y'he. 8. . De/. .. /.Jkd l' l<'Il. 19 34 -S. 2S.
236. A nthe l., Ro , MDIK 12 (1 '1 43). 16 4 2 . n d 1'1.1 . 24S. Bo r~hal dl."" . Zt"in../"i!t!urBllu .....JII''' 79 ( 1\1 29), I I I · S.
239. Hi)J ~ h " •• U.. £.M.H. . IV . 22-5. 246. Bo~ha r.J l . L . " p. ci t.. . 113-4.
240. Ibid., 2J.· 4 . 241. ihid" 112.
24 1. Slci ndorU, G., ;llliha, 11.43. 14 S. Bru y<-,e, a. & K ""nl ~. C_.up.dt.., I'I. XX I I
242. ll .uyhc. ll.. [ki.../.,\ k d UlI."II. 1922· 1926. 1 9 2 6, P<Jm,,~ 249. ibid.. 4 aud l'I.U. 250. ihieL. PLX Xn

46
Fig.Ll Section of a Tomb at Deir et-Medina:

Dira ab u'I Nage. l SI

The brick pyram ids which stand over the rock-cut chambers of the tombs of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasty
nobles show great uniformit y in th eir constr uction. 25 2 They are built of grey mud-bricks averaging 33- 34cm in length,
most frequently laid as headers from each face, although in one case (Tomb 35 ) the lower courses are of A3 bonding.
Reeds are laid in mats between every fou rth or fifth course and mud morta r fills the joints on the outer faces. The
inte rnal work is roughly done and has har dly any mor tar, bricks frequently being turned on edge to compensate for
changes in level. A doorw ay on the East side of the pyramid leads into an interio r chapel, which is roofed with a d I
vault of one or two cou rses th ickness. Special bricks, with a thickness of only 4- 6cm and grooved sides, are used for
this vault. Above the roof th e pyramid is hollow, and is gradually closed over towards its apex by corbelling-the brick-
work on all fou r sides (Fig.32) . The passage which leads to the chape l is covered by an arch of type c1 consisting of
two or three rings of brick, whilst the side-walls and door jambs are built in Al bonding and mo rtared with mu d.

Fig.32 Section of Pyram id, Dira abu'l Naga tomb.

Originally all the interior walls were coated with whitened plaster, as were the outer surfaces of the pyramid. Furth er
brickwork occurs in these t ombs in the walls around the courtyard before the entrance to the rock-cut sepulchre.
These are built of similar bricks to th ose used in the pyramids, bonded A2 or A3, and mor tared with mud'.
The above descript ion applies to the brick pyramidal tombs of Dira abu'l Naga as a whole; minor differences bet ween
the individual monuments are stated in the table on page 49.
Parallels to th is ty pe of tomb are found in Nubia at Aneiba 2 5 3 and Soleb, 2 S4 but at those sites a large vaulted
chapel stoo d on th e East side of the pyra mid. In construct ional details, however, the Nubian tombs are almost ident-
ical to thei r Theban coun terparts, as is revealed by the information included in the summary chart on page 49.
Apart from the cemeteries discussed above there are two New Kingdom tombs at Thebes which are of special
inte rest by virtue of thei r const ruction. The first of these is the tomb of Nebamun, which is of Eighteenth Dynasty
date and lies in Dira ubu'l Naga.2S S This tomb has a facade of brick pierced by five doo rways, leading int o th e ttans-
verse outer room, the cent ral doorway being larger than the others. On th e out side, these doorways are roofed with
stone lint els, but the inner part is covered by brick arches of type c1(l.0), or , in the case of the larger centra l door,
c 1(1.5). The remark able feature about the arches is that they are quite flat, not the usual semicircular arch of Egyptian
archi tectu re. 256 The transverse hall, int o which the doorways open, is roo fed with a vault, probably of type dl. All
the brickwork, as usual, was originally hidden by a coat of mud-plaster .
The other tomb of structural inte rest also stands in Dira abu'I Naga, and although no t precisely dated must belong
to the New Kingdom. It was excavated by Gauthier in 1906 and described by H. Pieron in the published report. 157

H t. F or po .it;"" 'co Fishel, C. , PM! 15 ( Ma rc h. 1924) , 2 8-4 9 .


25 2. TI,e ddall . of ,t ru e lut e are de rived fr om p en; o na l o b , cTv a ti " n.
253. Stein dor ff, G . , A " iba , n . 1'1,. 4 0 · 3 ~nd 45.
25 4 . Gi", ~ i n i,
M. S., S()I~b 11, Chap"'T II .
2 55 . N o rt llamp t o n , E ;«'ava l/""s (I( rhl" Tl wball Necrup ull.~ 14 & 1'1. XIV.
256. ibid. , PI.XIV.
25 7. Pie ron . H. • BIFAU 6 (1 9 0 8 ). t 73-7 ami Pl.x tV.

47
The int erest ste ms fro m the use o fa dom e over one cham be r, con st ructed of b ricks measuring 33 x 15 x ecm , scorec
wi th grooves on their uppe r an d lower surfaces. Unlike ot her domes found in Egypt, fo r exam ple in tom bs o f the CIC
Kingdom at Giza, this dome rests on pendenn ves at th e corners of the room . The dome, built o f rings o f'b rickwcrk -
decreasin g diamete r. is not a true hem isphere, but is composed of an arc around each co m er o f th e chamber, which is
1S8
nOI in th e co rrect curve to form a true circle_ Consequently dist ortion occurs in the sha pe of the do me. and f~
irregula rity ta kes place above the penden tives. since th ese are not at th e same deg ree of curvatu re as the dom e above
th em. All thes e faults would have been hidden by the coating of plaster which was applied to the in terior of the •_ _ .....
In the second chamb er of the tomb the roof is fo rmed of a dl vault . resting at its end upon an arch over a doorw _
Pieron considers that it was here that th e use o f'pe ndenu ves origina ted, 260 since the first ring o f the vaultin g left a p:;
be tween th e side-wall of the room and the arch o f the doo r, wh ich had to be filled somehow. Th e gap was cl osed by
using pe rt-rings o f brickwork extending down from the vaul t , thereby creat ing a type of penden tive. th e idea of wID.:::.
may then have been retained for u se with the dom e. Whether thi s explana tio n is co rrect or not is hard 10 say ; in any
case it seems to ha ve been a short-lived exp erimen t, as dom es on pendenuves do not occ ur again un til Cop tic tim es.
It is in the New Kingdom tombs at Th ebes tha t burnt bricks appear in a spec ial usage : stamped with th e name an~
titles o f th e owner they are set in the angles of the py ramid, and above the frieze, as an exte nsion of the use of funmq
con es. 161The form s and uses o f these bricks are fully described in Chap ter 15.

£SIIO.

Garstang excavate d a cem etery at Esna which ran ged from the Twelfth to Twenty-Secon d Dynasty. but only one IX
two to mbs of the Twen tieth Dynasty arc describe d in any deta il. 261 Th e mon umen t E.250 , called by Garstang " The '
shrine o f Hath or" on account o f a gilded head of the god dess fou nd with in it, 26] is of const ru ctio nal intere st. It co
of a squ are building with cha mbe rs on tw o levels, linke d by a stairway .264 The lower ro oms all have vau lted roofs, ';\
are exce ptional in making use o f the poin ted arc h, not th e semici rcu lar arch nonnally found in Egyp tian archi tecture.
These pointed arches are clearly shown in the ph otographs which accompan y Garstang' s report 2:65to have been of ~
cl ty pe, two courses in thic kness. Apparently th ere were o ther tombs of the same fo rm at the site, but no details of
these are given, except to say th at th ey belon g to th e Nineteen th or Twentieth Dynasty . 266

SUMMARY: NEWKINGDOM TOM BS.

Location Bond s Used Brick Sizes(cm ) Notes

Nebesheh:
21 Irreg. 34x 16 x {?) Graves of burn t brick .
35
Yolmdieh: 35_5-38 x 17-9 x (?) Gable-ro ofed graves,
40.5-43 x 19-20 x (?)
Salt: Few XVlllth . Dyn. brick graves. 26,
Gurob:
53 Xl 38 x t9 x 9 Brunto n's Type : A
256 XI 30.5x1 5 x lO Type A
289 XI 38 xl 9 xl 0 Type A
290 33x16.5x9
291 38 ", 19 x l l. 5
4 10 35.5 x 15 x 10
4 17- 8 35.5x 18x 9
434 XI 38 x 18x9 Type A
456 38 x 19x9
Sedm ent:
1204 33x 16.5 xl l
Maimer: 1 68
N.K. Cemetery 35- 8 x 16- 9 x 6~ 10 Graves lined and covered by bric k.

..
25 8. PiN on. H., tJIFA O 6 (l9 0 R). 176. 263. i bid. . 146. T h i~h ra d l~ nOw in Ljverp n",1 Un ;v<"n ity .
259. Ib i d., 177. 26 4. Ga f. t.1l1t<, J•• A. SA F." 8 ( 1007), 146.
160. Ibid.. 177.
1 6 1_ B Of~h a fl.I I , L. ~ , aL, Z A S 7 0 ( 19 34 ). :2 S-3S. ,26S. ib/I1 . I'ls.X IV- XV.
ibid., 14 8.
2 62 . Ga n ta nl, J•• .4SA £ 8 (19 0 1). 14 1· 6. 267. Pe lrle, W. M. F_. I tyk$"1 du d I m l d / r... CHin. 41. 268. f1run l on , G. , Marm..

48
Locat ion Bonds Used Brick Sizes(cm) Not es
Qau:
N.K. Cemetery 30. 5-35.5 long. Bricked pits .
Abydos:
Underground vaults xl Vault ed chambers at base of pit.
Chapel-Tombs 35.5 x 15 x lO Brick colum ns in court . Vaulted
inner rooms.
Thebes:
Dira abu'l Naga
35 A3 33-5 x 17 x 9-10 Taft mortar. Reed byers in brick wo rk.
158 c1 dl 34-5 x 17 x 12 Mud mortar. Reeds every 4th co urse.
30x20 x 6
282 ct 33-4 x 16- 7 x 9-10 Mud mortar, reed layers. Pyramid
is all headers.
283 c1 d l 34-5 x 17x9-1O Mud morta r & plaster. Reed layers.
Vaulted chapel in pyramid.
Deir el-Medlna
1138 30x l 5 x 10
1156 28 x 16x12
1159 34x 15x lO
1170 30 x 14x lO.5 Brick pyr amid superstructu res.
1296 4Ox20 xl 2
1300 40 x l 8 x l 2
1308 30. 5 x 15.5 x 9.5
1448 3 1 x 15x8
1453 38 x l9 x l l
30 x l5x9
Chapels W. of Ramesseum A2 A3 4 2x l 9x 12 Sorne bricks re-used from royal temp les.
30 xl3 x lO
h ila:
E.250 cl Pointed arches.
Aneiba:
N.K. Cemetery of brick 37 x 18x9
pyramid and chapel tombs. 32 )( 16x7 Brick pyramid tombs with vaulted
35 x l 7 x 9 chapels.
36 x 17 x 8
34 x 16x7.5
Sol eb:
N.K. Cemetery of brick 34-7 x 15- 7 x 8- 1O Common sizes.
pyramid tombs. 37 x20x 10
38x 15x10
31x 15.5x9
33 x 16 x9
31 x 17 x 7
38 x 18x5
37 x 16 x. 6
} Vault bricks.

49
11 . U r;c ~ Tomb> of l h~ T wen t y-Firs tt " Th irt ie t h D)'n n t ie..

Sui.\

On 1 mound [0 tlle No,lh·hnt of S.;,., ,,"o wn .. K.w;ldj' mound. II the !,«",p<>lll u[ Ih. L iI< l'triod b,I",, 9"I
tu ,hc. ity. ,., 11It bu nai d" mb<rs or tho \o nlb, .re r""f, d WIt h ••ult> uf ty pe d J . nd . nl " .J by me,n , of IWTC'O'
P""'!"~ Squ m b'ick m, ,,u ' i" S 11 x n om, >Ie U><d in the oon' Ir\\C [;on or til. ' omb•• oo th for t h< 110m 1rld b-
tho w, lb of tho ch.mh " " , od o!lhou~ Ih, fonnu u" " not lI" CO!l\lllOn '0 Egj' pt , t h, ocou", nCO ol.qu.'" _
in w. ll, i> UlIU' Uo! Po",bly tlIll indi o.l.. 101110 fo," ,ll'l il,ftu<"" . <Inc. " 1\1><0 brick, oro the !On",,1 r" lo in ~I ~
.mi., . od t h<)' "PI"'"' 10 , i[.. In Soo th,,,, 1':>1",,,,,,, , n"
to. Twonty. Sooond DyIl1.I ~ . " r

Su_.

At thi. , il•• ""hich Ii.. no t r"l from S.f, . 1·!101lm b, 111<<< " a " m"',y oo nuini"~ l"l "h. or Ihe T w<nty-Si.~lh
!)Yn""ty .n d b ler. ,n Tho .. of th r Tw.nl j·-Six[h Dyn"ly or. b ri, k~ i ""d . n,1>roh, d. wltb mo f, [om,oJ o [ " d. ~"'. .
brl<;4 ;h ou\ 1 "' '''. 1><10,,' th, ~rnond , ",f.ce, 0' 01.. th.y I,." Ih. pit dil'i,l. d 1010 foo, "h. mb", b~' brl, k .. ~·

Th, tumh> o f lh. l w. oty·Sixlh Dyo.. ly .i Ntb. :J:t.h .re of l wo Iyp" : un,I" R,oon d B"'' '', p ,ob . bly ,,"ul,,<1.
"" h<d hy "'oJlu'1' pil... . nd I,,~. bric k m" lti-.eh. mbored tomb< ",lIi,h wore buill on lhe t' 0und ,u, f. oo,, ,, S o '""
\ U,o! d...il, of lltt t omb' ,,, " . il, bl., ox, tpt fo, • "";ox mmu"""o' of 36 ~ 11.S , 12.5<-m from ([)mb 4~ '" •

T~II 0'/. Ya/muM,.

Tho form of p'"


'1'hi.:h OC' Url 'I Ihi, <.it . ill t~ , T....." iet h Dyn.,ly, oQmiltl ng 0 1. brio. i'bkd . 1r ~" ~r. """ a
potlery ""rrl!l, CO<I lin u" in to lhio period , but b~ tho T" <nty·Si <th Dj'o..(y """y
I" """ rllip,n>< wilh lho oorn::.
"",'., t ho in t. rm.nt di'o<lly "'ith bri'k-.r.'nrk;70 In ill. m. jori ty o[ oa= Ihe , id.. of ln< 5''''''''
fo ,m,d of .~
COU r" o f ""toh. " 0" t b, i, , d~", , nd (he g, b\,d mo[ 0<",>i, 1> u, brio", inoHn, d ' I"'i",\ e:loh ot h., in pool". "'teo-
on, B"'" 1 ... 1>0,"
reoord, d in ",bk h lh, brio"" we" b jd n. i "'0" Iho "'01,' "

Qa".

.~ ounl"'r of brlek n" ><Il "n" nl' "e ",,,,d, d from Bn " " o f th , Tw'Olj'·S;"Jr t o Thlft""h Dyn ll>l]o• • i U. Il.:-"O
bot thei, , on'ill ' n l'imiJ. ritj' to Ih, ,i, ... u",d In .. d ier lo mh, " lho " Olo ,ite ' "iQlcm tlr, l th<y ", . y be" u", .:L .co
hut l wo or 1", , 11'0 ex. mple. loJl he' ween 32 x I I x 7em Ind 34.S • 16,-'j x l Oem, \11< ' ''' 0 oxe<ptiOnl b<lll ~ 30.5=
I cn~ ... di",u",ion u f ,h , hric' mm urem,o l> or . n ro< ,ioJ. ' I Q," 1< indodod in th, "", lion on bl id , , i", in 0..;:...

AIJ)'dOG,

TIrc oh.."I " i,Ho I)'P< uf lum b flOm tho T "'<" ly.S. ,,,,, d 10 Thirt;"lh Dyn" ' k . 4[ Ilri" ilO\l tho b 'i.:k.'D~1
Ii,,,,,
sopulclm wi[h un, or mo" . rei"," bu,i,] , h' mb, ,.,. lhe« h.. b<en som , di","" ion " 10 i1> , ""'''0
of lhe . up<m::
lure> uf ' ho'" 10rnbl: Morloll. " ." "" d t hom .. py =nid, . '""P'b ie ' nol p. , t "~,,oJ for ' "" "" 1,,1pj'r;m i'h. .. hi!<:
"I"". bd loYod th<"ITl 10 loa•• b... n dOOl<d. >Or A, lhc ",-, p," 'ru' l u," irO gr:n".I1~ II "t 'oy.~ 10. In" Ie.. t il is dim
lu dodd e t>c l",,,n lito", o!rom, ti•• , u"-!!•• Iions. , l lh (>lJ ~ Ih. 1.>. 1 0 '>0 ",m' to t>e unlikely, Tho "'rvil'in~ " Olml.
Ihnllh, p~",mld " ",h " lI" IfUn,,, Il..! ur nOl, 01 00,1 ove r til< ., ~ [to d <I" ",h,,, . nd had w:ill. ", hieh ~'." , 0rb,lIe<!

' ,", D, '''' ".S. I(., -'I!J/K " (" " I, '"· ' 0, , ,,. 'hi"-. l l.
,,"- C""";". r. r.' ,. ' '''' •• r., J" ., ' 0,
17 0. ,~ .. , ' .,
,,,. "''';',"'."1.>'., G<'"'. " .LXX II . ,,,. ".L ,X", ',", ',"', ' O,,,'rh,l'1.XYF
Th< """,,.. '"

' " ,"" t"., ". M. >.. H""'" "" ''''' ''IIrH'''''~ <'· u ' '". """, r",,, rl"
"" M" ''' I<,
""'B"""" HL" . . . . ",
"". '" PI' ,00-7,
'" ;bft.l, "'_' "
,"- f",'., W.". E , "<I,,,... " r , .h II, , ~ , Ol. ",. r, '-'--. CI""""""' of .• • , ,,"~ tt, . ,..
1Il ..."d~ lh. 1II1.lio, l><ing l, fl hoUo.." 1.0 th. , ,,II,, po op of 1 0nlh ~ &rOund lh. T nly ·S<oond J)ynm y. lh. " Ul1
and lh. ' U"'h u, tu" ~,' " not ."oo«t.d. bo' 101. , the ' '1'0 P" " of lbe hoUdini ,. nlo" inl<g13t,d and ' h. .....11'
or til. chambe' , onlinu.d up", " d' to fOml lh. sid• • of lI:t, ,uP'' ''',u''u". ' " Th.
buri.l , 1I. mb<". wlli,lIll. " " ",,11·
10'" d. p'h b.n.ath lh, ilound. " . ,oof. d wil h "'''''£Iy·bullt vault. of typ, dl . " rylnl f,onl ".,. ' 0 '1'0'0 oou,"', in
thld""",, '" In ",n" c= In, brk ko "'m lIol1 ow. d nn tb, und orsid' 10 1:''' a . o"lino,,", """" to lh. n u lt. , .. whk h
wn furth" ,moot h<d by • , 0>1 o r pb."'. Gr"",'•• •m. ", ,,,,d on the f",,, o f t he brkb. to p,,,,,,d• • k,y ro, Ill< mo rt. !.
ro, te n,por:.1}' ". nt ring "'., no' u"d during t n• • om tructi"" of th o ,o o nng. In <0"" ''''''.....
", 11 .. E.460 •••d J n ull
wn . n.ploy. d ' " but " " fling was .tillnot ,equ".d . in" th. nm ring of incli".d bn," "'ted " • , upport f", ,h, bri<:b.
a, d on , dl ' .bu".,
Th... ulllllg u,,,:illy ' p", ng ftum • linint"will or " "I , helll on lh, in",I, uf ,I,. ,,,,,Ill . obu rnetu ,"
w:lih . ar ""own in Fil',- J3 , Ailhoufli Ih••"h" t"mb, " ,u:illy Iud only on, burill! c1 " ",b<, b,m' lh th , ,uo<"" u" o,,.
1',,,,,,Ih, T~',n')'. FlfLh Dynnly it I><e"",,, mo " """"""" to h,,', m"lI;p l, "''''t>." ' . ow .d t h,o ur,h dooT"''')~
"0"" " .1 h)' moh" of Iyp' d .

Fig,.n V""lt"' . ''''"p,rioJ


Tomb ot A ~)'d{)L

Th. grwm " m:lin, of h ric~wor~ f,om fuo""y monument . or the Lot< Prno.l ot Th<b<, or. to b. f01l "d in t h.
I" ilt ,om b. of the Tv.'.n'y.Fifth . nd Tw.n'y.S;x' h D)'n..li" in A>... r. or ,h, ,,, fo"." ry pal""" . h, v• ..,rri"d th".
", (fooi,ntl) to Ih, pre",n l d.y to he " r me In 0 lL udy of h,M . <OlllllUCliOll. ti,... \>< I"g nomb." 17 , l4 ' nd 279. ' "

Tomh 27 (Sh"honl)

Thi, .tr ll<lU,. Ii., b..lde t h. rul.. n f the « mpk oi R,m m " V.:m d b,long. to tho Tw.n'y,Six[h Dyn.1., y. It wa<
" ,cl""" i by 0 hTk k 01011 , .10' 0,,1• .1 ",;, h Ioimpl, nl,ho, in imil. lion o{ th, :uehoj, pJl....h c,d• • por" of which " m
" ".. In ~ n [h , S onh ,iJe ' ''Th<: , nclo.. d or" i> di,'id,d by. b,;, k Pl'lon inlo two <o" t" • • nd 0'" ' th. d""Tw'oy I,
, n "" h oom!""".d uffou r , i n~, of b,loh"' rk. lO·'O 'i, >[cn Is b..I.,lly of t yp< <x! . ,xc,p ' fo, ,h . f.., th,' Ih.low,",
com", io h"" 1 il1 d l b"nd in~ 10 .. I ~ dimin", th. noo<" ity fo, '.mpot"y <en [rin~ . Th. Il"pi l\~joi o " I>e,~••n the
brieh oro nJl, d wiill , hip, oflim<lIon" A ,in,il" pylon form.d th , . nl ranee t" tho tom l> on the E.. t. hul th. Il"teway
of [hi. h.,!>;; ," bloded wilh brie~",.,.k ., a la", <ilt. ,nd!be ori"",] . [,u", o" I, nol vi,lbl• . Th. lowell ,OUt... of
ih, w>.lll rc n",lIy , mployed hoa~o" or brick. on . dg' . but .t 1U,m<t I<-el> the bondlnB ;' . 11r,htly im gul.. A3 wrth
tTl.:" of while pl..teT 0'" the h r i<; ~wo,k. ~I u d n,orb' war " " .I to fill,h. llori",n"J joint! .nd ,h. h rieh m'O'O"
32 ~) , 15 , ! [k m,

Tomh)~ ( M on'u.rnh.1' ~ ""

All " " , " n,oin. o fl lLo w,n "l,;c!, 0' ''' " " ,oun,J<d thi. to", b I. t n. ~ "., hriok pylun ...Ioch " ood 00 the E.., ,ide
"f ,h. ,"uTly"d. Thi, i> well p r",,,,,d, ol1 d i. m" ,tro", d of g" y mud·brieb..'" 32- ; • J6 . IO~ l cm In ,i,o. b"ilI
tog" h" In A3 bondil1 j!,. On Ih, [.." of 111< b rk k",,, rk [b . hoti, ,,,, I'" jnlot! Of< fill,d ";th mud mOlt" bu' [he in"," ai
" "'Ct U1O Is p,., liClUy ""oid of .ny mo rt.,ln ll wi" " ",,,",• • noJ [h, ... ,Ii..1in" " ''''"< ' oro v'l}' wide. RoW1 of brick, 0<,
, d~e '" "" cd 10 c""'ren,, " for imllolarj[ i,~ il1 I,,'d, a" d reed·ma.. occu, ""'I}'
10" ' to ,L~ cou,,,'. 1".1 borh [",,,,,. ,,,1)'
, nd 100j:i I\ldln,lIy 11,,0\1&1' tlo: ,i ru, lu,o. AI the .,til" uf th, p~'lon . type 01 OOm" lIOnd;n~ i. usod which i, u,u.lly
",,,,,,i.Lcd "Ith Al 0 bonoJ inz. (Sc, !'l.S.) n l< mo,t ",i!:i",
f' atu" of the holld;"!;, th. 1"""' h,ic k ..<h over ' he doorway
01 [I" pyl"" , whl,h h• • ,j,; ' ;IlP o fb,iel< [om.;n ln", h"ing 10.' ......I 'oU"" f, om th , in" ,'" Th. '" " 0' COU' .. . ITC
comp,",od of Ih< ' p<:, laUy Ihin bjic~, "orm,lly .,,'p loy.d for .II ,"ult, . but M" lItey are ".. ~ on .. lg. , " if th. y woro
'>rdin.ry hIi< k, . In v' ooL"e alL " d t o f Iyp<• J., . , P,ol>n biy t ho 10" ", « ion of tlte " . h " "uld I",. ;nd ed,d cour= 01

,,,. "'"'. U ' .. <>__.. " '~i ,'",J'A "du, II. • " . , " '. 1.«" ' <. I.. "", . .. ,... , I " " ~ 1'1 ," L n •. 1:..
,n 10"'-."'. , ,,. "'''-. ' ~ ~8" ;hI.>., , y, ' ' '. " Id., 1'I.XXL ,-",".
" .. ~"'" .. ~ ' " ~' " """. >l.xnv ,,,.. u'd , .t.l .. J1o"',",,." , t" ·,..
OR ' , P,I( I, ' ; U , ' ., -'''- a . """,..,, ;"f",," " ". ' , Iv", "',", ~ " ', For th , ' f ' ",", 00 tho ' , ;" k, . ... . 4>-<1, ,, , ''''' " " ~ ' '" '' . ' , ,,
" ,, 1• • • r,"", M~," ,. I ........' ''' ''' ' . ,,,, '!h . .. '" ~ .."' , , ""' .. ,., ~ I , L ,' " " , 0.1,.100. A"" ...
b,l<t lMI, .1Iodinoed .. III"......1IldI <»odd ""'" bono blOln ..; .~o." need tor ,"~,nn.lIId "",old il«(("". . .oU d • •
on,';". (or lhc < _ - ' - 01 ,,," • I I.,.... ~ If 1llII....... \be <aM ............ -W ~ I>ra \lWI11ll 1bo
...... WI)' . . lb.. o ( ,Iw""""'" luInli A" ..lI.~ to Itrc ' "",10 of Morm.."",", is •
m ,"'
01 . low . quo.. W>n ~ f AI bundi",- . bew< "'ru'~ I• • "lU'"
....u
blld;. pyramid
.orMi ••",..."lnK .nll..l, .... he:ldr " . ""nlIO ' n "p">-
-"'":!_no.
bri<k1 of lru,lt rue'u" .,. i<I... , ~ '0 tho"" <If 'b. Jl.ll pylon,
r...... Z79 , """ ~ ,.,
til. ,'" .om!> 01 " ""m. mII" . ' hi> mO>lumrn, ~ • 1'}'1Oll of btick wI' h III .JclI . d p,. .... y. Th. pyl""
,....,,1> 1.. ,h at of ",,,,10 34 III,h . , It is butl' ;n A) bo"riin~ . od Olf' • bond of ' )1'<' AIO .~ tho <0""' ''. bul d,ffrn i:!I.
_ °1110 ..... bye.. III tho brlCkWO'k. ~ ,I>< pte... y ...... 0Icll orrOUI d1I&I o( b,,,,t . tho 'wo
100ft'1 rid .. bo""f
'" ')" dl ....t lJor. _ 'JIP<'1I11\&1 or ' )l'" <I. ~ . _ of cdl lor ,M ....... nc m<b ""'""""* ) 2_) I 15~
• II).- I"'" _ ..., r"..... ~ <I( """'1*1 ...,. mINI.
A",It fJ<,Jm ,h. """,om." " 01 Mini. lbe,. .,..iI' .. Th. b.. 0 '''' ' bllc~·b"'" ,nmm of lb< ~. I'trlnd .. o.....d
.fOond ,h. ' . mpIN' .. of RaJ".... , 111 . ' .\i.din" H.ho. ... numbo' nf Irnoll l'.... or Twrn ly. Flr" J)yn..,y d' l•
... ~ found ill ,ho lhlo:kD<oo or tho ((JrIirlO<l W..l G... uf ,he ."",pIc <nc!oswc: " . the.. we'" ..
mplr muelu,,,
roofed .... ~ . 1 _ I,.. l.r~"", l ho , Inrlf _ 110< l"",tKhOfCb oIlhc G<Jd'o "'~ .... of """'" oIllor T.....n'j .
Fi'ltt andT ~S1'tdl Dynmi<o• • rod of ............ 'bed ,<I SlrcpcnupC' I. _ ""'" '" bact. "' Tho ....u.
f1f
thia """,l u of A! 0' AJ b<JIItlinlltld h.d 1 .;""" roc"" tpPIiod .,.., ,h. m. An u"''''''''I''''.'•
.,j ,h.
'umb h ,1.0 " en . Y,ul, uvOl ,h. bllri.ol "h , mbe, .. llJ, h Is bu~ , I" InctiMd ri"~' or m, ,,,,,tY .. I ~; "'<l <"I')' nfbrl<t
<:Um,,,,,"io>n..
0Ibrt 01- . , gO ...... (<JIIIIIII ill "'" ..... p6t 'IeI.-.. ..,.. brkt ....... bout <>tlIrn WI 'b ..""......d
m-bc I. I Qnu ",,",plc (!'<umbr> ~llb) II of ;"1<1 .., '" Ionimll "<>of of llunu b",,~ . ....
QI",lrlr ' h. fi,~l .... :>11 or ,h. 1m,,,,,. OIl !t. \1,... Ii<!. ... no<! a Jo,in o r rn,,"•• ry ""pol. - of .. 1IIlI., ..) 10 '"~
lb.... of ,100 God' , W!>'", Irl'
.....I'ed oanoct..." . .. bu, tbry
'0"" ".In ,,,", b, . 1 An"b. In Nubl.. ' 0' ThrJo ' h'f'<k "" p,.. "rnr~ In h, ". hod
....,...:1 thI, . 0 Inc, of ltrr ,,,,,r..... been I".....-cd .. ,d tho (<11m gf
.....11• • ""pIov«l lo _ ...

SU!ll~A RY, Tl\ ~HfY·flRST TO TffiRTT£T1I UYNASn ES,


_.
-
La" (.m.
SIr....- " V." I.td ,om1>l
B n, ~·h" , il .ad
of burn, bnelL
",h.d " .....

'"",10-12 J.6 ~ lB . l ~.S U'Ulrt"""",d


,,,,,,1>1 ••,,,,,.
voW,," ...rl>a

--
I"II..-flr'"

"_ in,'"
M.,,,,.,: ~.
pblcd ' . mbs, Lmrd ..ll h .... ,.1><.. an odp.

Su ptnt",", "",.-itlo p1...... d


brir_..... l

...'"
XXIl·XXV D!-lL ('. m. J.<I . I S .7 .S,o
3 6 1 16 ,, ~

.wIIS,,7.'
3h 1S x ~
Gil'''' briclrd "',,,•• ,\ ",,<, .

'"
'" )4 ,S l iS . 7.S

'"
.m
310165" U
J ~ . IS . I O

." 310 1S ,,9


.. ,
'_
",_ '"" . ".Lll".• IY. 'l-l

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" " ' 1« I, " " ' ,
" " ... . . - ..... __ v ,.,.. 11~ I.... ~,
"
"'''''-''' c.., u-.._
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..
•• ,:>-.. ,'. 4...
...
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-...
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J: x IS 1 1.S
Jh.lh 7.S
Jh l h U
lO.S X IS 17,j

,-
7 5-l ~

76 :\8
3J x 15,,'1
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Tho .. do,""_t~,, wbi<h "'" be daocd _ . ' . ", plt ill AlIICI"" FeY'" " lbt axnpln of _bon b~dl . . 10
Ike Nord' ad <>iTonob n os
at Sao!q_ ' I.......... I ptolOlYPf _,uwy ,nap" ...-
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of ,"" 51~ I'ypmId of o,our. no t<mplc ba ...no bo.oI. "'\JfC1y of bncl.:, _,f<! ........ .-
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IIlalJns tbom of "nit .... (Of • l OUd) 0 1 ."Ii
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2. Pyumid T tmpla of , "" OM Kin lldom ,

Tht Tr ", p lrl "/ m r Rrnr PY nlm id oJ IJ<uJrll'.

s..-., ol lnol, (If b"~d; n, .'<T<found In ,h. fO"""'1 " mpl. of ,h. H.", l'j.'for"jJ " o..l,"" 11>< fin! ,1.". 1..,1.
bdunglng In rh, Old Ki"~d "m ..,d .nm h" . 1" .. I><lnll11m ~d di'i,," l .• 11>. "''' '10 ' "' i1,.
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all 11.... .",.. Of ' Oo>l ,, "' lioo, .od.n , hI h,loh'Olkil .o, . " d with p1.ntr. In the OIJ K",. J "", 1, ..11 rh, ho,k> ore
35 • 17.5 • l lkm in ,1« , ...h ~" 11.. bro, " " "Il"'S, dOlio. from Ih. M,ddJ, K ln ~d"lH. u•• b,ick> m, .. ulinl J5 x 2S ~
15, ,,. . nd j Q. 1J ~ Io.:m.'

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b tho ut>P-' TempI<of IIx p1",mld of lI~d;...ld • oumbo, of brl<:k·lno,1t ' ' ' OJ> ........ .""".. lOd """ lII.uffocioflll1
publ'shf<li>y ClI.Nn. L'°Thcch.mblrt ....... boI~1 of lm<u '''..... ' in' U ~ 11 . 11m , ,.111.. ) <11\ pl•• o, co>l on
W ~I .. ...t p,<>bobl~ Ilad ...00.10" tootlnl- ' I ~o Orllon d.~ • • " "".~ohI •.
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" " ' _ . _ p.,1 or u.. ... ,.. ~ .. pia b~, ... b..... lddInoacUflcd
old !iNpoe<l'" _...to,
tuc~ tho _.....,.~ . of. "'d.... _ . 10 ,he u".n- TnapIe. lI_ b<'<lf .. lft6<d 10 r.c... wdo,.,lh
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" ............... \>oIt 0B!)t • ~ ........... ""'" plocH ill , . . _ """ .Ix <auftI: ..-pIn.... b«k. " Thnt co.",•
'lxJ ~ ...,...... 1dI1OlCMf," •
....b _ pbiII ... r.... c_cd ..,th rnod-pIaI... . "'"" . . . . G<ut ('_t.
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...... ...u. rmpi", Ibo ..... compl... boDd A10 T1III Iur. I 4K""'I ~ .,.,:m~_,,'
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or 11M
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la the: ~ .. n of th< ..,uL " ( 5« i'U ) In "'" ).I~.rin... """f'lI::l lho 1>0<>4 AI D;' _ d .ztnooi«ly iIllho 1'1_ .~
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of rho: Glul Cu.ul o f l!>e VoIl' y r ' mpl•. n.. diollncth'o ' <>"Ie:1 b""din! ,,!\I,ll i> " .....0 " . _
"'ick.·o ,L af ty po AI D II ..... d !>e" iI. most of 1M A2 ad
lototn<d lroIo tb< I>nc~,""k " In""'"
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Iop '"
bill ~. tn. l .. "" ",," ,ion of ,his rn'. 1e '" 'M ,ul. TIl. roc. ..... p• ....rr::::., ~
'h, Iim"~ ..v.dlI " f Ih. """" "'0'" ;.,
ho'b 110< Uppo' ODd- L<n>~ r.mple. II boold<d 'n 'o lhe ....n,,,
N" ,.:11 '''''''1''
WU mad< In prop." iood fo"""lall"",, lor rhc t>nct ~ in Illy part or ... compl<,.. tho
_ of lilt ...110 ..,.". """" <lOlly 'n . okp'" of "". ,n otYO" oou..... l:>oI"", lh. n""ro, " n".
WI' >Ohlo.. d 11)'
......, lbe: I. Yfl Oh M 110oo .fl n 1100 ...110 b.d ....... ornlli<' od by "'""" 01 r;md CO"O.fd Oft, willo ..... d-.pLoo'....•
" _ ......100 <rnrlot' fd~ , >II II>< &,;<I:....., k. """'~ ~ <!ish n" yen"" coIou, in , h. buildirlp of SIwponk.f ~
1>1>, k In ' M I. " , ""'mIof 1l", r illh ...d S.. ,II Oyn..fk:l.. >0
0" lop l>f I~' wnWoo 00. \II the VoIIoy r .."..... lht ...... of " """",, bnrm ...." f'*lld. JO,..,. '" <lom><'or =
plocod I So 190m .put. " Th~ ..no "" ... <Jed ' n $lJpl"''' pl.on" ltid OW' 'b«ol. OIld . ho •• th. pl .n~ , oor >I'm
...... ,01 """.... " n >I1ck.1n " Ibt ' "",ill, fMhl"" 10 I"" 'oof"", ~pioyfd II ~ Iflnlb WI. 1M plm1.o ~_
ohiok >lid 1100 roo( _ upl>old by """"." ,""''''''' iol !t>e b ,!" " H'"" , ",,,dIo S "" ~"'" or 11 ,oM ... oI.b..,..,
-\ll ,h. doon In ,II< !""'plo ' <>mf'kx wc,.
hwI , of"""". ""' !X,....,. brick JllDlbI. wb><h oN wilh ...~
'" 01000:." T1I< c","", 0I1he jornbo .... """iIt•• p"...n d, '" rhe ",o'~od b) ""'i<lI " •• .... c./Ied 10 lhe ~,io:k """
i:l ~OI knc...... S,"". C3iln~ -.- ~' H:k -u. oIIy ""'d by lbtn n"", _~ . ~ ... ...he ~ """"" l.o",ployOld il lao
too fIXed I" ,"" brict ...... L by tin..., st, in,,, ,
"Rll. ... "",""" '" lho ",ort,...." l<mpIo of Srl..,<t_ •• _ .:.0
The bric ~, _d 'n ,~. r''''PI.. of t.lycerlnl&. nnt<I [fOlD ] 4 x I & x '1«.. ,n 4 1 t :!ll c 120"'. " ,,'x of 40 x :0 •
11<m ..... moo' <""""on. I'"", I' ","unod ok<> In lhe I.o'n _ I1Uo."'" ,,( lhe Volley T<tnpk irllho Sl10h 010""-
hut oIuo IUY "'''''... a 1lJfIpI< ........ 0' ,h. "'1JIn..! hrio'"

"0 brick"""" b 1" "'"''''"' 1M of tbt """ru. ,,' ,.,npl< "f ,hr 1ola" .b .1 ...F"" ·.,,,. oxcrpr rt>! rh. ""ht:
.ncl<>Iu,. -..all ",!lidI ,,,,,,,,dod 'M n. U ,t.< bncb of "hldo _ .. J I • 'S. 8c1lI. Th. c.....""y fr..... lbt
O<tIIpIo II ill......"' bcmc "",,<1, bricl·""~I ....d ,ooi.d willi 0 ....1I " f 'Y1"" dl . PO'" of ,, ""II ~ _ _ «I. '"
n.. pl..,., ooi.i</t "' 0«1 .,.., 011 'hf bnck_ ,k or '~ lo "'... _ h l 1I0f. y.lla. ,olour. 11 .. is lb. pl>tt<, "" 1b<
bouJdaIIp of Shq..., W .' G,...

T1Io """'...., .....pI< oJ' Nd. "'L.... hh Thol of }ly~, in .... ..... ,"",ple,.d """'~1 in blid .h.. I!It ""," 0( C>o
I.," " I.. pyr.o:Ntl-trmpl., or ' h. Old IUnpnm briok _ rns '" "' •• boon p lllod ,",,,.,,1-<1 lmlhlin S ,,,.,,tit!.
......... ""Iy omplo,«I 1II c:-. ",h <p«dy ,""'1_ _ poI...., 01 'l"01~ 01 "'"
Innld"'S-
lh< ",&ill .. ~" of Nof. n,b,," 1'1< ....
~ ..0 . ""ulst AI is MO<d ro. .... 'hirIo<, ~, . Th... " """ ......01
... of bri<b "" <dill' fOf odjtn,... I 1o. '" ' ''' foundo li"" «'....... In tho En".,,« HoIl ' h i. "'"" 1,6 b<>n<J>r;1 •
,he !<Hoc, " H"st. of tho 10. .. " ",h ch""!!co '0 AJ .boo< . '.
Wood was """" ill ,h. ' pl. 'or .;oIu",u. ...d p._ "",bly fo, .""r.&J, .. ... a..foo "'" ' ...... of •• ~.,;un:...
A doo"••y OIl ,h. :-;oolb lido I. hod I ...,><>d<<> • .mn~ on, ,~. pm" .I ....·!>od by ",un. 0' ''''' 1><,"" .'"int o tho b
work. .. lIbawn ID F~J6. Tho: ' II......" of ,he door ~ of """" ..
l1><" 1$ 1OIDO •• liotlon in ,he Iiz.. of Ilwt b,,, .. w>cd '" lb, lornpl•. 1>< 1"1 ~S· 7 . II .S-II x 85.:... ' n t~. foaJ<
..."all , ,,d 27_1) . Il.S . !km .. Ih. to" ","", IIoIL 11
11>c "'-"'Y '...... 0I1be ",he. Pl'__ d, ., " ""I" uood bn,k ' 0 • ftf)' Iimor.d ,,,,,,n..
rile 0IIl~ altKl ,iol
"""un In ,hi! "",,<rill bci"l1h< oIt1rr ."'1...... ....n of ,1>0 ,. ... pI< of ",""",,,. ... hiell ... " pI"y.d 1l, l.:l . n ~fU1 1 n
IS. 'kin III AJ b<>rItlinr; ..
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tit 16 ' .'ood,cQ1€d l amb.
,1'<!e r1rbu Tempi,

3 ,\ Iorl l.l;lry T~ m pl"" of t he Mid dle Kingdom .

The c" lic" ,,,,mUmcnl ill t hi' gro"p which 0"11 1. 1", .n~· bn , k ennlt_ lIon il lh. unflnM'~ t .mple of S:m kh\;.",
~lm 'uoo"p " n Leb" , So ~m ll, of ' I" hl;,;\;wo, k ", e . ..f1. bl• • b u, it is wor lh oo ,ing th' pr.,.., noe of !in u",io. l "".11.
"" ,h. I<mpI, pl, t fo!IO,"
The in fo "''''I''n <~'t " rn in B II\< f" nmry " ntpl.. of rh, MI~ ~le Kingdom py..mid, " m h" lImlled, Ju e p,,'ly 10
10, " of ''''''' , '''''' hLll ntO " '" t o in'dcg"" I' "'portlns. C,,",I ~e,.bl< ,e mJ ln, of b,lck"",r\; 1"0,., di"""'e,.,J by Ihe
.-\m<'ric." "',""O rl " l.i>hl . hUI ooly • b rief ""' ''''01 o f tbe work ""as glv, n In lho /lulleri" oj ,he Md rurolila,j ,\fm""",
"j An. '" oltd no fin,l " po ri h ", yel ' ppem d.
At 111,) ,un. "0 " riok rem'iO! . re ..' o,d, d on lhe , II, " f lhe mort u,,}' tempI, of So'o,tr" II, b ul n, ,,b~' 1"" . bulldillg
~""til,,<l n, r.tr io " " , Heb-S< d 01 ' 1"'1. which Iud . b, i, k n on, compo " d of h., dmwd in ",'en ro w' ,"Th . V, lley
Te mp i_ "f Ih, p)''' '''ld I. y elmo t ~ tho 'own of tbe ~·o r~mcn. and w" . nclos, d On th re' ,;<1.. by • bric k "' all 12m thick .
Iin,d ",;,h " ' b' o f Ii"'''' o,, ' ." TIll' w,1t h, d been d, ouded t o Jround 1c"01 .nd con"quon' ly tb , m .n¥",,.nl " f Ih'
b,;, kwo rk could no l b' ex,m;n,d. Rem'l'" of ~, bcr 1", .111 wore fou nd In lbe te mplo >rca , one uf "'h ich I"J ' llol'lng
'0<1, fo rm' d of h.,dm loll! On ' ' hnt. Pet rie ,u gg<lO" d tb " tlli, fc. t u" .... , inlco~e d 10 ' hoo t OU, 'ny w" or dt lpping
front th. t op of tho ",oJ] ' 0 ' dtalan " ",hm I' wOHl d Do l "" k into ' he f,,"n~' Ii01", , tId ' h" ohy w.. ken 'h e Utm, ure."
'10 ' nfmm. li"" is ,,' ilabk from In' fu"m.T)' lelo pl.. " f the Mid,lIo Kl1' gdo,n py,on ,ld, of D"nur. ,h . only , u,,;, in,
bric\; bIlildln", bc ln~ . om, p ric>'" h ou" , jUlt No' II, of ' h, ,," ..w,y o f tbe py raml" ~ r Ame", mh,t Ill. •• Th , ,. , lroc' ·
ur.. ".. du c n b«l ln (h' p 'er 1.
..., "' b yd o~ 10m, Int m ,tln g bti , k , on,lmetion ;. found In 11" " "' 1,1, of S<-<o'tti, Ill . whkh w,", ' !l ochod ' 0 hi,
ccnol, j>h ll><re.' o F" quenl u'"' I, m.de nfw"ll bUll' on ' wavy pl.n. bOlh ;'1Iho "" in temple . "d ",<.id, th , do ntmy
"",' Wbl! ""' i, " lie d ",. by, · 'Iho b,Ic" of the.. wo!Ll m" "" nn~ 30.' X 12.S • 10....", .. do ' ho htioh of ' he whol,
bo ddi"g." 1 h' hon d'ns u" d I" <I" , ,,lOla con,t ruellon. ;, nol ~orded In doIO il. hu ' ' hc puhli' h' d ph o' ogr.ph' >how
t o, t ",nt< «,tion, wcr o p rob' bl)· typ' A2 0' AJ."
Sc",ml, [II .h~ bu Llt , V. II,y T. n'pl, " t hl. ,It<." , ,,m.tm <lcd by. b" t!"... J end"",,, . 1",11. the . nBI" of "" hi, h
or, p rnt ' ' ''" wltn ,tno , wm k. ...11 ' ho bric kwork nf tl>< bll ~ dln ~ h.d oni:in,n~' \>co.. on, red with whtten, ~ ntud .pl"'t..
0f1 t ho "terlo, ' u rfoo... · '
Nn hrl, k enn, !"",,"'n, h"e he.n found " noo S Ih, "'. .. worb whiclI Amen. mh' l III on d"' ''''k b,<i ~e hi, pyr.mid
at fhw" .... hu' ,t \lo ')lh unoh t>,1<'''' 01 . brick-hu ill <h' pel '10'''0 ditcov",d "" , be F..." of th, Soo'hernm",t pyramid,..
In th, w:l.1h uf lhis , h , moe, rIl O" of Ih' h, ick. '10'0 " llld .. ""teno" . with ' h, "" ..' io nal l'yer lumed on Ihdr «IF' for
l ,v,lIi n ~ wl" I,! I"s., brick. we t< u<od for the '"011 , TlLo fo llowing , i, « of b'ick' ,,. "cordod :" 30 x IS x Wcm . 31 x 1S
, Il em. 34.S ~ I S ., I I.Scm. 38 x ! D.S x 'km
.~ t tbo '1mth Pyramid o f M",¥,und, there we" I",,,, u f . ", ",",w'y on Ih. to,l , id• •' " th o W:llI' of "" hkh w, ,, com t·
rnctcJ of . p. ;' o f p:"'.lI'l 'h in wall! wi'h rnbble 11lI i"~ b" ",·"n . .. ~ iown in Fig.J7 bolow.

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the .. ,lon l bYUd,nl ph ZCf 'n 'M Sol.,
I cmpl< Qr l'l<uoe" ••' "bum ....d bri<l.'Ior....... OOO; . . ,,,,,uolla!~~~
md __ <If ,~ II b,;"b ",.",,,*", d<o)oo'.
tho 10.., re<on"""'ho. o r ,I.. ' . mplo ilt .~ ".'IIIt "..,
" 1IiIuC ...,..
~ k m'" Ii ' •. haloll", ut ,II< 11l !in ~ upnn ..bI.:k lito "'""lIDIm' ... . d•. n "• ...n 10 of lrapc1<lOotd I<ClioIl. OIl Ideal
,bo """""" ..tti.:h tl _ _ 10 bIUl' ofbti.:h.o.,., OIl J.,,!'b. 10id •• I>ead«t. " W,thl. ' M ",,,ple l....lf bn.:k ,h.
... COIttm<>IIly bon .1od A! 0' AJ . • nd In """'" • • 1eI 11 doubl" «.., of pia... IJ
""or ,lor site . .. d>o, _ 01• ....... p "';'h 'w' .0.' o f bti. k .Ii U ill 1'. ... .... .1.110 I. ,lor ::"':'~
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1M ,. ... pIc II • ,,"'I ""'or boo, . th o hu.k 'oo,"" 01.."'iclI .'. J.. d IfI PO'''''' 10 i<n!Q " 'M plaolUnt of •
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~.UI . ,. l>Jn<led AJ ,n pu'.
bu ' I, rq..." , ' UInpl" or """. " lots 1I1<1!"=I
tn ......,h only Ib< r of ,he wall, _ lKatly Io<.drd. .. tw" Ib< In' .rno.l ..." k·1O . ...... ur lu plt d!y laid bni;b. r
..", .. or ,to< .....pl< """" I'In! .. . n . ltar of h nc k ,n , h"",tly III.gIIl.. AI bun<lma."",rcd <WII' W'ilh ..hn <m<l p1oou:<
lIu: Eo.. lid. of ,he~" ,lor Couo<..-ay....,... duIl ' 0 t-o, Ttmpl<. fbn kod by .. ~Is Df b " ill 'OIlP> A•
....1lI _ 1> <0"''' "q>p<4 ~,k I lh l ~ '0 p,,,d,,co . bon I"" ".0<.
" II"ck, m.....' iDC18 . 13 .. 1 ~ ..
n lli'" .,.,.... o f buil<linf: tIoo 1<IrtpI<. .. M .. '-I.. od&,_ -ur ill bn<b 11 .. I) .. lkIII ...d :'J .. 13 • k:l •

Remai.. of 1 1<"'1'1< o( 1'<1'( I 10>.. b<><n d " . ... d al flul" " ... hu,11' ..g<ly or " 0'" bul . ""' <1 by on 0'"''
btld .. ro... 1kLad< ... ,,,,,,,d<'d
.>bDII' th< '" of Itt. ~ bu ' "" lori<k>of 'hij .......1 «I '0 Iu>. 'r<
I8 • 'i<:III ill '
~i I bud' . , Ab)"doo, .10<.. lor .t<l_ ... . - . a->II . ....... <1 Ib<......ple of O. " is- Kh. " '.......' · ,lhr
""'" or ,h. \trieLs II>fd io ,tili ,," ...""'llon. ""d Ih",. vI ,"hor Old K i. ~~om bu lld",,, III tho ...... ' '''''1'1 ..
on I'"t" 63.

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"d • p'.""y..,
ill 1 b, lel, pylno> . brlo_
' 0 • 'mtplo< of.1or ~b
~,d _. oS 'The b, .. b o f Ihi, py",", ".. '" % • 24 • (~);m, on: irr<~"1)' _ dr;l >lid a-hl, .. pl....",d '0 1
_ of Z<m ""'1lDr u poood fooa.. I'Ir1 of lb< ....1o(,he '",upi< rou"d on (h. ",,,,, .. <I<, bm <Jod A.J a-it!>
lrr<pb.'!li. .. ...,,,11 110 ' ho for .,,,,,, , ""'I< .1.9 bond",! _ u,.,j On "'" bs, " ' ,I>< . ... ill I a-:lII or tho
oirtwoi.bI l)l'", -.lod Xl, .,.oj n 'n>dIIItl fu, > disl_ .. of 4OIn!' Tho I"J'J>DOC ur ' hlt " ,,,,,' u« '0...... .. .
Inc, w>Il to ' "I''''''' • Illl'!'" vf mli,,~ i• •h. middl. of ' M ' . mplo-a=. ....... 1M", • • • ",mp and p,.. h-."y bo'
tho p " . t 'J.on kiq II,.
pllh".,.. pi" whiLlI b od DJI« bold , ..... <><II I'" be",. " ot<l " " h 1 <....... of .'osl.
brk k. "
A DUmO<r of buolbtp of 'olod</\< K...._ dar........ t Al...dn>. froIoI bo'h lb. ~kt.o(b ."d T... lfth Py _
bu, ill m<>fI <_, UI< hlid, ,I.., " . l h, rmly """"u..J io''''''''''''''' JI..... . nd lb... are iocludod io ,t.. la bl. on JI!II
61. U"_,, IItr p u , <n<Jnmc .. alI .... til< OUr.. '....... l"';oIbIy bull . by ~,ril l i> do....-rib<d '" • ~. 1<1
""""." l llil " .""'lrU<t<d 10 .. p"", !" nok of b"'~wor\; ..,d p' . """ ,I>< >pl"'af:u-... . or .11" 0' « """",,". and;
>«''''''0, • fu ,u", o r IIUII)' "'..... ~ wallI, S<-< porI> ...... b«>lI fOFWr<<I ill I... , ",,_ . ...... ro/y is s...1
doni ... d M"",... 'i,....

...... .... .,.


-. f.. . _ " ~ "' ''''' , ,,., "'......'.• No' ...... . . , , . • , ....
"• ...
. ,..
.. Tr<r_ , ..
n
• t.

1'.
'
_
. ,- ..;.
,...
...... _,n........
'........
~ ... ..

,, 0.. . ,
,..,.
..
.,.
_ ...__ ,,- ' (1..."-'1.'._ '" ,"-
n

..
_

1O&f..
'-. u
'
. " .IL'·" ... _

' ..

" "
.............r. ••_'e o-' .."
Ie
R , ~ " , . G., ,,/fl O , " ~ " l
'0-'''' .... 11.
'''' .

~UU l
... ........lI·, ... ...' oo, ...... r • • ~ II, 0-' HV"'.
A' .I k d, mud. ,..:ill9m '" l!u<knm ,..• • fOHnJ which m.y lo.""
fo ,m ,d 'o. Middl. Kin ~d Drn " mpl•• nclo",,.,
J.I' hough ," 'ltnbu ",on '" 'h, 1",oIf[h Dyn >clTYi. nO' c" " in. .. Unlik' ,II< I" " girdl, -wJ.lh 0 1' h ...mrl •• ,~. brl, l ·
'Ow k " I., d UL 1, , <1 cou,," in".. J of . Il'm'" co ne", . nd co nv" .,,,Uon,. 7.
A . h" " "is..
n" fUrlh" , outhw;u d " Th. h" • , m.1I j' mpl' or <h. pel bu ilt by SllnJdtb" M. nt ul>otcp , j;" ,," high
up nn , 1"'" S OIt I> of th. V,II,y of the Ki n~, " It h" hri, k Plj U", . nd .... n., <I" lot,,, be;"! <m",m ~ ...ill, , tOH'
' 1<nell" iom . Tho f.c<I of the ""n. >how oI'crn", ,our'" h,.d", .nd "r ,,,.,,11<,,,'"
th o oondin8 is ,,"," proh.hly
AI or Al, whi]'[ ' h, brick , th cm>cl'''' m" , uro J Q X l ~ X').."111 . "
Arc..· ."Ii,,, of Middi' Klngdum brickwo ,k h.v, b'''' di>co,,, ..d . t Too. "Ornpri,lO~ ' om' roun ,I"ino. of ,h . " mplo
ot"S,w'rI i. J. u' Ln g b,iel<>:n X 17 .• 12<", On . iz•. "
11< 10.. follow> • ,umrn, ')' of th o linn t. d In;o'm"ioo on 'h, brick uchi tOC lUr< i n <ultu' ' .. npl« o f ,h . Old 'nd Middi.
Klns dom., I h. I.... of d'''i!l lo. of «.ur .... m.lnly du t to Ih, [,ct llu l '" few t'mpl.. nf 'h i' '!'
h,,,,, 'u .... h,.d ,

SL·.1111ARY, cn.ns.roe us. ULV A.~ U MIDDLE KINGDOMS


L,""I;on 8rkkSi,<>(cm) :-;01••

Abu G"",b:
" ." ..,,, T 10.1 A3 A6 -«len" lonJ 8 ""","-w"1I " f lr" d",. Orick ho".
tI,"....rT. 10. :1 1" ' 3· 2 ~ ~ 13~7 , 5 lI'hi lo.pl"'c,,tl brd ;wu rk
21 - ~x l3 x ~ -9

!JlIba",-"
h pi 1T 36xI 8x '!
.-lbyrlr".
I'<pll w, 1I from 19 X 14.5 X ~
to J 'J.l X l ~ .' X 14 .S
Vtlr Dyn
hUilJ in", fmm 1'1 X 11xn
10 Jlx16 x ("l
Xltlr Q:.'n fm'" 27 X(") x (' J
10 J lx I S.Sx S.'
I,om H, IS x 10 .1
to :JG .5x I9.5 ~ 11

H",n"pdi"
~I . K Tom?!"
pylo n. ..
W. "" Ii.• .
Ir""
A3 lr"l ,
Cnu rt. • _ A~ h "i,
E. , id• ... xt
.l l ,i/, m",J'
11. 1<: . w,li l n ol mu r",.
771< bo ~'

S;", klLk"c
<b.1"'! AI 10.1 " .m .IS x9 Brick pylult' It w. II•.
,~

sc,"'t,;, I
fOlmn>ti," "

••, h " '" "" .. Mu'l "" >.. """'.. .-l, ' ' ' '. , . , ,,
, ", ''',," , , ~
>t. I''',i, . iI""" "
U'.... . .. . ·1 "n " ~ . IV H
" 1l00" ''''', U.. >:,'1.".. If. I ,
'1 "".on" " ~ "' u<'.',, ""'. ' ,
5. N. .. Kinl:'!otn T..... pln .nd Cbapl"ls.

Eit"'tt,,'"Dy_Q'. •" m id.. Tltobel.

Amenho' tp n . ..·e ' ed ' I Ciro .1<fU1/ oh;opol '" d_ '" ,he S!>/un>.. I" -..tu<b"" do<huf<~ 1100 ""~ dinI Th• ..-.!II
!he , t"""'", art compotfd ",.,i<ll; Wltb • linn 'a::inI ot """'. die Ion., "-"" i. poRliooot l>y I.. """ . ...., u-.
be l " ~ ' n no .... y fi ..d 10 ' he ", icho,l:. At> Un' mrrntOIl loon 01 bond"" 10 n.'" 10 >Om.
of lb' 'hiel:« ....n•. bei::I
AI6 0' ,h. c:..,.." ..'h1~ ""'..', that ,lot ...aII i. nwJo up or...
nt,oI au. of un"""dod bu den be, .. -.co: _ ,aiM<!
,."..... ~ ..... of Al l>ooolr<! \>r;< k_"- ( !lee " .8) A' th. juncli"" ot ,I,.....,.. oIJn :lDd ' be .n,,;• • vol')' .. ide ~
tilled ..,,10 ur}I. Tho odnnl>p: .".hio 1JI'l"'" IIII~ h... boa ,.... If enabled. ,hio;k ..011 '0 be hud''''':111 hUN"~
" " " jl ...'n col!' n, ",,,,,y.o " k. ..It ,!>uul botIdinl . l lb. f""".,
On lh e 0111.....,1.. . , of ' h. .... II> 'h. bn<l'. .....
",,,,tI.. d ...i' b moo!, .nd ' h. .. donfl\Sl"'" . It )~.S ~ 16· I l .S , llkrn ll""u"''''' ' ,h. bud~;',S· "

'" "" """"U,.I Inl"""",ion l< ,ecoN. d '_'lIIl~ bri< ~""", k In 110. I ple> ., Gu l'<llJ <>< thnuya. lI>t 0..1 ,;'"
..... ' 0 h"... -a.,tpOtOtd hnct I<1bpIn 0( 'ho EqIlIt'rtlIb i.lyluol~ 10 t ,· boll> (;n.1 ODd til<
Tomp" I\>d """" tIm><1,1S Dr IJ... m••.",1 In ,h. fonn<t bInW,,'~ tile """I w:>II oi llle HoII. '"
Rtjuicirtr m.<
pylon, ..... " , jd ·buill. onl! fl ,, 1! ""' " ",>id• • nd "" , with 1t""".70 LeI' ul """" d .... ,. ""~, ,nlo ,Ii.< "'101:...0.... U . .
.. Un ..,d _ fy .ho 'U"''''''
nu. '<dIoi~ ....0 """"" '" tho pyl O\lJ. or 1M Small r pl.. ...1'" added. ,.fo Ill.
"' _ l"", ldod m'" ." " of "" ill 10 ' • .,....,. " AI Ib< Small T plo .
bIIt1«,..d I nol w:t11. ,he " ""10 of .. It.. b ...... ) 7 • 19 ~ l ot.Scm In In 'h."""..
ndo, ofl lto , p1._
N<J doub! ,he (f "'l'l.. o f th• •". could h I" ~iddfd ml ")' n,"'. ir\l. ",ll"-!l """" """.iu".1 reI""" !. ,,1 __
IIuI. ""I> <ub;onl",. unlo-d ""y .h teluly In 'h. puhlilht4 tqWIrt. 1"hc..""", lot lhi. 10 " p1Iin . d ill ill. ,,,r..,. _
OtT'".-I t _ w ........... 111. wbtr. _ " ..I P lr. _ .. '" I...... boom 1tiI ( 1'n.4I<b1Ity· d~ "",...Iion ,o_~~ •
• ' h op' " <In O«I.;'«1U" . nd " "d d ,n~ m.,hOll, . " 0 d oor, of ",eh , "'.p'«. '" lil y no,.. ill ' '''''OO' ;nn /Dlll """
f<om<L ... d iO II """,'hlo ,h.t h. ......ot<d tn.. mind.. ~ ,..
/, 1 0 _ ....-... _ k tloaI _.K'!oolocl ..... mf.......'Ioa ..... ..,. l bt .. bJ'C'l of 'lCp>r.,. " 1Id~ . ~
'" ...... or ,too 1« " nrle'y oI lM1dl",. nadohl. C'" ""~f1 F""" ., rho .

' u " h« * 0,1: w.. undc r1ab n ,n I"" E.;p>... n' h [)yo• •\)' no II", -<itt of Ih. 0.;,.. T.mp!< .. AlI]od, "",I"dint
U.. = OOJm "; li",, cr patt " f ,lit ' olnCn", .., II on ,lie W.., , ;de by TulI""",;. Ill . o. n .. b, ico of . h p' ;' .. ",t
_ .. 39 .11 . I::=., .. !In., ....... ..
l1I<, 1>';<1<1 fuuod helo ,ho ~ofdna ....u ... uf '>lOOJ'II"".U~ I.,,,,
...... ...,...... 60 .JO.S . 11.km. ' " ,~ly ,,",loll. f ,110 ..,I, b VuOft'. l.»'''*'' y. 0'
AI ", III ..Ibyd'" .ro • " U",t>.-, "r It , ••,,,u« ..." ..d h~ Amu';' l. all "r Il,..n bU~1 <>f b" d" "..m,. hio" .._

lado , _ . ""I'I"D"td b~ •
iI r", mtri of ,_ "",>11.1 ,b ", ..
It".""
~I"'ultd h~ ,I.. . pHbc:t " t>.-I<>wd uf 0..,;,.." .. n .. 11,,, ,, huildi"ll iI • t

-.u.
...-.u. ,lot fUll or I""" brio, "r "...k d I"" 01
';Od I' mpl i.b • fm."'.", 1Il l::O:-

wi,h • fdhnr 1Il ...... bono..... th.m ~ .,.~ "":lh " 'Oon '0 p ... !h.
uhl""" hrlcl: n! n....
awe_
cl . lint'< ...11 Orl ">l lhl: ~ n, ... lIu!!,,,... occu, 01 0"1110. il!lide nf ,h. "okln"' ...11'0 p vt il ".bilil~ '''';011 ,be
Pf"<I"lt ot ",. I., ••• o! foIIlnJ."" Thi. ""'hniq... of ~ ;n8 fill, d ..·011• .11.. ,",e" ""..d bo (ot< 0' tlto ,~ .. n' k" al
......"""""'. (S<e F.,JJ). '",,_10 iro _ I ) ' • lht ...... """ioo "f ..mp!< 1>rI""L
......"1"" 1""'1'1< of Am",i, , ..ood a 1uoI( milel; 111 of the I..... . of So" I, _ "",IN ...-lIh • Ill",
~ummy Pl... mi~ "Tho.. m,,"uln. nll ro ""il,'"
h"" "" , "f Ou, cn J" Ioh,,~ . • "d lay "" ,1>0 " fa ""i' ou''''' ........
""""""d to ill< ..... q....... o. Unl. _ ' " " u,1I ok ..il!> ,..,,,<d. d r...... 'h . ", h"ild",~ • • « <pl ,,,..., '~., ,I><

__-_ _..-
..... . I1""'l"'o1'" "-"is I '~ - ' _1iImII 4~ l ., . I ...:", ia ,,," PY" rnid lnnplo... .... r""" 4;:'S ~ :O.S ~ 1=.5
' 0 4S. S • ~11 ~ 12..0;."", I. ,h. ",,,••"
... ,.... ...
...
,",
,, _ s.. ,.... ' ..........
_ - . , .. I.D. $. . Cir:o 'If .. ._
.
,Ir,,"............
Ill. , ...
..
""
...
....,
._
h
LI "- .
' ••·.T
C. ,
" ..~ • .... c•

_
•, . _
Ill.
,,,
n
.
,, s.at
... _ ," _ It> ' .vl." l ' " I~ ,. "', 11<1 , " JU< 'v.
a ",",,' '''0''',,."'... ~ . ",. •, 0.. ... 'v '
. '- ."' _ '"
• .. , ·.,....., ,, ' ,,' T .. ..... I.I. ..... '

... _.,...
". ,. ' I.
' ... - . . 1&..
.. ........... .I.f. .. . _ Il ..... ... L y ' .
... c ·_ ' ....
The tompl. of lh, 10"'" of )<;ub' " ... "bu~ , iJI ' he l:igh"en lh Dyo...,y . hove ,Il< " m>ina of , arlier period.; ,hi<
r,c",,,t,,,,lion " .., occompliohed m:linly by Tu, hmOli, TTl . od Am'nho'ep II. whol< n ' me<.,e "'mp<d "a 'h. brI,,~ .
of Ihe p~lun, . nd "",n•.
' "!'rob. bly ,h...
bric k " "'elme< would " 'igin.lly h. v. beeo ov, rl. id lin . " ,,". m. k. "",h '0
the buildin. ' PPC" tu b<: m"" I. ..i.w~ e,,"wucl.d ,h,n """ i" he' tho .,... Th, brick< .r< of '~pie.l ~.... Kin~<lom
din" " " "" ' . "lL";n~ flOm 38 ~ 18 ~ I l.5em '0 40 ~ 10 . 110m, "

l l<d.>m od

TI" " nlj' ,utvr.-i"i brickwo rk uf Ihe bghl . en lh Dyn" ty lempl. i" ",,:ill whkh onc, n",ked Ih e ex" ,, 1 of Ih,
"m'n Ol. It i. built of b ricks m.." " i,,! 3 7 ~ IS ~ I okm. Ill d In , ltem.l . ,une", . nd con'.x ..etiun•.•, Bricks of
id.n,bl ,il< . nd fOlm." u<oci in Ihe PloIcllI.1e end ", u,", "flhe lempl•• 1I",,,,i"IIII. 1 Ihe w,1l " f Ihe Eighleen Lh D~n ·
'''}' "''-' til< ,",urc o of m' l"i.1> fur Ih, ],1" bu ~~,,>."

EI-K. b.

A num b<1 of l re>l briol; ... ,ll, ..


mound Ih. t.mpl. a f HK.o b. of which tho innerolO,t pm b.bly dot" fmm th e Eigh' ·
<on ' " lly n.' l)"." UHl e i, rcwlded ,buu' thi, "",ll.
mOlt . u,ha" hO\'ing diocu' <od tho nlnoh l"~,, a uW . nclo.m • • bu l
It i, likely 11"1 it " h ib ia Ih, ,umm "n ,..t ure uf " n~u l.o ling ,"U"." uf brickw ork. Nu m.ntion i, mad, of ...ood.n tie<
or '''' ~ l. ye", wl",h 0"" " '"
u Oen in ... ,il,
of 1m, typ<, bUI Ill, blick , it< i, ".l.d 10 b, 37 ~ 18 X lOan. "

Hi. rak" npoli"

D<,pi" '" " "")" nnJ, u f.rct" i, d, l< ill Ih, I,mpl, ' ''' , Ih, bn d, pyloa, and w.Il,:ill ",lans to lh. ,<comlruetion
of the " n,pl. ill the Eit/1"OI '1 11 D,·nw y. n .. , j,< ur tho b,ick! " J7 x I 9 ~ 110m "'I'J'OI" ,hi, datins K,"'h Lorge
dimen , i"". b<in~ unh..rd of in th e A" h,,, POIio,l. II i. I'loh ,bl, th.. the " . 11, ...... , ..cd WIth 01 011'."" ill IlL, bnck
t, mpl. " Nub'.

SU/ll\!ARY: EIGHH E.," r H I>Y N .~ STY TEMPLES OUTS IDE T H E ~ ES

I.",. ' i" n /Iondo ~ri<k Siz.,(orn)

GiuJ.
Amenho"p II
.1:l .5 , 16- 17,), JO
' h. pel
Gurvb .
A m . m a..
'" Sloo< <lSing un..-.JI!
Iltid 1.... ]>1• •

GI l<mpl. l."ll' in b,iok pylon.. Slon ,-f". d


hriekwo,k
SJm]1Tompl. 37 .1') x I4, 5 AI, ebannell '" tim b« lie< in pyi"",-
B.J.n·' J O.5 -35 .~ I",,~ Briek temple· a
Ab.,·<i,'"
h Lhm om lJl

"'"
\1),"" .... Il
3 ~ "12,, l ~
3~ , 5 x 13 . 11.5

W -l ~ JO.5 . 11.5
I;:om Ol·Sull.n 32~15~~. 5
Nu M. 38 ' 1 ~ .lJ . 5to B,ick ...all, &. pylon..
40 x 20x 12
Jle<iamu<i.. 3 7 ., I ~ x I 4 I::ncJ",u" w>ll.
n ;;'ab. 37 , 18 .1 0 Inner lem.n", ,,'all.
lJiaakmrpolf, 3 7 ~ 19 . 11 Orick .... Il, '" pylon. r...d with ""',,.
"l , ~ ,,~. w... ..·.• ., .••• • • _ ", 'L<" " .. I'l lU~V, "" "~·.on.J,,~dC " ( ''' " J ,''.
>" JoiJ. ,, ~ ,", Q •• "..,. J.I:''' G,,,". F."·" //"".Oo"".'i, II, ... . , I'l. lUtE.
.,. "'-'~ . ... h K"". ", >., .,'d.wo"'" "", , 0-)' "" ' >W. . I< ,
OJ. "u., ,,. .., ,""",.. ~1 " " ."'A l! l ' "~ ' '- ,~ ",un 'o•. G" "'" . " " a_ ri, I. , 0->0 .. "'~ XX III. un
l;41H....lt flo DJ·ltff« J· . ' Thrl>~1.

Brick «WI,I, ,,,,'la"" of ,h. F4ht.cn' h Dyn..' y <>«:0' I I , h, ' cmpl< o r M"", o In . ad lIaond l~~ 1'1<01, = ~
... ap«IoIIy ....... IU ...... "'" I:L.-.e. . f1. ", I of ....... <luprl, ~ ...... ~r<d. or ' he :i"ew Kinpl"", I:I<!
1ft r..l . ,I>< bri<k r.dls of.am< '" llltw n _ bo.,.,.lIIlIt< ill" -""ute ..,n of lho tmlpk. "'"' ,"ib< __
"""'" rem",,,. of On !:.igh l.rn,h Dy".'y bad.un,;, PO'" or
wh><h ,.... .... n f"""d on n,b. , lid. r>f 'ho ......_ ..... _
only' m Lnr>, u ....... lo.d ",,,,i. «I .I .leh !'OInl . and ,n.
nnly "",,,Iii"'" . oncemin, lh. b rick. 1I 1h>1 ,be y . '0"
Rbr"W.'"
F.-I""" mo.- ai k1c_ ill I'" -.~~
0(0 ",d1....al W ,"" lomplc ""ffk ai1>0<0
1IliIaoc "'"'"
d..llftlo,J. ' 0' Th1l.';>1l
pi" ai \be . - . .. """'0 lho (.......tIl"""
ploy• .u _""" ",,01 ",o Nbly . 00....4 •
I;,~. ".. 10 ti"~"1' ""Ith lh. Ei¥"'.' nU' DynOlly JO t< ""hose ("""dalk>nl li< cl_ 10 ,h • •(••tlh·... <l . nglo ,,(lho
~.ic ..... ""'t<'. ' 01

nu.. "OI pl. ..... . ""'_ by • 'hlcL "", n of ,na d b,i< 1o:. pU ll. red "" b<><h r""", and . """",.4 ""' h ... "",,'h.lnF=l
..,..... . . . . ol~ _ I<> 3 ~ hiI:b. b lh. final dcolp. bno;L l')'loo. - . . oddord .. ,hf oOS' ado. /4. 11,1" _
01" .... pod bm:... h... """ ..""clod. .."... ......... hoi. 1",, 011 ....1). .. 01101.... pam of the ~ ,... iPl.~~:~ I
Th, Nn", is ' llIOof 'ho dlfl . ",n, .. . .. 01 b".k, .mplo)·td, lbe hn. h In Ih. " " om ~"" 01 Ihe ~aoldinl b""l ret.. .....
la.rp. IlI, n Ih_ In Ih. _ 1tm po,l. ,. , 1>kK< of lho 01' .. f. U(nlo """ a l lh = ,'''''p<:
J7-----1l ~ 17-3 • I I - l ~ . ~=­
n 3 . 1._.... 1101 11_:!aIl ... d 4().- 1 11'-9 . I! -km. " U">Iff!o' few of 1M I""'n bod h,i<" nnw in ma...........
O<I<tI1dor>bly ""......
The bomdm! of 1110 pylo""nd .... m . "I. of ,hc ,.mpk" A: or .u. .. k "~ In t/w; k ....... 01' brickworlo:. 11>0:
the '''0= 1... ' ''''''])' 10•• 1. th. horl.on"l JOIn" bcifl! m"" ... d "'HI' mud.

On ly''''' .. ,,>11 , "'pcb ., Dei, , I·M, "I" . d.lO f,,,,,,


, h. Eiph' « "'h D)in"ly. oJl ,Il< oIl><, ", ILi i"". mo,m m' nll
bclonSU'l: 10 11.1•• pc......... The ro~ of <h.M ' ''''1''10 is 4c<lic. lcd '" Alncnlm'<p I . od Qu<." Ah,n ·Ncf. tl .ri....d
....u 1tid.!be Sarth "'.... -d. oltho " _ , ~. ,.,., _ pf thf IhDuI« or Uo.i> lndlo1aol.
u< huo. d AI. bul " '" bri:t _ " no< """nIc,J. .0' 111'11< in.. rior"" thf ........ I"" ~ '""~ 1«1 wilh paol....
un \l<hich ."ioUI "" " " h.d 'Iou" p"nlOd
\\'lLItin ' he I'lolcm>" I<m",,,, ' ''''<h . oh, !",1nail, h~ To~,m<>ll , 11 1. ,,,,,fcd hy b,i: l ,·,,,hlll,. ' · " ",d Ih. in,m.z-
lr. _
or tIf1<b
..II with ICaIel OIl llle p!a>'co
_ ''''!
._lin,
,h
JO. Ij 1 &.",. ......m1 ...... ..m.
I•. In f.....' 01 \h. <Jurel tlud pilla.. of ~ ..... o<cuun. r"""""
no, pb.1<>

Tho M" .....!)' Tompl. nf TafhOl"'io IV.

Thi< ............ 0Iipu!Iy ....." "-<I by -all


'M 0If<. I" The bo,k• • k bod .. A: Of A3 bon di"l and ""'
--Iinf ",""-' 01 "nel<. "",.. o( .._ .. iI mlUiB ...
.u) ~ I ~ 1 1) ' 10. 01"') ' >UlDpin bn n, " ;IIII pcd .. r..:
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the ,..,<ti;:Jj;oml, . r< ..'" wid.... 01 unmOft.... d.
"'''''·o ,L.•" .1 In Iho <Or' or IJI, • •

Tho r... t ' wo Pl-'Io,," or .hUI ...."I. dar. r""" (" . nt>.c<metll ",,<I<. Ho,.ron.h , I"" onpmd II""",.. huHl l»' A1
!lquo l .. d>o 1hiI-.I pyka nlo Plr*>l' k IOf1l" " ol bn<b ....""""'" 40-: x :0 " 1=(>1'1. """'y boom.,; . n . OII'pvi:lJ.
the!WI" of 'ho •• m~ .. 1h< ~""lio" tJpr &Pn- Tf' I, or """ f.
" . Iloicb . "" 'M ilw:ripu<'on . ... ~ '" tho ~
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I""'plc... h... Ho' omhob u,mdo4 th< hOlildinJ, ,1'1< bn.:lo of Iho IUs, ""loa _we.\(l , ~D . 12<'11'1 . boo, . onIIi:Illo..
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10 th< 'omln><'iuIt of ,ho ,""",,". _ Ir.Kb . . . - dl................. J ~ I IS I 8<:m

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"'a of bnd.: Jl I 16 " 'Ic>n tod .\(1 1 19 I 11<111. "'" Ill" • • P'O"P ba.TiJlI tt2mpo of ....IWpat•. , ' . 1..0'..-111 h<rrolPl
th<Quem dos''''I'.d!heW " ' ....' 0..... ordu,o or<W;l a _ WID. ' .1Om in 'hi<:~ _ _"" .... ,<mplo. " ' nw bn<b
.. ,h. hn" ol,lz W3U ... JJ • 16 . 9I:I1II in ....... h.... 'h_ lIIl lI.. fOOf. "'.."',. .00. 19 . I Jan and Iff: r"'l""aoJy
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~ "l1UIrIInf; ""'" of th. E''''''~ 'h Dyn.u' )' ,a lhWO .... ...U !NIU, by Am.nh,,~p III. .. . ,..... I\lIDlO <JOC\l n "" tho
brick.. ,,,d 'Iood 10 !lie \\.'. .. of II.. . "<t",,,,,, o r It" . ... p. UI , TllJ. wall ..... 1.HSn, rhkl:, .<1d ..'•• ho<ill af bride, 11'1. . . .,,"1
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111. T<mplo or Anl< nh" ,.p. " 'n al H, PI'-

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of hnd ,. 40 " 19 1 11:m In .i,•.
lil a in AI bond inl
In lb. lhinnor ",.n. I nd A~ III AJ in lb. thi<;'" 1111.... "r b,l<k.." , k. '17 Tho OIl'" 01",1"",,,. .... 1I i. no, JI'lI' or ,I><
",,! ,nll pl !NI, dd, d III ' ho T.-.n' i<th OylWly. ,, ' " I ,b. ,...- ..r,... lompl•• lmmrdi. lfl y bo,Olt lho ,b, oc
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,he . , , .."'110
r.... I:.fto in ~p'lI. I ",blr ",• • Tho b' ....... of dli• ..w, oI¥nly 1_ on WI' lid< tbon ,hoe o, h '" 'b., rhoy
...._ lil. lJ«nIOry _ pod rorm, 1ho I<1UlI d,......" _ brul• .\(I 1 I'll l 7 • 6.-m for 1M ,"'.mll kn~'"
b'udl1l, ial<m:ol1<"~~ """ 'hie"""'" ....p«o.dr.' •• Tbml .... bo "" doubl WI tlIo ..w, ... of l)pt d I. tIM: u...
m.. I>oi•.-t> bciIIJ d!1rX1.ri<I...- of lhiIIlftIId< of .....,""', _ Tha rooCtq, ud ..n It. ... 11<. b",~wort iI ,10< '. ..
-...oaW"";pulI). b_ ........ _'"",..;m .. 'kiuoed ",""".'"

It.....m. of ',.0 ""III "'''''',,'')' ,....pI<T. b... """" f......~ ...... '4odin.. l b btl. """ II... du\tJo;orlh nf til< 1<rrqV of
Am<nIIOl<JI. """ of ....p , .d tho 01h0.r '0 lb. Sw'h. n · lbo No>rth Trn>p!< bll .. ..u.
"""'ID ~ or AJ boachn.. ""t"
...uy . "'C,ed ..1b pi.., lb. h",~.. ""''''JUIII33 .. I ~ . 4<rn and l~ .. 16 .. 'km.'" A' thoSotl'b r . ",p!< .... bnndon•
..... AI..,d ~ and Ih or rho b,i< ~ ...". 4 ~ . ~I .. lOcrn.'" Th<o< I.." l<mpl.. ...1t probllbly .... ma n " .ryd.. p""
"r pn •• " Iadivldu,b, 1I""'~'~ "'..h,nd ,h. hu!" llWrttJory I.mpl. of A",rn!>olr'p nr, In rhe ...... way as timiI.,. 0I" p"1•
....'. hudl l<l,md 11"' (; "'0' T<",. . ...{ M<din.. H. h...

Rem..", of 'tmpltJl """ ...,iod. u,I;.., llun Soi,. '"Ptr>l i< limeo 1I01 011nu, 1y « ' ,er I. , h. lloil•• bu' . r....
I,a:", of Ill. No.. K ,n ~ "", ""~d "'p ...... .....,., r"""d. A' R<1 b. flf W I pl.... ndoro.. _ , """ '''JOIN 'II ,,.. r '·
lt lb Py "'''! . of _It> """ ........ 4 7 .. ~ . 10<n0.1<"\"lKuI urb.. .-.II of omalIel bnc lu. , ..
f\"1... _ ...n. d .... "*""0 II IkliDpola ...d T. II . J.V " .h .. .... ~ II< in lfql... <d .. Ily"",,, ........ pmon n.
t>u~ .. h "" Iuo 1!JIIfd, "J
lbfy II. fII'.lK lildy 10 10< tiro< l""'f'l< . . - . built for mY1~a1 . . - DOI d
_od.. In - ' of II.. Ia"" .....
il _ , IN: ... d lIlal tIro<~. .... I I T.u <l- Vuodl<h if, ltWII .. ,,-ndulalill!

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wlth in I ,lIIn <:ftinr Dr . lon • . ' "

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W,;,. La,.
r'flj,,1l- ' I ' 10 til< ,"ttI.. patll <If Ill.. ..,.jI lt.< b,u: ~ ••,. 40 . I ~ • 8- . <m '" ril" "M'I " ''''. o,h" b~
"r",. !\ow KiDrdoco WIthin dI. ' ........... h... br l;:.. """,...,l"ll )S... (,,I. If>. 18. 1> - . ,n
" rlt of """'.. ""~I lty Sc'; II 1100 *'" I'" ' ,emenOl. hod I bu"RUed onclo<lnJ ...u """'pnood. Or It!>=b
0l'l-2 • 1'2-3 1..'1.,." " ID oil •• Io,d in .. "'.. ,mpll' boodio!,- , ,..

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. ""k,.,,,. >I . ' " u ' l'" IOU. " .,:q:m! 45. !O . JUom. ODd ... bl lUIII< CUOI JlImpH. ..lIh tho rumc: ,n rhee KWI , ..ttl:
lho . p" "'1 Kboloftd of So1 h~. , ..

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pod 110 rho P'''''''''''' <If S<l~ ""d 'n 'll " . .... dim""';"",, . '. 40 , :0 , 14=. ' " ~
d " ..... 'ho wall 10 .... foo«d by .... .. ,' -, ... . 10< ""'" I..~. "· "": . , tho .." 01
It II piotco<l bt • •<mod Indinf " '0 ,I>< OIi.. iooI. "Tho I rd ' of Ihi> 1", ,".1"',,.., ,'~ I riltp oflnid .... 1IIo
f>c<o' Ill< uPP'l' ' h,.. or. of "'difl;ory ~"'". ... d lho ,............. Ii... ... o f bri,:lI WeI emed.., ' · " lh. ..by r" rrtUnJ •
!btl wrb of ' l'P< bd_ "" un""'l1 r..,u" io lbe r.., ,h.. ,h. bricl< oflhe 1"..... r.. , .ou....... of 'Iloo _ iollr lI=
r",",", " " ,mally nnployld in . ...,,, of I.,,:bn. d rUle> "r h.iok..m k (It I'" J I ~ bu' no.. (h. t . ,. ".. d 011 1 of Ih 'lr ......
c<nl!.~t. Illd "" "de!' JlAl .. ord\lYry btl. " ... " 't""- of only .... ",,,", • .-pI< of ""_ of tpo.."i>I bri<ko ill !ba
...." .."'. ill til. uduod p '. ...I,. of rh. ' ll<nb of " ".,n o. mh. , .. Th '!><1 (q,•. r .S1)_
Tho WICrio. uf the ,,,,,001 .. tho 0.;,_ II ""''''''''lid ill _ ......J f»hlun. _ .... "r n.. ' OL'U..d rinp of
boio: k.... t. •., ... ,hi.th. I*' of 1"" n ul ' II . qul"llffll 10 'tpo d I <If Ito. Cor-pu. ~ioI \I<i<" " . "'"'" _d III . -
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o!lln .. <to< ,,, .... b,ick boi"" al'!h, I,. (U d ", lUll I'" ......."'DI or .... ....Jl.' .. I>«pi.. ,hi< ." 10 1< ....
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of ...,w, = "'3\'ll I><->' Su.flC1nll e....w ~ _ . ,.._ _ '~Ollhe \>no;b 0(,. po
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" number of ' h'p<1> . "" ......1" mpl.. n f "l,ner_ oh ' 0 TW<'1lIl<.h Dyn.... y d,.. ...nd In >lid .....nd the I'hJkmal<
or
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.." I,b l•. I ll. IOm,lnin, ' ''' 0 hod pill, ,,, of btit t in Ih, (" ,ee,," " I nd ~, ult< d ",,,I> of typ< . 1 0'0'" Ihe lnnc:, dlornb< ,. .
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oum d ""lth ""hi" pl.".!. ...
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I ""'" c" n.u ucte<! of whll, ·pl..I. "d b d,k~'mk . nd 11 ..1. . ..,I1Od .. t" ,"I,""'Y.
O;>po<>!0 ,h. OIl< of a" l~<>l.m oic ''''''pie !l. nd ' wn . ",,11 """' 'O m,,,,'' cf Ro.me.." 11 " . rho mOlt ""o l h"ly of 1_
,. • ' '''pol, "" !m,lly ...lIh ' -'Ul101l ,,,,, t~ buill 01 ,.. ......t hri<h o' ih. E!Jht..n' h Dyn:uty . """. of oohi,1I ... .. n tmp:d
....tll tho n'm. of l u,hmo>ll. IV onol m. ",,, .d 3S • Zll • 11.m , "~ Slighll~ luJ1I1" " mt h. ' h' "" ond bOJJldiJIl <>1 R, ....,.,..
Jl . , ....,. ,...,plr
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Anotho-r bric;k <h:apd of Ill....... II " ,,1<11 t o tho ' 11 uf 1110 01...... I'mplo. bIIt no "no:tut:. lllI(or"" lioJI Ii
r=>nI<d ..... for ,,," Ia<:< th>! - . . roofuq. """ rnJPloy«!. '" CIo-... '" ,Ills ' Is I T'woalt,nh ~ oosty ell_pol.
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"" .ho ""k. II:Id is ~ I<J I ",,1 of I S ,~.' '' 0r$IUlI)' ..... ",aIll1.>d VIYll _ . .. """ I " .... 1:0"'. ""
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\/.."'. bid ill~l!)' ., . " h ' O"rs<. bUlln olh, n hl·I.~inl th< b' ''h • • 'iih l.",~ 10 1/1< >luI'" of '''''
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", .'bud nuUt .IK """' '''' lIru1l\l ihc: form of , co"'..... ~r<: ' I.. ",,~ ,be t!lid" "" oj Il,. wil l. ".b" "", in hi.J 8. On Ito.
<:I "" I.." 011 ..... jo;nts . ...
"",l iota; !be _ 1",[ po<! of 1bI'
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" 'h mud. Iou' ill !be ",..nuI .",k DD """'" ..lu.rson-.r ..21""'l'1,,!,CII . 'h .... toy
counes I ~ ""'-< _ ,he P"~ ~"l<ro r...
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11«........ CII<II'll:Ili.... bfl<ks .... l:rid <Ill tb.., "'<II ,!>ou'
" -'1)' <i"<,b "'''' '''. ,.;oi", ohe Inri toy II or _ "'I~ ....... l'I ""

F~. 38 S" 'Iit>~ of Giro I" W.II . 1 M" I",., 11011<,

... dot W>Il,.II'di .....,., pb<d ~"'I)'"""""'~ c1brrkf.. " · The - a, b of '~l" A: If< A.l . ..-taicII
>Iso 0<tw1 lEI l lf< out.......1o f ,he t....pIc-.«i \lul b tlf<Gro" '/o'l1Ian<l. !be .... ' er ",.m .... hooJIl 01 b<icl.o lIOU.orinl
4J1 211 1ktn, '"
Th, mo" " m".ol. " "" " " uodln,, nl ,h. ' . mpl, ..oro .~i rcl ." b~ ' notillf • .tIl , ' " n,..n .. ,If< Inll" End ll<U!<
Wall. ... ..hi<b ,. ., ..iHn.tr., 'biock an" hod u lopinl "",It I. 70m bi",- f o.... " ~. t>um .In"l th< fac. at 11lt. ""b
....bou' ~ 5m. utal6",~ l .SOm bey'*'" ,he....n. The fl>llJld."lDID or' "'n., ' hm iD F! l PLisrl louiklio'c.lJId 110
- . . ' 0 ' 60pdl of ZJn. .bib•• !be c ,~ bri<l_k ..... ..tli<~.
One of ,bI' ",.,......11. in ,h. p" '",,,,,,
of 'h. ,....Jlle r:ut d_ ' 0 ,If< olde, 'em .... of 1101""1'10'. and in f... _ ,.
1. ld on< n f the Eish".nt ~ Oyn..'~ ....1', ",,,und th;' ~ u ITdin,. , .. R." " ,," III b" ~ 1 a brld pylon <n ~ .. ,..11 ' n >lI(l'O.
....... to 'h. Sw il l Tempk. 'h . brick. o f ,hll. """,," oct in. bolnZ4] • Xl I I·k ", In ,it•. .oIlhno[:h ",·oo«! brick> bu ' ·
me !be srsrnpoof " - "bol<p III iPtII Al 01", ""'" iD ,ho r.....'...
b p,..... ,~ _ _ o f \fcdin<t l hbu '*'

The mOl' n 'ml!" """..'" of 110" or< '" I'" I)oolu .~ found . , T. n... ...~ ... Jl""P of II.... ,,""'..... ,.. ",""""d
111. " mO" " mple' TIle " tll"l of ,b, " " .., II,,... . on" n .",d b y l'N.. nnrl I ..nund Ih. Gil.. r.mpl•• l11d
'0bfo«ro'. t1y , ," ,, "" ........ o f I.'P' n'. "'1< " ',tod b~ SlIoshonk III ( I'U~~ \t on'" :uJUOd. " 1.. I. .., ill hi>
..w, "''''''' n.., ,he ~ mcloou,. _
'0 "" <!tied to R 11; II,,,, he ... ioed tbio l>Pl~ ''''0 Ill)' tho' t'"
woll o<pbI;ed. ,ho, of 1llll io_ llo>, ,too tuI layouc _ _ !be lJUp/<zt'" 01 RDneoH, lL 11oio
io u'mnel)' onbkety. so h pniated filii by Van S. ' .... d ,... ........"" of fco olb t_ ....-nlkc> be".. t11 ,h•
..-.11 """uld tr od to In"" " , • b l., d,I.. .. p.<i .Il~ lin,.. ,...,Ili<t, of , im.lor fnrm ",",otr<d hen... h lhe w.lI 01 1\0 ..,,·
,.... , .. I ... no ''''0'' .. '0
loy '10< I"!>ok of ,h. lar l ' .nd".",••boo ld nul be ... rib, d Sb. lll<>"~ Ill. .'1\0 , !to ,"n ,tN'
cte.l lb. F""'" pylon """"'" throuih Ill <ido.'"
flIl1l11tC _ ' 0 .....".,,,... . of I..... o.aI>, li nt , ...._ . ,lie ~ ' " - - ... ~ Thef't 10 DO
....b... 'o .he oboe 01 tbio waD. waoe.ho bn.u_ oIl ......"'d "" b ,he 01',... Phu.,lIL to. Tho bnc ~._
46 1 ~ 5.S . 15.km. •nd. CO"'''' 'Y '0 u.. ..... >1 P'''' ''' ' in lem pl",,,"l,,,,,,.., ""d in 1. ..1"""..... L->.y. n 0' rudI
"""" In Wm, n f ' b, h",i'~"lal jot"' ,. and " !teil!l" "f ].60 , nd 4.l S", or, t" o .. !o iT< 1;,... .. -h,,, ..
·hit< pi.." , b..
"".ft .... d .. . ",,,,"r.'.,
,,.. _
,, ~ ;L
."-1;........ .... '
, 40.
.... _
_ , _ ,,_ f....
Lrt..-_, ,· , ,.." .. ... ,.
/. L. ( _ . fl . ..... ~ , ....

""
."" 'M a IJ.. £ .... ,<. ,v. >, nO'"
Ol",,,,
If . . . . . . . ;L
J'" ,....,,~.l.
' ... - . lln.
' 01. -.u. n _ _ lY./'
, ...
,.~
,w. _
V

,... f....
II? _
, _
,..
~ ' " T»< H, • •" .

Lr• • _
f~T_L

. 1.L, O:_
..
,
" ...
. • ,·"" • • ' . ' 1, . 0-
I .';0.'_
.U . ..... ~I.... . "nL
Th. o" t. r . nd """ . '·· .. huJl 1rI on""I. ' ing , ou""•. Ih, oonc... ""lion. p,ojoctin a On th, f.c, boyon" th"" ""hkh
" " <on...... Wood' n b.om, It. b jd in to"'~ lh'OII1J1 ,h, n,m of hti' Kwo ,k, to >el .. aids 10 m bilily. Thi.l v.,t , ncloour<,
,I> . id.. n" ..nno ! 300 x 4OOrn. i> I 7m lhick .nd oomp""d or m illion. of bri<:ks, the ditnelUions of wlsk:h . " 4 0 I 19 x
lJ, m . nd 41 1x 21 _ " xI4cm.
W,thin tho " "" nO' is • h" Ud illll wh"'h Munl c' "remd '0 .. 'TEdlfie< eo IlriQues ("'.... . ". Thi.l muclo ,., whkls
hao n.." be,"
"'t i, h et n, ily .xpl'ined . i, p,ob.bly of Tw. nt y.First or T" ,n 'y·Second lJ)In.. t~' d' t., ,ince fo uocUtion
..cn li", "mil" 10 those ben..th the , " d o." ro "" n. o f the te"'ple ,,"'.r< foond un der I" , ornen. 111 U <oo,im of .
larr« block of brickwOLk ron" illilLK• " umb" of co"'p"tmen" . , nd w" .pp".ntl~' built in Two !e";OO' , th. W. " . rn
part boillg fom " d nrb'~e bJick, wjtll ",J bondin~ .nd the Easter n p, rt of ' 10. 110< brick, ",i, hoUl ".d loy.",.l7: Tho
' '''' n or w,u, ha,.. ,It,,,,,,.
, ou ,.., "rI,o. o", . nd ""' Ichm laid on , oo"",v. bed, willl,t the ."gI.. fl, .. the form of
bond lIl! u, u.lly .."", i,l.d wlllL 11 10 ",-",din~, I " A r>mp l>Cen d, tu Ih, top ofth, foood, f' om tn. dl'e<;tion ofth.
G,.., Tom pl•. ' " Th;, i" " 1"'pc ll'"1 puin!. fUf j( >llOW' th, t ,h, . urviving rem, io, >T' but t ho pbtfn'm Up Otl "'lIl,h
",me b Uil~Jn~ w"' con!l ructo r!, ..-1'0" .n tr, ,,,, I.y.t t l.. tup u r n ", ,. m p. o"'c we ,,,Ill.. th. t w. or. do, lIo&with OO ll'
Ih, foun~"ion, ,,,,,11 ot her 1.,lu,,,, ol lh. huilcl inll or< "'1,l,jll,J. ~'ch .. the . b",ncc of.IlYd""" I><:'''<en the 11l " m:1l
, h'mb<", .nd the . 1m0lt ' ol:rll" k of . fty occup>tjon deb, i, in 'h , room>. ' " ne oompartmen t, In th e bn ckwOlk w' re
m",' pmh,h ly rn.. ndod 10 b, till. d up with "'''01 or ",n~ to 10m' , T" .. I p1>(fo"" l1poll wlliell '0 "'n,T,uot • builllifl ~
"f",m, kind, perh'p~ ,n . ,OW 01 Ih•• h""".n\ of th. romp low.rd, t h, G,.>1 T' nlpl" ,om, f0 1ll1of,m, lIl"" jpt " .1
ch. pd , whOM: olo>" ed ';t u. u on Oft th" po d,ulrl·lik, fou ndation W\luld b. , ntir. ly ;n k«pin ~ with Egr p'i. n " I i ~i ou,
bd 1d. ( l'i~ 39).

TI,i, i< ,,<\,


n,c ' 'Illy ..""'pic of ,hi> type nf found"l on, , i", ;!>, "Ilu l" plotfo,,,,, with I,,.,l·fill. d , on,p.,tm , n"
h, ,,ln£ be,n f,,,,, ,,;,, \\"nh Saq""rl and Mell, ,,," d, , " :dlhou1J1 ;n t h.loll., e..' h, "u, na'U" w:o; no t ,,,,,n"!)ti,,d.
OJIO o,h .. h,H c,. ,," ", h oo ' l Tani>;, wo,tlly ofment;on, Ihl> belft~ th e .nelo'u .. wJil ofth, temp i, of AI1 ... So
..mct u" l Infnl n"'i,, " i, " .. i],I >1<. bU T' std, ruunll . Ttlr••i,, '?1 >llOWO th" ttt. ...;]1"''-' .. bun, b~' ,\mad., th;, b<ing
jHnh,oly Lhe b " " '"c" "',, ",'h,," of the t'tldO'Jure ,
B,iokwNk 01 th e re;!n of Am,,,.
<>co un . h n at ~lcnde .. ln the I""od.t ioo. " f ,11, le,,,pl<.' " It w. , the ", u, 1
p"otic. in l:lte tim" I" djg oo t ~o<p [uu nd.Tiom, lille th e e".., ted " " ",1 ,h. h,t, k .. "I"L ng .... 11. .. " I ftll tr
up will! » nd , ( o= qu, nlly t n. S'o" ..m il"" of ' Ji , ~ wlLi<:h ,ootain,d tlLo foun dat;on l>lld I. ~ fl,n found ill
Lbe eXr loralwn of ru;n.d lomp l" ~f t tJj, period . " ;n TIL;' co,. at .\kno". It eon,i,t> of. w.n ~.(.om thick , , nch lng
,n or.. o f 29,4 x 2G.Gm, w ith tho inlIer f,,, ,upp-omd bl' bULlr,"""" Intc"a],. " .
A' S , uk",Li, th o G.. " T.n"n o, cons;ot<d of. w. 11 buill orb riek, m, ,,,urins 41.5. !t x I t .m . p .. .. ",d to ,
height of nlD< metr.. 'n ' Om' ~lo ,C" '"" hL,Il, n" rtly t, m, no> ~f Apollo .t Ihl, . It • . P"ri. foun d d.co,"I.. moe""
cOl....d In >t on., WblOh Il. COl1,I<I: "d ...ore >01 Jnlo th, b, ick...urk orou"d the ~t'w,y of Ih, ,ndO<ll". '"
Th, I<mple " G' m.;y. n1j '" wo; ",,,oUJld,d b~, " ,II ,pp ,ux; m'le1y 8m in thickn, ,,, bulh of l,n cb n" "urlng
41 x 23.; x (')cnL ~Io,t of Ih. 'Tlc k, woro b ill ., h" " m , b u' Iloa, nlO b.M: • fe... ' 0""'" ...." set , t ,n ohllque
.. ,[;1 " "' in Al 7 b ondm~ All 01 t h, E,,, .. , 11 h.d b"o robuill in PIOl, mui, Time, wilh bri, ,,," uf 40,5 ~ 20.5 x ('!)cm
forrn>T, ' "' ...Illi" th, otiti0,l " ""lU rern , y bdon ~ to ,h, T""on,y-SI'lh DYIl"'Y, Th, ~"o hu" . lsu he, " rep.ired "
.1",., d.tc, the bm k, ill tb i, ' ... h"n ~ H x l ~ ' (O lem ill ,;,c. ' " WjthJn lire IOmon", . "hd, "" "" ofbu llrli np h,d

,• • , ; ' '''", , ,.. ... I'l a. 17>. " " .. .. ~,,,>· ''"' .(l ... n r ~ . V-VI
"0, ,",,,,,let, P. " .1.. ,,,' ." " . ",".. ,,~m .. "" "'.j" ,•." ,... ". JARc~· ,o;' n ,-- , ••• ,," lL
'''. I,"" , ' .. , ... l'I. X XX V " L ,, ~ ' X X V XXXV L "0, , ,,,,,,. "' l'I.I X . fl ~ ' ,
,n ',"", " '" laO, ".1,." "",".L, N."" .." I," .'"
t n. J>Jd., 1'1. XX XVII, .. l . , ., n" w. " , l'.. """ ,,'II.
I , , 0-
" ., ,,,.1.. ,"-
" .'. ,;w., ,.
I ., " " ;'. "".M. , '_ ... , .. "n"" , "-'.... T.", II. " ·0 • ,.,. xx l
' >!d" ".
,'.. ",,,,,, , , .,. ".7i. IH
,."- ' 001., " ,
tore'> ronslrurtc4. • • ')'int in ,J,at. {rom S>i" ", l'Iolom.... ti....... be d"" •.....,.,. of !he lm::i:.I lbt nd>« ,1.0,
"'~ It!.Iq II' , ...... of "Ie,
~ , uOlIh< ..."plr 11O<lf. 00I1y lh. qow!·H1I,d {"""do_ d,Ko' d. """"
pmml .. "'c11OllJk "r bJl. k ...011. m<2>II nng ~ ~ 2 1"" b11II, " r l:ull" IN..... oil ~ 1 1,) .. (~km 1ft , •• A .. ",ib..
{OUD/J.ltiun ..,. f.,1Ind .t ~IL . ho or S>.11I dol<, ' 110 bn<b In llIio~.. bcuI.s " r 4S.s .. 22.S.. l.;em I_ , .' "
A fn< <kwh (,,,,,, Olllon £>th. liltel ue ~ .. liI< "''''"'''J' "" J'o'll< 11>.

So, . . .

,,, tht No" """, p'''' of ltv . 1« of Sa<t'l.'" • ',mp!< hulll by 1'<•.1"1,,...1><10 Itu ~ dito:;oo<..<l ' " <1«11::.."" ' 0
Iii>, ~. 01 tho " '""" nil. b.olduol"ood lIf""l I ., M ..,d plo'f""" of ~..1. hold in ploo;. by • thlCk """"Inj
MIl. " ' Enlry 10 tlI. "0>]>1. ...., p ood by """n> of • ,amp"" ,h. llIn' >id<". fOTDl.d o( ..... '" fiIl1". bo'....." ho" 1I;x'-
.,.111, P"~ "'" ",W , hlick. Jo H em In ~lh. Ap'm . til. GUlf' f><:< " r "", \li0'll ...1I oI .b< lmlplr.,.ul f""".
F<J<t ""mil h. lI<ftI COIl"""",ed In """",.'acl
,1>0 'hIUM of ,ho 10_ ftUml of Ill< . rd"",,,,. "'''The .Iop",. f~
ort... bu ll ... io pro duc.d by .,tpplflJ ,lit b,l<k"""k hack I hilI< ., ..ch .:ou'.., md then ....tln• •he • • t."".""rf..,.
with . thkk Il yer ufpl..m
1br ~ .. oil of . be '.......... ""~\ III .. par."
r-nell of bll, k",o' k. ' · ' h. , ""til ,h. a1'.mo" t ono;an _
Irm . <>IIne< IlI""""1 ",,'y "" tho 11II1.' b<e, bani • •hnpUflOd (orm of lltio 11II..... o(bu~dinS_ III "'" «nU' of the
W.., ...aU. " ill. p,,;o' ",bo,. 'kc ",m ~ 110<><1. io . ..,.....Y " '",I\o:h. oflllou&b 0_ t>pea, ..... b1od , d <ri1b lni<kworl.
..hrIo IinI <>unl<-d. T1IlI "'0,
wtIIth "'31 prob>bly 10111_ 02>y ~ 10 'ho: cncl""",.
durin, ' h<, ,,,,,,,,,,:1;00 of
,h. lOJ1lpjo, h.. ven·tn.I . j:rml>< ..." h oR th<...111< J",nl1 JIIOfI'rN. ... d ,.j lh in<gUIo,1y.!'=d ~ ,l« .. , in'o rio<
brick"""... 1M "t il<r<d """. of lop ..... in .. \h<r I.ml'!< .... n. do> "'" "'"'U' . 1 ,h~ <i...
V" hlro the ~ ".1Id ,1>< "'man< of til. ,...."'" II..lf ;,,"', of bri<k.f>u~' IlIrinn . 11<I pykirl .. III< .1:.
""'" JU,f..,.. <>f .. hO:h o, ~ n.. d.'d .1dl • 'biflliIDC<toot nlf. The bondtn. uwd In Ill... """"1""'1;0....
.I., . ., ""iN f~

_If..
1I'""" lly Al. tlw bricks born, leI tn mod ""'''''' . -hUilln th. MR. 01 'h ' '" \.Ij-'" 01 rudJ
bel....... lb. coana. 01bntLL In one o f the 1')'_ 10 11•• W , of lhe dI ,ln.. ,h 1.1< hol<s ..hiCtI. "'.. ~ lb. pI......
.. ~ I"" I.... bn:n hudl "'. Jlflu:l.."" llIne \Ie .. , , Io1ph.u.,dly dr.'<lbu'd . TIlt Ilk< .. f b,ld,. ulOd I<l
lb. I« " pl. An d I" .,''''Ul1l<o . ->lI.te Ii.. n in ,h. I. M. ".. Pae< 1&_' ·'
A shorr di<.t..- ' 0 ,110 SuoI'ho( lhe tnlIplo of 1'><0:,_ ""
li. the ",in. of ..... >1 bui1dl<lp of "",h doo>«,lC III.:!
..1ipous """"c_ ,.. Scm. of ,he.. il"''''urn ... th< f""",d" ",," of JfJIIlIII<lClC-buul dupols ...nid> o"ll' nolll .,DO<!
In , h I>
tho
.f ;lnd 01<<omp<>led of <q"'rhlt bk>;b o l b , i<;k.-",k dl\id«! UJ' by t,o,.. waIh "" 0 i."nuI ' .. "'I"n......' ..
done. be, th... d,ambe,.. 01_ lhey _ inl."d<d to \Ie till. d up >ahd ",'th I moI ... pro,," l< 0
I<on pl••form " p"" th< 1f<JDO .... Udin& could b< . """, Il' · ' n.o _In&.."""'" !>b.llod by lbe: .x""''''' ..
" iliad " l.~ ."d
r '''cuI> rnd uJo cdloJlu 1000nobliOlH or Ihl. ,ypt. ....d II.. oIiff.,......
;n pi-. brlV«'fI ,h.m "'F"'"
th:rl oadr ".. orbp •• d 10 lhe b Y" . 1 of ,be buUdinJ "lUch il support.d. W Il\al the V"' t<s, "iSh'
MIUld rill 10 Ibf
_,1flIuI_.,. of bndwort.. Pon of 8Iod< 7 _ "0 of J<~i<I t>tIol...-.:1:. "" " .... of ...I>;,h !'<mIl " 0
poInl ",hm p' t1u",.ltIy th.... "*'" ..... Ii ""~b l, p, frum .boor. J,!o;o, of ,'" in ,"".. rOdodallOf\$ lI . _ ~
AI• .u Of " 3. but 111 Ibc: W"" ....u of Block 4. AID bond"", d _d. nu. to OIl ", .. ,~msr)" "'" in ...... h '""'"" oJ.
" ...<ho.. III ,lit 11Ii<;.... ... of rIM ..... ;" thlflCd d p"" lioII f""" "". CCN, .. ' 0 !be (So< 1'1 5j S<>m< u.. if ..... ~
of bund .1.12. wtuo:h 'II ball<oll) 1M un" .. " 1....... 1" th>l • " '1 ",,,k ,.. rol1.d j , it , .... ,«1 In ,b. tIlIddlc of _
..-aU (t'l .6). R ployodb '" lhe brlck ""' in RI"''''' I ",d 7 ,he If\'''IO' "cal """'P"'M'd ..r",..
..IIlbf .. BIo<t4 <, _ (........t of Nfl. Ilr PI ...,t 1 . bo.<t,. . hill ""'" ~:rpioJI "'" W.. t ... 11 .'0 """.1 th. prflOU:"r
of til< 11\"",01 tUlift!. wl\ICh.•• ,h II""'" f,om F..lt 10 \\'. tl. ...... Id be I"'"'' 01 ,hi> point.
a _ _ II< _ ,,,,,,,<I
r"" " ""d• • """'1 .. ",pl<. .. n;.;tt hu " 'o dora! to b< of ,...,.- t:~' I' I"'" <>ftJ&
Tho lI<1ct _ of ' hi< bo<il<bJ II po<>Tty ' ... ,ed. "'.... c>f.he w>II. _ I up "O " .,..I. rIy bi<J bricks. 01 '
",m. " 1 hnn<lin, <><c u.. 'n Ih. In,<",01 CtoIO',.,>Il. In ,he d>><\ Ofl p",," ' Ii lhe bri.-t. ..... 1"""" '" ,hiI '<n>r,••• nd '"
the Jf N<lU' .. ","", ,,hed abon . ... bo'ed.

, ... ' . . . . . .. 4 . I. ... n'


1M.
"' u'.. ...
- . "-
-. , r"'_ ' , , _
" ,u.
£._.. . .
~' N' fI _ , ~.-"
__ •. "_lI.. J£A II " 1. '"'. "- _ ... _ ._ , " __ 04 ...
.... .... J... .. u J.,_.I. _<••
~. '" _
rtr.fi. II. ~ IlL x.
1"""' . ...... . J"A .. " .. ·~ ,. ... . n. u ~'"
""'- ~
0 ......_ ..,. . .

• • (I""'." .
1.",r_J~A -.,....
. . .. . ... ....'

n._
1.1'"
[_
'''A.. U.' OI. ... X'. "
J .", u , . t7 t~ " 1
,...
t ... _ .. ,., .......
.Jl"4 " ".' l~ 0-

, ... ..-. _ ~A . . . .. "'~ I I . ''07 _ , ... C.o_ H A •• " .Ul. .. 11 .. .... ,_,,,

"
0.. lb, oppo<it. pdf oi th. de>n1 plat.,. of S on" SOGq '0 tbo w i of lh. pyr>mld of T.11. ,h. ,. WInd
, O1hc. mrwN of La.. F'< riod ,. ,ip.,1n .tdU'''''h''' 10 .1It fo
ooUr ... ,Ioood• mull '"",pit which •• <>ad .,
of ....."'1 ve.l • .n. or bod (PL'JlA ~ Thew 11I1';'
lh;, pollOI." the lower told of lho ",ocnsiooft:ll 'OUl' 10 ' M So...,.,.,.,_
... C<>I1UI:. blud fJ<>m tbo ..",pl. bur, the ....... of PI , V. " 'but... QlIil>dI. ttm .,ti. ""0.. buildlns ", ay _n
h"", ...... IJI untm<:e fr<>m a" .. ,lit, limo. n.. clwx"' ..,. of die hntl< ..u. .,. Yfl)' llmi" 10 1Iw brtck_k
of ,be Tlun>otll [lyII..ty .t Saqqa.... and. <<IMldrrul, tho foct . hu tJw 'ompk J.lIIM Se.."*",,, and dl.1opIIln. bnod
_ Itodilll to II _ Ie _ 0 "rX"",_b<> Il l! ....y 1>0 11,., 1M...... ftwlloll ... ~ for the "'IUd
- .,,-.... of 1II. 10-, t<mplc.

.. _
JIw ...... uIlibor >ItrTlU'.

- " ' _ apan.. to _


...... f--. lout .., -"'".~ of ,
,_1.
16-9 . 1:!<Dl, _haft b y. .. ofrudo bn-ea"""")' _ _ - ..... - W it ....,... ol t_
tIoo . . . .'1 of ' hor
-to ;. .....!I' .. -.uJU<n<-
c-.._
or .......... d '"""" ~ of _n.o.!<. lIt INlIl ofbtt:kt _ _ ""e38 -9 •

,.t
..ttlf. lato
~ l l'd-Goml iI_ III 1III;c-.
......
...

Tloe m< " -tt WlIIl of !he ,<..,pI< ..... was fCbuil. ill Iho< Thoni<th 0,.-.... '1. III ,I>< ..... 11 faliln of olldulltlll&
..... ......... ,,<1_,*,... Mo. , of tho bnd ... meamrf14 <to • ~o- 2. 1.J-5<m, \luI """",..no •• ,,./1 ••,""'"
d>rntmioas
of n -lll , 1f...- 7. 12an. I" tk ... liun> of W ....... _ltlfd. . he hOlll<lll lal ju,ob w.~~ ItIItd ";,h • alMlymon",. ' 0'

R""",n, h..... b« n found of on . "",,,,,,, " ",oil ot""nd ,h. I: n' l'l, of ~I",,' U. doting f. _ """'" p<tiyd I h ., ,h. T.....l1 ly-
I'il<' Dyn"ly .nJ prio, '0tho l<;Pl of Ad10" .. 1"'s.,otion, yf 11010 ",, 11 h= b, ,,,, ffl c<d uti ,h, 01.. in t!lr North Ii"" " .'
,,( i1" ' . m.. ,,'>, w<l l lw 'mmodl" .ly No' th yf ,h, ~'I' <If 1't ,Io of lh, A,"" n t<mpl..."d o.IIJ1<. l ~l (Pl.40). In ba' h of til«<
I""at l,o" !II< .. , U jo buill In A3 bonding. •nd ;ll"o'.' '' ~ ., lh, b"", b~ • •ow of <>hI",,! 1,1"'1" " of b<J ml brio\:, .. , on .dg•.
'''lI nB 'S'l'."
,n•.... U1.... . ' 0<
IlII A. .. ,," ,.",p&.,

Th...,,"" "'porr• • , """'lImm"Y l>t . ... lid.,td h. ro l. ,h, ~."' Ji'~""'walI """,nd ,Ix '."'pl. ,..cine" (1'1-40).
Thll k " ".., hkrl~ " , bol ....... of P>u,onoba I. II..... I ".11 or hi>f,om K.ml~ ,«on!, .h•• hr ,,""'ltd •
n'"
..........,• ..,U(wY) In>,..d ,h. ' emplc of ""'''". ' .. Thor ....u •
.\hlbi,. ,bo l<dmiquc of ..." poMl.ofl"ick.. ort
""" YllJubll"l """'""" In "st",,,,_ k.. Mm , • i. lllu".. ,td in PIa... ~B _1 9 A n wh y ,nnpIt ...U•
..... buill In ' hil ...........1< di«......J '" Cbar'Of'l.
The oricmal r_ of ,he VOH ...u.' 0' _ p d. ~OWI 1ft olfCfRlfioll or Mader """ IIIC\d1c........... bY'
...... "" brick _ hal aool'" ....y ,be il. 1mOf ' 0 C<I<uiU u UICly of hcadc.... wilh brio... .... edfo ~ ..d
the.. ,oadjYIl the \ !wI """,.. flUIlb< a1I'"-"" .. .... r",.. tn., iI. lbc ofbriok...n "'" -'aritlc
i1 , Io r-rt to 1I l.II illmncn. ~n'" ...... """"bc' ....,.
- . l ........ nr
"' .-1 .-.al-ra. __ "'IOIM....a ) I " ' At tho Sarth-E.u<_ _ or 'he _-to.-< 11‫<ס‬0o I<>p
"" t!lJf...", Ij>A1t. ... "",_ _ ", ,,,. ....t,.
<II boriulnul!)·, IN . :Ill ecbrr ""'Illky ..,...,-
. 1 . . Ifl 01 "''''rEI. Ai.-~ r- bncb 1')' iliff 1 \lrio;:l ..-ide. pnlCln'. into lbe ","" <II tbe ..
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1tle """,h..,d Sm<,b r,,,,,, ,be "'.w.y oflh. l. mpl. or Amlin. lleo.. ,,,f
Ptoyo... ... ,ht ~., PO" ~ flb< " mea",
h,.·.. O<b.,.1)' CD t'i' M1 I11<lt or lho p'" fll ltD< '-riO tl>o hll ........ 1bo 'Onn 011 pyl "",. .. , "'" bldo' """"" b;iJ.
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of tlIo ROIn3 linee "",., !>tllk _ ""'ploy""
bl' t " I "\I in M. buildillf N,,,•• he S>c'N uk<:. '14 On. ~",::".
shtlilI, '" ,,,,- in "'" .-011 01 !<I"" ... c-bo l lUn'i-a ... til...ri le. " 'IlL I" d .. ,_ .... rt.SOA 1 he I>ncto _ 4 1 • I ~
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....,tfUq ,he cncto....... of lbo (Mil T.",,,,, 01 A....... It< • ~_ , or <mal, bUlldillfl III .. hi<b bnc"""'~ ..... po,-
1JI tho l.oI' ron' of ,bo ........."'" II .., un~,.. ll "' ~cl"'. of bum' \>1kk. boil! by ... .:11... ",house CI.r,,,,,,,I><t . I< ...",......
_Uor bne4 " 6l'ho bttihling ........ 01 ........,. <ooIrd ~l d l .IDl,1, W1'~ .. ~. · ..oIl. of "",['11 41 bond. Uc\MI' , , -
tbr Il>r of the bnclos re. be 1~ ~ 14 • 5.Se",.' " .nd oItl><oua/l ""'" "'"l' h. .. ,ho.. dlR>o........... ,U'he .ump,....110<:1-
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Osioi.. ZlI '" whom l/Ic """,~.£aotmo ...... 01 " ....... _ doC'di<'''d.
F.........,.... f b,j,,:kwoek ill nIh" 'mo lT <h. r d . ir> Ih. E.1".. 0I ~". ,>I 'h , T-orntno< . .. ~ .. o lo ,ho 'Ibl. n.. p.,o
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To,1te No"" of Lbo Itmple of Am... lies. <hapol of Am..;' U>4 SOl""',...., UO po"!Y """k.....U' "", ,.."h . ,...... _
fa< d<>oo oiIb , .. ~ pmt>o. n ,t bril;k.. alb of din nru<t.... "" bull, 1/1 A~ '" AJ It<mding ..." " bn, k, ) I • 15.' • 10.:.

F.""" .h. f_ 01 ' h. I')'lan. "" the Yo'.., _ . 1 ...11 •• 'cnd< ' 0 ,ho ~h. 10_ til , lot f..... oI'Id til... "u,.. op3I
' .....,do til. ,,,,,pie.,,,..
,by ... <10''''1 , ~ • •••• ioI_ ta..1y... ffOO' of ,he I')' IotI "'(FiJ 40) In ,h. """" n or_
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ill 011 ....
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l'ho", is "" ~ '0 _1>1 '~11 "'" Of uI -....l·1>f1o:k .-011 (OO. ,1'II<."ted by JoO:, .. nctlo I. • be oho bd, tiro
p " ...y.uul 'ho -'I'll",• • w"... . ,t.
n le tt .. bll\1t ofbn,b _ nnt J 5 ~ . 11. 12- ,k",. Joid " 4 1 o< .u
. " h mud II'>t>fIafCd i""'''' Al ' M '"''''' ",.11' _ ..... /hfo """.... of II"". bloo:kl "" Ih. "".., r..... " """"I:
b..d _ k.. Ohf 01 rho bIo<;k.1t<if\31 ..· d c~ tu mn-d ' ~ ln ~( So.1 II no.... .._ ""'. . .... '.<1100 of It.. .. '111 .......
<<It>eI . . """, , Ind 'hoy IN" , "" ..""' "" "'" bncks. Tho ... <If .. _ . '1100 '"oJ" nf . hll ' ypo i.1Oft'
or Un.. "'1'l0 or_loyon ... h"' IJn ,i. 'bl. 1n ' h, .. n II l..wl",.
Al an, .he ",''''''' or l'phln>-'" 10 lo: ,,,, .~ ....,'" ~ of , _ pllll lcd 1<0 "". In rho ~nd
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.... IMUff of lbJ ' . The b, i<1u. _nhl~ ~ 21 • 14Qrl, . re . t>mpcd .,lk toudo "",.".1«1
by ,_
pi bll' llI y <_ .... >tDnp h. d ...... , ... ~1 ~ d th.1, ,lie in«riptiOll ill< pbl• • ahhou.... the .>.<an·
, tt.uo.p:,1 ,h., "'ey cuuld 4I>ccrn ,"" """ ,e of r l h" qo. II T1u> ii q"'~ 1l~.Iy• .moo • '''~ 1M! ltint or Med!.... r"""
H"hu --....I . ,I.., h. ....,"""- <I,. .... 11o f thc '.",plo .... Lopeiu' r"""d • h ,i<k "r Sh.lto~ . ill Ih.. u n, n. to pn.. iNy
tho."" lo.", . ..... b",h hI' ShobJ.k.o I n<! ~<lffiI und« 1 oht«1l1. Tl>r Sou th ",.II ,.f d .. lemen<A m'r
I" .., bo<n "p>lr<d
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...ill """ odd,d In II", ,0ml,l, . t ,lui pcn<><l , 'n ,ddmon to Ill< ...OlJ . ... ribod , !><no. . ..." h h rick, 38 • 18 • 'km in . iL' _U,

EN ' ab.

Of II" , h,.. .... 11. whJ<h ,,,,,,,,,,Klth" <m r J., 01 UKl b. ,h . !wn <>I"er " """' >.<em In b< O<J"l< ml"'..n. ",,~ bot h
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fir N"1.",,00 r..........Jt""( ~ .p pc~r .", ,h. l"t,w'li. ' ''in ,h. .... 1I1.b<U, ~ BWI tho p"n
(1'I.19~ Tbe brkk. ' " d,. C""" lIo oll (A) . r< l7\OIl '1f'l u'ntly 19 ~ 19.' ~ 15"", In ..,.•. • 1' b""llI> oom. "'.... pl..
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dl"""'i..... ",..h "2 . 19 . 10em. u . ll"l1b "1i. ,d ' O' M wall iI ;, <>nly _ ,hI. to .. ~ ' ha' II" 1>ud l til 111. u.n l
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2nd \nol 1'' ''''
of b!l<k""" i<. h i " mit tb<""" " . At mmy pain "I' "y ..,. penolo ..
1101 dMdcd by • <k>rI jnifo' d ,,,,.. p tb< " ' - but bon4o<I ,,,,,Ibn tIlIU'
lad. haft b«oo c:o-,,,,,,..
d I t ""'" tim• . :"
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_ _ bo-... tho Io].ft, ,M" t..;,;\>, n. 00. IN S<of'b. t. ,
an6 S<ll"~ - . l berc . . '"""" ' 0 tb< "'" of ......lIlI.
,..."ri<u Iooiflt bid "" • """" .. tIoc: ..... of lho t C.,.,......"tIy .... ........'" IIoon.H .... 11 .... nI, bul
... _mJ bull' ........ i1. : "S' an'r< - . . < CO _ ''''''P'- briI io tho .""' ofl. bot<L_k_
-JUoc 10 tit.< _ . '" Ibe _ ~ of_II owr" <cd f""" .... by. _ _ lIo_ _ of
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"".t l>< eanl> ~1rioIJ. ..-f< of _ _ ..II - . Ill posIIioOOI, liD<:< tho -"'' ' ~ 1> Wo<kt<l
.... h bo«kwwl: "" th ou' " fa1'"
AIIn .1 1:1."',," ",rip1.nl '""'1*. 1<> (X ... PU 9) buill OQ I <~1hIIor I>ri<k _dot;"" or """"'.. """... of
I>IX ~_I<, l ho"'by J!IusI ... tin~ tho .....,..,... ..... ,I>eot pnotl·fIh•• 1'1"("""' 01 <l1Im-.1.... (~ PI'- 11 .72.79)

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SUMMAIlV, TEMP LES OF THE TWENTY-FIRST TO THIRT1ETll DYJl;AST1 ES"
No' ..

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Tho " mplo _t-... 01TUh .L.Qof2tIIW .. bu,ll.F"'" ouad ",'",nd; _ al ToII.1 V. ..."w..nd tkIlO(d... ..,,, ..
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4 1. 4111idft <>f ,....... .... tadMu.. .... """".y
boo~ , <Ii "'tek..........' Ull H -S •
cxn<d ........ lie Sout),· Wf'R U<Io willi b '!", brlcb ...............,_ . an: l & x III .
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ulOl<l'd.d 1M tompln ill ,ho s...,j>.f.:w. pm <>f.ho.o.....- 'IIoltlu ,m. onalI ",,",-,re JUnd tht Iouda..",• ..r 1ho:
.,,,,pI< ~If. form«! <Ii..... Ired. 01..... MId III p1_ by 1>rI<~ ~ trDirr& ....1.. , nCFi8-4 1. A ...d 8) lltIoIJ 01 ,too r<lllM'
. """ pLo.for"", '" bUll. or b"ck> II>CUtuUI~ l •• III > 1:t5an. ".hey _ do.." by ...... dill i"" 4opn$Il> '0 II.. ,.;po
..r I'blhp Arrhkbou..•.. II i ,h ..PIi"l '''''' ,h. "".., !"" 'I ..... I" ..1t in ""0" " "....1. 01 brtd:.....k.· .. ...hl<h
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'r"'-if""Uy >I ..od ln .h••.,..." .

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nr " ndl brio:.... ' «<p' f'" I few Io'F ' orins Jll . IS . 12.m. In ,h. En ......1."· TI.. nf "" dod \ ""'rI'
io brld;-huUI """P' r", l!lf _ 11mb&, hi.~ Of.
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...ns. Al n..~1p/lIa 'Ik .. . ,""lItl><t<,"Il>c ...., l ie .., beth t1t",~ an~ 1<'0. , .... ",Ul, ...... _nn In Pl<>l.....
"' d R t<IWO_ (F ~4 2) OM ...11 0( ' hi. , k. bono p1a'mod In iOdJ I "'1)1 " '" \JUIIJ '. ' b< I PI'"'
of I '" ....a·bod Tho 1><1<1" "'" 'bii builll''' 24- x.n I",,~ .a<epl ill ........ '" ' '''' In,............10.-..
h'icl 2.Jcm in ..... 'h ""." , • •

I'0Io, ' 0 ,100 c<>N'nacnon <Of "'" A"'a' Plool.......... I" "p l. " o...d". . ..,Tier t.,,,pleo h.d "i"'d on tho WIJf! ....
from tOo "hd dlo KJ~. if !lOt \>« 0«. ''' 1_ ",. l ... o' y·FofIh Dy"..y. the old r;itdl<.....,.q nfll.. ~:III". wlUo:::!:
.. .. '" INo " '''''' !hat>,'''' II'" ~ ....."'. ,.... . ",,' m! by Shohoka ~""Th< •• rty .... Uio prob.b1, ' 0 be 'cklItir~
,,1' h ",,0 IC\;"""" of \tnclr...,rk ..Ul .. ill"'.""
,It< 010' , ""'" Snou,·'/l'. <t of " " ~n:d 1m &Ud 0' ","' ' 0
EIIfl of '''" t'I" lemaic: 'nn..... •...bnoh of 1......"Iom. Io<ift& b" dt ,..; ,~ tIM .......... ,,"1 ......... of b<ld. _ _ r.
,h. ,h.
Iyp;e::.l of 'CIIIJ'le wolls. '"
1100 O'Un """*"",,, ,.... l" obahly !MI ' III 11' . Plolo 10 , " ' 1 d b , he . ""''"- oflho <'",,,
~
l~ . Illy PI. ...... l>rXb ,mk .. """p1" "y ", d by It" l.."" "'.. iorJ "r''''.,,,I_ o:.""'.....
1$10<""'"
"" • G,..k ...11 f'",,,, 1l~ ti.. 10 h..... bfel1 C<J<QPI<1ed '" ' ho lI'n,I, ro-o, " f TihellU', ..' Con '"'l".ntl~ . , 1,0 ... 011 .. .
........ 'odoy II ""n~ RlJfllOll ln 01:1,.. diInI p'N ;0 pll«S by "t~, <:'WO>It\K: ' too<. Tho RamM .... bpo" _~~
""'..... and II.- tho ol'l". . -o of boUts blln, in ..p...« ""Otl' of b.!ok...mc. :"al~h",,~ preh.lll y ,I,,,, " 0" '*
~""" ed at I~ II"" ""'" (I'lSI Al. In ....... pOltl Ibe foo;uf'ho ....a i< ...,~ . o<Ml ....... Lho p~ tll
dYnKd<. ><"lrodMlt "" " ' ho """ 1 0( Lho " ""'''''''. wild" l imhn Ii.. '''' l'\l lblo jo " W.., "r ,he 1'<"I')'1on. , .. ~
Ih, ""&h Lho .... n 0«'" OIl "" ~ o"h ...d IV. .. "". of ,h. . ..d o,." .. boU, In oj bon4inj:OM r....,,,,,,,,,,, In ,10",
Al <'<lIoi1> poInu H.. P"""" 1II!i" ."p.. of "" ""'. .... 0fCl1lJfl' o( brio:kwOf\ ... ",W_K '" 0 ta1In~ of . t....., a
. Iou OOlod .. ta" " , .,,4 Fdf o. no. h"" o.amp," of ' hi< ' f<lmiq<>< II (nWl d <>I, Ib<""". (aee o r ,he: llIall. jUIl to :loot
of ,I" I'\-npylnn: OM ....... di.. u<bcd blo<b of ..""" 1)'",& ,,, the N",~ o r tIoo r...o. <;.IC. ..... ...wok tho ..:oil. =-
"""" f""" <......., _ at thi< JIf>Ult n . In the f""',"
loa" "". tho IbI,d """'.. of """" b31 • """'d p"*"r>:oo
cu' r,,,,,, 111 'omn." oIHro'll '" ''''' drawinll ",1_ .

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l1Ie "'"*""l! '" tIl<oo " """ ."",••" ..;), '" f" I'" tJlpl....-.l in o.ap,. , 9. bu. II ,..... 10< " " K """n, 1!Lo' tho)
....1"""'. to ,b. ....nr"''''m t <if ,'" ('IJf1><l. of m<><l ·brio:k II.KI .... b, ...<><ll!.... bo' ml, , od ' 0 11,. ""ou" m.... of
brio" In , I" ~ <irtho b k p)'lalllldo ' " Sr .., "",pinna ,_Ii4 ..
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DiospoliJ Pan 'a fRIH

Th' temple endo," " ' I lhi> ,i " W>l . lIered la farm. fortres> In Rom. " lim". II>< orisln" w.lI be i"! ofPr.olemllc
d"te. "· Onthe Eo"t Ilde o f 'h , lemcno, i. I ,,,,,eW,, orw, II-loid b,ickwork, "..hielL " ' Irie . t, ,,d 1o be Ih, found, liun
"f"'m' b ulld m~. '" II i. '()IJ~Y "luOle jn ,hoI"'. buill of brick. m,,,ulin~ 37 x 18.S X 14elTt." ' , nd h.. intern,1 'Om'
p.>'"n"," wil hno, i"rcrc onncclIIlS ~""TW' Y" Prab.bly il II . nolh" , x" npi, of a !",..I.flll«l cellub, f...,ndatio n. of 'he
"Ole type " ,h o", of S' q'Pr> (.., , b"". p, !e 71).

11\0 1'I<>l'ITIJic ellclo,u" w,ll o f Ih, tem pI< 01 M,d'mud I' bullt in u "dOlI, ting , our.., . but , n, lrely of "..,>ed brick,
of,lL" b~'t""n llL DYH"'Y. '" Ana til':' w,U of ,1 '0" me Iypo in Ih. Eon P"" orthe " m' no,. which m,y h... form, d
II", clLd o, ure """"d Ih, tempj, of ,I" S",,,,d !I"ll. '" , ho of "·u,,d b,id ,, '"
.l lure "'t"o,\i n~ i, ., h uc turo in Iho " mpl, or," whicll the ",""to" IIL<.>IJ g]11 m ,~, ' be , ,w " hou," ,,. Thi, I,
unlikely , i,,,,, it doe, "o 1 w nfu,m \0 the ' ype ul' " mpIN torc loo rn, fou lld " Ih. I<,,,,,,,,,u m or M,d in" lI. bu. "" d,
100rc Uj!l LJr" ""lly. Ihe", or" lOU' duon b<;I"""1L Ihe iulcr nol , h. mb<n (Fi~.4~). A ''' ''P ' PPlo",h"· '0 th o building
"'·0, 11 ilS 11ll': n'\"" . "b uwillg i\ 10 bo . f" "", lotion fo, lOme I1ll1ell1" , . nd nOl ' buildln~ in it..lf. Th h " .olmoll
, 0,t,,,,ly ,n nther e.,,,,,pl, of • fon nd"ion·pl" foJrIl (orm«l of ~ ..". 1filled oomp,rtmen t! in a block ot" brid:Ulork•
•" d The r",t \h,l \10<: ollly objects fOllnd ill , ny of t l.. "" ", bOIl were a f.w b tet pOllh "d, , OJSU ppOlt, tlu. vi, w.
Tho brL< k, Tlllooll;h"'Jl I!co huilding wm 37 x 18 x 14.. n in , i" ' "'

~lTll ~"1

DO
l..J

oD
DO
Kanra k.

Th. ,u"' ''Jng b,l<;k w:>ll . round l b, tempi< of ~I anl " . 1 K.m,k i, of Ptol<m. i, J ot, •• 1 Ie", In tho .. oll~ n d Ol<
10 tho North· !;,,,, corner.' " It ~ bu,ll in AJ bood1l1!;. ..ith w rn, 1IT,~"1ariti" ""d m. ny <J _or-IL"d. " fO! 1."IIi" g.
md . xhi blts , ller",t, ,"eliom of CO""", , " d <on",,,. bJiekwOJI.. Wood, " ti" w<r< h ULh int o Ih, . ' ''''' lure 01 .., ;ou.
1e,0I. ; mOIl of ,h... b<,m, run aelO>! ,h. w:lli . but I few ,re llid l o,,~'ndinIiIY.·"The h,ie" mo"Ure 36 - 8 x Ia.S
~ 12-1 4'm . nd '" lal~ in mud m<>l'"
wit h pm" ted JOIn" on t b. f. c< of Illo w:lll. hUI mo", "'''flily In tho int er" . 1
wOlk, A d.l:lJ.1ed exortIi,,",;on of t ho North·W... ,"gl. ",·eli,d the "Ih" lm ~ob , curno, lK", d ",~ . n,1 Ih. roe ' th't
0 0 ".d·mottmg " 'OS u,, ~ bot.....n Ih, 000"" of brio.... ' "
Immedi. lely OUlS,d. ,h, Gre. t Temple of Amun, bdoY< Ih, Soolh wing of Ih, pyl," l. , t. " d•• ",,,11 , h'p<l of
Rom,n ~ate, hoilt , Im,,"t ,o'i rcly of burnt bllek. '''Th, ..
" Ill ofllu> hoildinl: ' " hunJ .d n . nd " . morl. "d
.. ith 11m' , Aho of Rom>" ' ge" . tbtok wall' " ofmod·brkh whi,1l run, bel..." " tho Tempi. of An,u" ", d the
mull "mpl, of Rom....,. Tl ln Ihe E", t por\ of Ih, occl",ure. tlL" ",.11 I><m ~ eon,t r""t,,1 "f b,l<;h 31 ~ 14 - 15 x
g... I I"", 111 "le. in 0 oumhlO,lio" of (1", A "'~ ('l a" C b,m~i "~.
AI ' he temple of MY I Ihoro i, more bri,kwmk of I'lol,,,,. ie "" Rom, n d.>te. "'Th. ", ain l'i, dl,-...,jJ of th, t' m.nO.
i> bu~t ill u "d "','in~ ' u',,= "r b lle k>, p,oo.bll ill A2 "" A.l h" odln!;. wllh "''''y bri, k. 0" . d" fo, Itv . lling, Thm
i> 11<' ,, ~ " f w,••ICI' 1,. , " , " , d I' ye" in tho WIll. bot th. flO. I, u tlemcly w", hm d• • nd il JtI,y be that ,he..

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no. '''''''" , ' " "" ,,,••".J.. lJlF' <O " (''''''' '.
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..... r" ".. . ·N _ , 111 , 1'1 .
" ', i,. ... . '''7, '0. " .. L" fh ., . J, ,, 01" ",,"' 'u ( " ' U), ". F1 ~ ,.
" ,. M •.I.. " " , , 1. " '. . ",""" ... '<3"" '0(l" u~ ''0,
" ', ihi<.l.. '9>7, ' , " .. U ....'b rrom ",,"'' '.'' 0''''''·'' '00.
{ntor.. .,. bIddtIo bl' tto< de.:ly 0(,1or b..<1..., lb••" OltltrillJ m.df if dlffo:tllt '0 obWII siu of,h. 'h.
b........"'. ...
lh• ........,.........,. "",I.l b< rak... from ' Il< ...,Il-p""""fd co.. of ,lie ..... If "C2'co,ion• • .,.. <OII.t.o<:..d h.,•. ~
... mplt. m. Ih. inn.. 1" 0 ul ,h , !,,,,tIl . 'lIt had d'''><1lIiOfl1 ur 39. 18 • (:' ~.
~car.' Lo t~ " ..rI<'" Lh, Eon m4 Soulh lid .. "' I ..... 0( "",0. ...d buml-b"d"., Iho I. " t! btl n, u...d 10 =0,
.....nos. Tbr bu",' b,ock.... J I ~ IS 11> . . . . ....... """ fl' prnbI.bly 01 til< It"'"'"" OF£. al""'-P .h<,
~ too
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TIot I'l......,;,; '0Zf'lr of lJ<!o tl- Iokdioo .. !oolIod<4 ... ...nd 1lot1I_ ,...,od .."lull .ri<k ,.,.111Io1 -.110. II b _
,n bit .omplo fuoIndallon l . .. ' A' OIUId tbt ,,,,,pit
10 • &ro, ' 'n<"""" .....u bvd l in undul.LiJIt.:<lU.... ol l>rick_ _
Inc" "r
" hltt pwter lll\ til< lUlr. .... (PI.$I B) Thl! ,nIl ;1 pl'''''''''' In 1<IITl. pi 10 ill lull l><Ip.h•• and hti ~:'~
CInlf lb"" ... . , lilt "'P. OM _ """ of III. !'onl> wall eaI1al'-d . ncitn tly d _ d by lho RaIn..... ,lie (J
..r tho ffPli , ' 0' t><;.., • dll'''''' .""If...
' 0 lbt .U _ , of m. "'_ "'..k k. So _-'00 bumo 0< tffC
... ." to h,,·. b.", lnolucl<d .n ' 1M ""'''Iu,, DrIhe .nil, Th bock. II ' of ..<>60".. oU•• ..... . urin819 - J; co I':- ! a
1Ocn. d I"""", W<lln ,nlld·lIIo'b' .
:nw -. _,OJ.-.. ~ U" S-'. _
of ,bf "01'1< ,tmpIt.'o .. l>Idl " io 10LI:o.-f by. " wl _
tilt 011 1« ,-... This null. <P""'! f. "", l/....t""_~ of 1/10 IttnpIc. " uf Iypo <:<I I. I. ,...''''' ..... In lhi<k _ ...:.
u.t of Ihin. poo" ~ b,l<b l lkrn _ ;<1<. It folio. ·•• Iml)' I"", w .... • nd m""
II..·• ,tquin ~ ""'" r""" of «nlrq
il",,,,,"'nac lklo. 'Tht br1::k ..-alb of u..
!ohmrnioi Ot, buill ill (1:1. ~ bond;,,~.. and ....' . o,~n"lr """"tfd "" til •
,wI.,.

.IINlln~r 116M..

A walt J.S071I in ,hid",,,.. w.. "", .. "",,'td In I'tolotnai< Ullin .n hnnl .,( ,h, Sm.oll T.....pk. ","h • n.w Pl'''''' -
I oI"1'inl lOde and 10 buill of b,,,,lo .tlldl raoF In Ii,. hom J~ • I K. 11=
Ih, F.. 11 ......, .. Tbt ...·.11 ..... di or>
10. 1q x II.,. , ., " .._ fxuoc ..... appIk4 to II.. f.. ado IN: Ionc~ py1olo. bu, .. lhe in1Itr 0><10 Lh. b,,,,'
....""''''I)-
pia.." ", ...." . I'r>rrk.I I, .0 tbe b>io:~ "f the pylo Ioi~ .. II<..J." (F"i&-'S), Tho ~ 1toaI,,,,, •
Fit."5 "","'"..... py..... "'<dint,lhlttr. ".".

c:;'I lhio:k
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• .,.., _ d Ihllltrllplc. \IoU, .1It ooIy r"", "'«>,..... I .b"'" ' hi> I, Iho h,;";k Ii'" at H . 11 x 1«... ' ''II<!,"," ""ff
IP<It to l/Io . ... crf .... T.....It·rrf'h o,-~ . •"" of ' N ... opIt. 10 t~oc ,ionts. ..... h br;o;" ""'.... r1n¥ 01>1,· ~ a
I~ . ~C1II.".

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, . .. 10 ",. "
iMC. . . . .... " " ,, "~
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th< DIlly bric\......, ~ " i .<>1. 11 1M '''''pk " f AI...."I II ,'''' Roml. ...d<>5\l ,. ...-aI. buU, In ,h . UJditlanA " ""Y'
,,,,, tta ""d f""d ..ith H""• •, It>< ~...., •• The bond'"1 "I th. .... nI. Al l ," ' "" ' '''"1'.'' ' ' ... 1\1.10 10 IKl I , . ,...
oi..ly uot'd unt il ,tty 1'1< ' 110101. ,t><! lh. brl, k. " ,.,," ro 30.5-3 U • 1S- I ~ XY.! . II. S' m.'00

Tho< p,-..,.n of lbo ,....pI< _ .. ..Iu"- .. _ «II '" "'~ ~ If _ _ ta La ",.. \ant .... ~ of
x
bnch 31 I ~ • I ICDl. .. sUe. .. . I'lobobly It . du.bi" ,be ..... 01. omdulall<nl 0( 'N brick " 'h",,!'Jl thlo It .... .'n"••••
""",,," ,,nr .,,'C<! in,"" « pu' l.

I·(flu.
_ ".l ,he Tempi. of liuonJ. ,*, a 11"'" ,. ......... ~ of ..hloll ~. . ...... port io _ ....... . CboitV stltod . 0:
_ III 'hoi .... Iloe Iu_ c-.n lad Ioonl.t:lll"y. """'" II • "",,"1N:l cliO)' on: J.d .. Ih nnat. loft! 1114 oon-
a .. ...-:- . . »<I lhol .. ill flf l lIN ~ JI' Thio m<lIoo4 of . ....."""... 10 a fio. d .. .... plof ol lbe ~ 0(
b.io~ llriooks In .... du.." " , Ao lbo 5." "l>- lL'<>I >n&l< of tbr ....n. f_,
cuunft of ikm bv.Ill iII1" 'be _ _
.. a hloh Ind. JO' III IIDI ~" ( ,,," to ,b. " , empl oy. d In 'ho ...., o f l'COUdObo I . 1 h .""
(~ . It",. , pop 74~
Tho r.... of lh• ..-.11 "'OW>
. 1L" " " lOy", D( b and . " .. tho" . ..-.. h bricu 0fI .~ bt .. and lb.., 10 ><1)"" lhe
1, . ,1•. ]01

......... arc, MUL IfI:<>I<Iint '0 t'kuisy. -It


Th. _ _ . . "' Ihe ......... ...... iI _ , ill _ _ III _to ,he bri<u _ a-t:I .. '......-lr III 0 --..." ud
buIod.d AJ, ...,h """'s«raII _ .... llid at on " b""'... ...,so... In boII<I Al l .
Tho OII ' e, fa;: . of the ..-..II ......, " ri" DJlIy to to.... b<-tn -.,rd
.i", I Ll~..., of whi.. ned nwoS-t>!>"" .JO'

/:·{r p hDlUill r .

.....trltl 1f II'll1l ofl.,,<~ .. nound. Iht ,.-mpIt oj Kllnum :01 ' hOoilO, bull' '" _ llUhq c"",... ln thti, ftlll form.
Typo AIDc 1>wNI.... .. _ •• 1M'" " l llIc ", ,,,..,iJIIl"""'- ...m.- - . ",lhl in 111< Lhi<....... of
... - . I .. AJ, 1•• low itft1Cnl>tS.JOOO " ,_ .. _ _ 10;' "_.,, .01, III....... tbr ""'''-1<01 dw ~.to
'''''''.11
oou<v f""" ' ho b_. ...4 Ib..u f"" .. oou,' 'Oftob c_1M, " 1»-. .. of ~ ocn'.
1M dot< " f ,hi. w.:dl is ~ot c.rtain, !xl, " In"'"
bolon,. In . I <J"l'h. It "'" bam nonbod 10 'N Pt<linuic period, . ..
but R,, ~.b..."U... <d 'h >l ll moy ill b et l>t "f R""",,~ d.,o. '" .. tUo:b <_ i''''U1I~ 1Io ~ up ... ... lM Rmt&Jt prl"" of
lilt " mplc,"l l~ w PPIl" of ,h. ["It« " ' '' . I' m'Y ... noled ,h.1 .b. ... 11 to.. " ,,,,,,,,,1.imil>.,I' lfl ' 0 Itt< Roma" .ock>tu,.
110." ..." .

" COt1SIdfnble IIUmbcT of ltrl.::k· bIIill lOmpIc:o <>l RoonatI <bit . , _ IrI .... _ _ tho I!"" I "'OIa of !be 11'_ .-
00_ ol llYpo. bot oct}' li"l< lnform.tllOll II; n:DlabL;: .boo.* - ....Bdinp. A ;... I...... ..r."""""",- "'..,.... an
halOtlm " .. "''''''''''- d •• " bol<>-..-. n J

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SU M~' '' RY: UIlICI(WORK IN GRAECo.RO'IU N TU1 PLES
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O U.PTER SIX' AO~IIN IS1R ATI\' E ,"'ND OmO...l 8 UILDINGS

I. Arclu... I'niud

.... "l""1 h.. bHn »\I~b:itt. d "" lhll ,.,ly btrildio! .. tm,:LkO<1polll, ' ..Iu<h, '" ....... of I" Impor1l"'cc. II ...." Ihy of
• h,i . f d... n~llon h.,.
The P<'fhcn of ' h. >true' "" ,n rll . ",. , ' Ied eomp ,I' .. . I,,~ il1"""'~ if). h,l'k w,lI, ~"n .. t.d wi' h p.I... ·f"". ~.
p r><llInl- Tho bno: k ~ wh ich "'<>'"'" N ,S" 12 " 6<m,.ro b<Jn<l«l A!. wllh itt, o«ulonal "'" of lulf.brlc L, III lh.
<Om1,,",llUn 01 ,h. nlel>« , B~ the " ylo ul ,he "', ,. """ it is _,hi, 10 do,. ,"" bu~dilll to tile ..,Iy put ul II><
Fin! [)yn.u'y. ,It"""p aom< ww, u.aI ~"' l(·n i<h • • n DeC 01 til. Innn iho..... in llle dl1l~ b<Iow. Tbu b nd or nl<h.
,. nOlkIl""'" ..... ho.. In ~f"",do INo<kw<>R:, bul it y only too .w e '0 c.",icM W<>I'" <lI ' 0 . _ ' n ..d.... ,he
l<ntUt of .... ~

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l"arl, l'fIMyof Mo .. .... *""""

Alll...," ~b II n"", ..."", """oiu 'hal II'" 11 ", , 101' " ... hk h ....,. On. ' Ih""!illl O'" fum. 1Abyd..,.I ,,4 . fu n" ,,)' PU 'I""".'
, "", ,, " I.d wllh lbe "'o'O<I)" n,,,"1< lnm" of U",m el·Q-,·.b . 1 !Ia•• lo'IOlded Ih, m und ' l thll h<>din~ sinco, in tho p""",
".1" of "." k"uwl.<llle, tlo.~ "" " ""l h.pplly be d."ifi<d ...it h .;,1,.,lomh. (}f l. mpl' l Only Ih. ",dl·p ,..or.. d mon"..
me"lo of 1M So"und Dy1U"~ . .. iI\<loded in Ih;, ,tu 0y. ~ II ;. f, om ,h... tim IllUe'"'u iIlfnm>Ui"" <1n be obta;n«!,
The I• ..,. end ","" of K1u.. U.c"",~ now m o..... .. S1wn" ••. 7.. h;b. <>:Xl.i.l> of • ...n S,40m 'ki<k LCd 11m 1u&lI.
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budl "" llf<W\IlIIIat pbn.!
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prob.bIy ~ loeett .u. ...
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,he nu'" I""" of ,he: u n ... Ik.e ",m';m of p]1" . h<.~, nd>... !hoIo 0.. I"" E.."
mo", ''''''I'ln ' tI..n W olbm.. . Wbo= ,I.< r..,.
oy 'hICk
til bQ<b . . ttlp-lfl ploceo '''.od)lla
....... -...4 • llIe brict l. "" bot_ ltNr ""
of liIo bndwot\ k.t' "",I.d
...n... ,,'"
} tho In... - .. ..... " •
l b. b""""" ut ,be h<W rtnIl:'Illl' 1I'OIIId
kOfiI of indlridlaol .......-. A ,_, "' ..Iu'...... l'Iud-
o f lbe . 'XI, '0 bI<u of ::a... ' ud ,""
" ..Q, tho. ._ ... lS.3 10 !k.. in .....ll.· Tho w bIoidIaf; _ la llOllfld«l by , 'IlI ""tit. pb>lI ""'. . .,
..foIo:h II p....... d 10 . heip ' o f •• _,m til"""" pbca.. •
Of lbo 0,110' ,_ bua donlll of ...,.;u, f _ 01 III. <il. ti'l!< <In tIIl3L lbo _ .-t of Pm ...... ). ad p1..et<d
ni:tI.. "" ,h. mUll . 011. ' .. id 111. SlIIl...... bUl no lJoo:. 01 ....11 p. tI<IbnJ.. PO""""" on lhe oocltmu........ ,,"upoed by
I Coph< ""m..... olly.·

2 Middl. KllIll<l " m Offici. 1 b lll ldi ,,~!

A' no hu'I~I"IIIIo." boe" (ou" d from Ih< Old KingdOlll ' 0 ...hjob.n offlCl.ll 1"u i""< un b..... ~". o. I' " In l he MidJ1.
"io~d"m 110" II.. ". " l'ouP of """'um....,. of ,hi, cI... ;, '"~OU" ,.",d. Within FO'P' Il..U ."""'pl" are u tr.tnd y
0C1... .. ,.... p<1'i,-.l. bu' r lu> • • dded 11«< ....... dol.1ib from lh. , dmln"""li• • bolldi"" wbidl are fOUlMl wllhin lhe
ron""""", '" Nob*. 111. ""Iy ~bddl< ""'1'1"'"
"fr>:ill b"li<lJo1i ...hlctI l h.1.. bore" I hl. 10 !IIId '" ~lI'pt ,re • iIlu<~ of
Iw"'k " ....'" ....... "'. bit ,,1 the pylO"" d "I _ """"", ill II Ihohllf. '·....priwnl " DUmb.. of It'''''"........
of _kod!
_ «liolI"d pili' " ... "'.... - . . 0. do< W... _ of tho Ilko:k 10. nulled Wlridot . roo f. d ..iii . cd l , lth, oII4i ""'""
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~"'- 'hnf __ lNi<t """" lIons hod wond... Colo"",. to lUpp"n "'" "",f•.• "d tlo< ...n••-... d",ofl ' t-<!. ....
<oI ~m1 pili II Tho floon llnully """"P'-d 01 pIul<t«:l bn<:~ but In ... IIl\Ioo f. <I. p. n of Room ' 2 l>lmII:
brid< hl.. . -'r< p1oy.d.. 5u<:lI .. I.ul", ~TI' Bull ond Sh.>l f.L fOl' ,h. I""inI ot ,to< II........ "'" <uraploo f<=
lo" ... h.. beIftJ lO. lO . ,..." "' .... , . Ad,aio in ' b " o f ,"" ',,,. ' " lluhe,, Ill",.. 'b" lb. bum, bri.~ .....
......... or i " ...." ...... ' 0 _ or. d"l"l< ,be mf""l"""'l' ot III !'"bi• . ol~ '1M lUll......'flUld also honer
die ~ of "am..
At Urom"i on.d Shalto • • ' M bddu'tr' ' ilfl" .",1y Iu~ w rti<al ' 11 Of' .. ""'is
«lf1I. .... 10 p",.. <t ' h. _
"lui. fa f,........ fon ., t·......,,; ,"',,~ pol.", " «>nI" ftl ", 01)" """"'" """. of ..-hieh "{'I>:'O ".",com«:I
f""n~'I""" for <01....." •. _u, 'h. p""' d 0( IIos buddlfll! ia W1kno""I\.

J. N. .. Kj"~d,,m O ffi ci.>l B"iIJ in ~

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of .... 1IUiIdon.. S', - ... ooN. (Of .h. <IoolJUllbl ond lin,m. bu . ,h. _",my or Ih. l on. ' ",<liof\ .... <ompoood gI
.....bbr'o:~, . ......01 - . 'fr!tIl pi...., In !he ..,.._ , ..... nun. <ompoood uf ...... ,...... oC 1>ri<ks, ,10. dim=_.
0( •• •• " .. _ I 39 119 . am..

" ltoched \II ,h. ~ of ~IIII" .Il.. . k ...,all pllo, t o f Sell n . "",ttl'h lu ~ n. built In AI . " " >:I<!
AJ bond,n, ... ~ "",y ori~>II)· ha>'< I>ct n tonI wilh bnck _I... Tho I'Ioot1 oCW . - lhioI1hIo pabo • • =
oil ~ ...lIt _ ' " ",,",,"b,iI::~ Iiho..""'.... tifII -KI " .s(km, , ow . cd .... wllll a ,hln Ja~ ... of pbsf<r . , .

\JIIJ OfI..... ,~r nil 11<'''' ...' 01 ..1" .....' ;'''' il lV>i!.bl•• bou, ,be pal"".. . , f] ·Arn.,II'. bul ' ~"",bn of olh.....~. .
..M,."ll Ir< """. '" ..... nftcil1 iD " Olur< I>c d""ri~d . Tho :uea of p,do.... lui...... as ~."' ....... " WIS o ' i.JlJI.IJt
........ d by I bl"," - .211, ....i<b ptoblbly dOC.... '«:I ....,h poinl . d d«i..., 10 \llio ~iflri<l io ,'''' >III" "" "
,ho WOl<' e;.,.,n , '0 como<lq of , Wr!<>of pool>...ilb oolu"",. be ......... Will , 111... ",,0...,.hu.d wi!ll llIu<l.·bnd.
m4 th. pJbrs. whlch or. of dI. >&II>< "''''rial, _ "fC llJl h<n<d by lu\inJ ho.... of -"" ..... II.. Itrictwo.i<. '-'
' \09 pdlll1 bQod. ' bc fin. pool " lb. fa.. end of ,It< lull. "". h, d '!l IOC ""'m, buil' i,"o i ' II ilIw"d level, ... 1UlI: •
... bor .... 1 . ompl.", f,...",.....k of . 'OU<!. .. 1I>a_ in n,,46..

Fit , 4~ IIN/,.. '" Bnrl< ,.,,""'. >It'hHItm.

.....'ion:
In lhe Dcl',mllon <ln of II'>< lOmpk . ,. ...,.,.. ""lOb"""",, o' wlw: h !he only al"""u,1I
:nI"""" of ..,..,101 bllcks. bua. """"d a « nll.>l -..ooden poe••, 1Th< ""' ....... f_ ot'l'>< <_. .
"",.il
J.yc, o{{II..,......hlch lwrd "'.~ mOldd<<I. '''10 0 11.... <1. fo rm. Un(o"wt.I"l ~· . 111. Il,. pc 0' Ihe 'PCC I.>I h,lck
..,Iomn. lu", linenl>cd. aM .110 11(00.. boI<h - " .. <if<Wn pocnllll ,be )tob'HY Quac,
no t." II ,II<

d•
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1" 1<' polnI, bn:t porn .....",pIoyed '" n~ b....dmp,. '0 1>fppOI' ,h. roof. t><ml p,..." na~Jy on ..on""""
liM. rOf ."<>oJ.,, <f\l~"",," flo>of1 or IflI>J Of 1>rio: k _rc fouocl \II , be \IdilUy Qua.,....',
and ORe " """ in • bouoo
II l.1dwd ' 0 Pc>bc< Bo ,,"d:a lu ~ p... l... oW>< of "",4 ri«l .....d. m !UIJ JS • 38.S. In- , .
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,h. hric~ ...n, k. On, of ,h.,o .<:lm. WOJ Sm lo n~ :rn d 60cm ' qo". In ".'I on, . Ithough othm .....,. "n . U" . b. inl of 3lk m
' qu. " «< ,ioo .od 3m IOD I!-
Th, Do"" Alto" . " ",hlO11 ~." plO.,. ll' , ollneo" d .." h Illt :"Iorth. m Tomb., '3rI be ind ud,d in thi••« tion, Th,,,,
",,,. o r ic~· I>Ul Il <1 ruc' ur" 'pp,o.d"d I>~ ", ,,ns of romps. th, 1m " I>' mg form, d of two p.,.n, 1 w all. ..ith ,:m d-mJi n!
;' '' '''' ' 0 th,m, which mull mi~,""ly h,,'. !>«o pJ',d 0"", with l>r1C kwml:. S:l nd-filling ..'. , , 1' 0 " "d I>, n" tll ' h, p"'In!
of II" "'m tocm",k... Th< Southor" AIt....... dlff'''n' from ' h. OI h"" In h""'~ >t, ,1I"n"' ,," of ,hic~ ,11, .1ld ' 0'"'
ofhnek pion from 'h. r". d. '0
tb. c.o t re. " !'r,,1,, 01~' tho outor .... n of thi, bu ilding w.. f.co d ~it" " on th< ramp
, ,, ,, ru llCh,~ d" oot to u. h tll< f" . d. ,'"

0.1 Ill< Soulh ~fl1" l<ml'l, of x lt I at ' hi, . i l< a.. a ",I" of , ' or<hoo",•• fo,m<d of la n! ", ult<d 'u ond . 1ik. Iln»<
" ,110 I<. ", ,,,,,u,,, , TIl< I> ,, ~ d i o .,..n " . nd in ' h, ,<0,
I>,'wcoo ' h, I, mpI' ,nd ,ta ond ", u" .. ,,11 . un a , ilO...hlOh hll b".,
.. ti ~ ' i.lI~' b oll' d ;Ih d' b,;,." AI ,h , on '," ,,"" ' u ,11< . <o " b ou, ,, I" "I u" , bllildi"" " 'hid , h" hom OII",ke" f<>r .
p,I. c<. "UI;, in r 1no " 1010 ,IL,n ' " . dm", i' l" ",, J, p" tm, n l• • ""lfOlliog lh. p""!" or ~. 10 from ,h, ' 10'0' ."
B.h i"d ,h;, , " t" ",," h, 11 , .. ,,.0 ,o"i<l"... 39m in 1, ,,!lh ,,,d 6 ,6 I" 6, ~ m """ , . from whid, IIC'"'' '0 'he , to " ·", ,,,,<1.
.n'
is oh..i"oJ ," TIlo w, l1. o r t l",,< 'w u c",rido". • nd of 'h, , dmmillmll" .uilJin~ w." " , cu,.led wilh colo ured rlo"',_
wh il>t ill ' 110 , ' OIO·,u", ...1> .. M . pl" l<' "'.. u>cd , E"c!, " f lh. 'u"" d . ;, H ,5m I",,! . anJ Ih, ..i d lh .ar.... from ),S to
tim.'" TIl, ,.,11> '" bUill ufb,ich m<.,"nll~ 40 ~ ~ O ~ 14.5<m. :LIl d lhe !lou" Ih",ugh ou l th. buil d in~ " 0 fo,m,d o f
!qU' " . I'b, " f rnuJ·hri<:k. 44 • 44 ~ I t>.-m iIl Ill<, " F", ,ou r.n~ th. I"". p.... ~". brick ..ullo u f I~'p< 11 I wm ulN . "'
... elly th. .." " nlOn "" ,; or th. R,,,,,,»."OI. Th, bric)" of th, " "It. Ol<"",,,d 60 ~ n • 75001. , ,,J h. ,\ ...<., " i" ," ,, <1
"n ,h, uodm id, to ~i" • , ,,,,,,,' h <UI,". " Oll lOp o r ' Iii. roof. Ihe IiJgo . 1><1wO<ll tho " Ulll h.d .... " m.d, 10• •1 Ill"
fill i" ~ up ,h. d. p t "~ ",,, ,. :rh hd.k, "

I, Th. I<' OI...", um.

Th. pol", < uf Roao"",,, II .1 l'W ",,,<lu ll}" t. mpl. " w10 mamly ori<k·I>tJill, ...i lh l lono " « d for , h, do",j ' mb,
linl<!>. columns .nJ ",lut.... o<, A. in til, p,I"", of Rom""" rrr " ~lod in " I La.". ,h. "", flng ...., fOln" d of b,kk
" ,,110. bUI II,.", jm ', no' ' '' '' 'I'<d, Mo<t of th< wall,"", I>oodtd A2 or AJ•• nd th. b'i, k.... 42 , 20 x I Oc m 10
w.•
Ako ,1 th. R" no"" um .,, . ... ,t.. ~f b,kk <1 01. 00U.... ~r~up<d around tho " OIpl• . ' ·Th,.. ,,"~dloJl h. "
booon rh , ,ubjeol "ra num"", " f e.,li" " " di,,, . lthouV> tl>:: only dr>wing ~f . oy "< ur""y h that giV<:n by 1., psiu,·o
Th, ..01<: .... hul" coli<C1.d a num"", " f "ampod I>,ick. frum th. ", "''''Ow",•.•
om. of which 1>.., tM e.rI" u, h<
W,,' mJeI-R r ,.ilILou , tho , pi(h. l sr"" R r. :uld d, to flom t be <o-,, !. noy 0' f, om ,h. lint ~." of Roan..!>'" , 01,
,oi~n (11.32). n ", uldividu, 1 bull d i l1~ , .. d' ",r l., d h, low :l<cord;nl to thol, l"" . \lon. (S.. plon. PlA5) ,

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On ')1< ~ o rth ~ f lh. 1'011'1, a" 1"'" " " " h" u"". ,,,n>i. lIo, u f bl i<k-bull, p, ...,gOl 3.;0 ,,,d 3 .7001In w'd t h. with
0100' jllmb. , ad . ill> .1 tl,o d""rw.y ,. T h, b,;,k> ,," ol() , ~O , 1J - 1olcm h\ oi. ....nd lhey mortaJ< d wit h nm iL ,l<
s"",I«", (;-""1/'- ' .1
SO"" room. I" II" ", ou' ldio,-, w,,, o f f.l rly 1>r~, sl« aod p,,,u ,~ , bly b.d woodto roofin~ • • ut 1ht "o"'-tu,,~d.
\h. """ I.., II... " "," II, d. Th, d", iil. " f th• • rlokwol k her. or, ,h, " m, lUI 10 lh. North . rn O1 0" h ou,.•.
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fb I'" t<p "ClC«.,.nd on I/>< 'li<$lJIbt 1<mj>It. tMten,..I _ brinl;11I< _ 01 . lb. bYililin. ha ... ...
..... ~ ,.liniDC li>o:r ",,,,nI><4 <1 _ euIwnn&, ...bl<h supp<>11.d • ' oaf of Ib,te jn, aII. 1.."',.. and "0Ilt ..~
emplny. d rOflh. doorj. m\ll ...d \hJnholdo, F' QIn u""" . d UII,TlI ....-rldu , ><au to ~ ... d intD the "Of<N~lI:ldL
~ ... l. 70IQ i:a wId'h ... d 3.llQm h lllI. Hole. III ' ho ,oot ... rc lor, nil)' 6m, for Itlt P"'JI"l'It of ""~I ~
ilIl<> "'e .."' ... The lni<ks of ,t>< .,~ l tI . .. 3 S ~ 21.6-7cm in m . ... .. M ." ho.. of , h. lid' ·will> 4O. :w- 'II<"U"
I 12_ 14<.... !Wille of ltM: paoup h.a ~ IIrp hne k-l>IUIl ~ a, u.. ••, . - (J~a7), whlob .... """,'....-r.d ill .4..1
booldinj Ibl""......... -nih, u.. ..<k-...n. . n bo~Jo d 1.2 01 Al . >01111 IOlII< jm ~l .nl1'" Al ll>c "'Ill" of,h. .. ~
" " ... , but><! lI 'h" lIluIl.. ,o<! la ' h. ("<If"'" .-nil A llIltondwf, OIl l'l.al. S.
F'rx- 4 1 IJn<* lJuu<jambJ br SIUIn,
Ro'm<U<>,....

Tlo< .._ I I u.o Nontt·'II·.... 00fIIC' at th . " "os .... . ." ' ..«1 I""" I ,.;dt ID __"0<',th. .. .. as I
colon".,1. 0101\1 ' l>c fount Iff ' h. bu~ilins. TbP 01 pa"Cd .." h tq'J..... bricks. ~ . 4Ocnt In ""., r b.o n Wl:L
oohd ... ..-dI p "0<1 III thJs... . . "'" 3.7Om ,,;u ..,d 4..'iOm h~ . <>O! lone ' P'''uteS .. tho .0<>1 fOt rdhGI ~
6JOm. Ln ' h ' ''' 011110 ""dd'" , is . '01IJ hall ..-n" ''''''"'..~ "f co'u",.... winch plob."I)· lUP1"" lO d • '<I{If~~"
of 'h,.., nul" All . t1o .." lti,.. In lhtt hWldlllJ. """' ... ,,1)'_ .... IN ~. iSof'• • 1 'ype. r... co_ _
rlIocknai. ..ttII Il'o< oI,mu.lC """'" Ie>l\'" '" 0\'I>0SinI dl,""' io",, .. OCCU" III ,he SIn « ••,,'" [)yn>oly m.pCloi •
.\ro." W, n . "n.. ..,WI. .h...
of ul1l .... I/omo"Il 111 1'\.1... 53....8 . ..... .. ,he . ......... ICOfOd UlI the h 1u «II be
The iIo, .. ie>r of ,h. ,,,,,,filii"
.0.Jed .-ifh plo. .., ' 0 ' 'hleirnaa of IOcIn, .a.. tho "':ails of tbe p On lhn
1~.~ ....n. h_ tho' J>l'<U'1 "'0 or Cl bundiJIa fo' ,h. Lu-..r, 12 "'"'.......d Al .bo•• . bu, bt hlnd lhl1 nU ' 'x' '''''
' h. \lftc.o :o! ..." k iI ..".m<!y I""B"I... .. fhown In 1'1 . .. n .... Oo<>ior "'JIUl~ .. lIu' tho .... of 1>Iid" .. . Of!'.
" nO' """"""" 11 ' hb p< nod. h-l<I • d«:vl>lift P"fJ'OI<C, bu, lhis .. jmp""ibl. Slnco lb . pl",," ' <0;1, " ould h",·.
,he bltCk-..orl (,om ole" . no. bncb '" ,be>< wolls .... ""'.. 14-40. 17_ 18 X IOcIll. _ 101 ' ho ... to, l'Ior'h .. cd
hoIiIdicf tf10y ... l!---' • 18 _ 12- 1k m,
A' tlo. South·"'''' _ of It\< 'en>j>!w""""',. 10 U\OIhcr p 1i.U,...... 10 hall. CCfl t" l ""rti&:o:
OIor"""""" all of ..-!lieh «4 b) .>IIlte d _1>, in ""'.. willi I su· tf. '!*'. lI' ... .."" u,.,J ..
bWldinl fo, porin( th. fl_ d f", ~o",. the ..-illo '0 ' llei!*J.' of 71cm ,

Tho ,.... pIe of ........ p' oh h od 0101."""... 1,1< ,he Rancsoeom• b,n in .h l. "'"" they ...'" '0 h.an "" ... roaf'"
....," d. line< IHi rlobl1. of cnUlIJ'M'<! ,..
.hc sn-o. ,lie fOof ....,...q'iD.o( ,hre. p DeI
"It."'..
f""tId. JOvaul' inl ..... empluyod
" Pf'O"od by ,...., ofcol
,~" ""er '''Uan<. ~orti.-
' Tloe OJd, i ..
,h.
...1\1 oI..i, h~' ,... ,.. 1"'" tho wid th. " '0_ ..
",,0'" ""'.n ,h. " PPC' pllt ' .. 'n hlddCfl by Ih. ,p nnPnl
..1lI '- ...bl<1I '<110<1 on • lrdJe In , he _ . Tho 1ruI<. dj...... ... 0( 'hio 1_7301," n"" _
Be,....... the lh"d ...d fo o'th P1 ~"" o f hi. (""....) ..",pie. Joy buil, . "'UlJ. ",,,,,re polac. o( ..'hll' "h"...d
!>ri<n(lfl... tJ Thc.. . ",:r.
"'li~ t pdl ..... the iro01d /alii .."", lit. f."",
or the IIuilIllnc. ....... .. bri<k '1'~_ f"",••
90- l,"n ~ o f the bticlcs ill the 11" ":<0" ....,. lI"",pod ..·j,1I ,h. n1m' of Ay . Of ofo lL. 10"'1'1• . >rid, _
6i",. _ " 4D-l ~. 10-20 _ 1 ~ -l Jcno."

tv. \led",. , 1J>bu.

1Joc hkI« 0/ R.-...-. III


The f its. Pol""••, )\N:!j"", I lltho " .... ""~, ofhl'io.::ru ~ • :!O • 12= In ~ load _·rramo _ .., ~
C<Iilo........ ,hi: hUtl ..... 'n. "" "ric~ r""'n<l11i""'.1 ,SOm "IUl" •. 0...-, 'lw cctllr ol h. n r
n, ,,Ow. ...1" . ....,..
on "",,, "chi' ~ .. lot In,o ,h. Sou.h ....u .... ,he IOmpic. """ I"'" utbet .." k. d . ""r. c""o", d ,~. >iJ< ·lflOIlIl. CIa
....
U
_ . " .J-
- . . . ,. . .. , ...... . - . . . ... _ _ I..J1, ~ ...
.o. ...,
Of-_ .."
n _ "
"'. \l. Sf.< r._,..
'~ .... ""- "
n",..... OJ
.. rl- u v ,
..... _ ..... u.. -'L 'U t. til ., " It. • • IT.
.. ..' CO
r_ ... IE4"'''.·l
w.• •••.
- . ... r,......... . ..
U. ..., " U . J: "- I<, n. " .,
' . A . I,,. _ •... "' r..." ..
u . H d ... . . ,. I' fI.. t1 r.u .s- _ .11-.& .. 1<. 11', . ... ...... , .....
th e I<>'i, ion o f 'he d" ip> ond ,h. e""'t ru" i" " 01 th o See"nd Pol""., Uti> ,,,,,fins w.. alt m d
pro d"". Ihr oe .. "I..(0)
()vc ' th e em lral hall ..,~ I..,,, 10""" ,"011. " n eith er side. , oTcrnpo" ry cenlring " f ....,odcn be""", em ploy.d dun,,¥ w""
Ihe com l,u, ' io" of lh, l" lie, ..ul l!. ""~ lbe hola whe,e Ih. be",,,, we", >el inl g lh, ICfTlJ'I' wall ue <i> ibk- " .,il
SUnil., hgl" in . ..'M! of lhe E,, !I G.le h . 1lbee" p.'chell wil h . Io" t:, . howinS Ih. , U,e beom. we,e " mo,ed , f..,
cum pl"iun g f the roo f. " Th. 1WIl. lechn iq'" w.. u,ell hI Ihe I, mple gr Ikit . 1·WIl!1 whore Ih. ml[k.! of lernpo..ry
cen l,in, C:lO b, ",eu . l ' he ,u,
of 'he ", ,,I'ed en l" n" hall,"
Th. dOOfW' y, of th e Secu nll l':1b e< woro f.c, d wit h .lone Of woo , . th e 1. 1Ier m . tcrbl po>,ibly bcin S r", ed lu lh,
....u. by wood e" b "m~ "' Sun"
of lh , 5Iun. bn lro wer, f,," n, d t o the bric kwork by cord. p""",d lhfQu~h hole, il L
th e , Ion. (Flg.481, .n~ lh . ",,;ill roo "", of th e horn" h. d bn l. h " "h I!opin! " I[ f"".. ;rnil m h. d pw j,. tio", I~
rc<, i" bm.r ,>ult> " fn boih the Fifll >od Second Pa!Jlco.. the floo" wcr. com po>< d of ,qu m sl.b, ofm "d-b,ick,
43 .43 x 6c m m oj<e , llid un ..nd . nd ""i .red 0'" wi th .,hiten .d phll''- ' ' Th. brick> o f Ihe Se",,,~ P.I'.e me. lUred
37 x 18 x I l , n,. •" . weI< I.I~ In A ~ ;rnd .\3 b<mdin~. lh, b.tl" bein! mo" cammo,,- · ' O>er Ihe w. ll,u,f, ec. wu,
coil uf pw te, . which w'-' p:nnl ,d in "'m< room., ..ill), t in ,h, b.lhru om Ihe w.u. h.d bce " r.,,~ wilh lu I"u' ''' ' "Uf.'
n,e bnc~wurL f,um lh. wel.··

A,lm ini",",i,'. B"ildi,,1:' i" " " T"Trlf'le -1" '4


Belw"," Ihe I, m pl, .",1 lho Inno , Endu"" ,, Wall we" • num bc, u f bu ~ i1i,,~j u f off"i.l , h. ,.o,,," Most ~ f ,h . «
,lr lK' lu". h,d " ulle d fOuf•• • llhough . fe... wi~o "'t'''\l m U" h"" b<cn tou r,d with woo ~ . TiL' . W " OO1n1 ' r< ' ;0111"
lu lho.. or the Rom= ,u m, curnpriDn~ lon~ . , ,,Hed ' unne b 3 .~On, wide , bu ill ur bricks 4{) " 20 • 140m In ",~ . "
S'ur<roorn I( h.d . '",,"," urt p••, d wlt h b, l::k ~ , bo. 43 0"' . qu",. · '
T" to< W..l nf ,h , I':1he. w», ~"d. n, In wh,ch ",. ,,:d I, V<!.< o f c"",t, uol iun w. r< fu unJ , .ill withi o lhe , cipl of
R:1",,,,,, HI. " Sq um b'kl.:s. 43 .~ 43"", . .... re u"'. for lhe n"",>. .,h il, l Ih"", uf lh, walh m,,,o,"d 40 ~!O . 12crn.
In lhe Io;:h" 1" ,. 1. ufe nn>l rucliun. briok lit.. of 4! X 20 . ' 30m "" d 38 x 18 x I lcm oc , ,,r,,,L

fig. 48 Lu"e' !IelJ by ""rd.


Me<lmel Hab«
,
".

In tho W ier t. mp l• • r" >tooil • lUuotu " ...I,kh ' he <:,o. "to " <>11 ,,1Ihe " Sou ,h Admini"''',,,,, BUildlnl " . bu~ , of
mud·brick! 37 X 18 x 110m In ,I". , nd eo"""d bl vaulte d ",~r.. ooTh e .. me h,kk . i"" occu r> In Ih. Royal Slabl.. ,
, xeept in ' Il< eOll rty " <\, wi' ... ' I" ,lim" ILl"'''' are 43 x 21 ~ 120m," ,",0 ">e.
of "olumn. o"uld b, d. "e,od in
th e 1.0.." hu ildlng. >nd Ho]<.eh " 0'",. '0
' h, enr><I","'" til .. ' 10< ,oof m Ull 11>1'e bc e" ,""Il.d , '" whid 1 cue ~'ool d l'
be til , IUK'" . ,olt know n f,o n, " "ei, n, [ gyp' , wit h . ' p' " of 8.6001 ,1t

V. M. IQ....

Th e P, I"". of "m<nbnte p III " M, lq,l1 eo,,,, . n >Ie> nf tOO ~ 200m ,",j i. ,,"'1t of b, k k, wi,",I, ' r< m USI OOm-
monly 33 .\ I ~ x I(k m , in ," <e. >l th ough di,,,.m i,,m of 2~ x 14. 5 , '1< ", ro .19 • Ig..1 X 12e" , . 1'0 ""o ur." Mud·
m ort" ..... ""J to fill ih. lOInb in Ih. brio~wo rk , >nd the too" nf the ....Iil h. d b<. n <o. " d Wl lh pi,,"', ~ " whioh
d"'''r>ti.. " oen" h,d b« n p.int <ll. A fow b",~ oglom", """f< found, '''0'' nf ...hich """,. hexogon.1In , h, p , ." hOI
in ' I" ." , m.~m iy uf w om . lh, «ltumn, w" . of ...""d , "," din~ nn >10" ' bas"." In the ' m1ll 100m, ' nd p.., ,1';<'
,I", ",,, fi "~ w" 0' '''P''''' ~ 'If r olm-r,b" m. llrng, """,d "i,t mud , nd ' '' ppnrt, d by woo d« bum. , b~ l In 'h, lar.."
ff'IOlt" . n'" '' , I>bot" ••!"' , m " ." empluy.d . TIll> <un';lI,d uf f,"e nin~ • ,,,, lin! of h;:h' b"m l '0 t he ond.", d< of
Ih. ", .In ..ltm , , ,,d m l i n~ Ih, Ip"""" h"' ...... " ,h . w,• • I" ....L w,' h m uJ . Bcn , ..h th e « ilmg be:" nl w. re fib re mit..
e",-,. d wilh d"" m.t<d pr."., 7' (Fi gA'l),

,. ,... '
n I b.. , JO
, •.. ~ .... " ,
". ,..
n.
~ .1II . "" ,
i"~ .
ltl•• "
,",
,.
HOI" ,,,, u" E."W.. " . "
.;, >' , I<- H, ,,h .., Vo lt. ~ ... .'. " . LF, . II ,,, d · w."'.
1 .. 1'1. , I
'L ,'Id.. ll 4 n ,
" . IW. . IV, ,",
"" "'""' 'C,
,to,...,.w.c.. IN';';
lI. , r: ."-H_ ' V. '" '0. ''''' ,. Jb
• l. " .. . " . ""
n . '''',
..."
. .,
"Id..'"
'b.,.'" ,""-,,.,.
'bid. '" H ,
n.
".
'0 (" "~ " ',
T." ", •. ' " ' .. hi... "I Am,", ,,,,,,m, " .
''"'', ,'- .. 0" ,it. U
M . .'Id.,," 0>, ". I"",, It ., _
Me' " (If Ih. ll",," ....,. fO'1I\04 of pl. " e•. which h.d been p"n"~ in """" " .... >!though • f. ", "'~ l\ooa
,oom'
uf bll<~. '. S,o,," .... 0.. 4 fOf th. J "" r<i!I. and ..DOd f(ll <h< Iiz",I.. bUl lbe """')ornM "'''' a'ually fo"",J in the
b""~_k. "
A numbe, nf doe b!lo~, r"xII ,be 1" lset 1KI«> . '. m!" n f M>enoolop III and Q<>«o Tiyi. ",h lclo ue d".. .. in PIa,..
~ 7 _~8 .

ftoo/l.. bt III<: 1\II«T '" ~ ~K'llIlo''1' 11/•


•1I<IIq. ' 4.

S\J ltlMARY, fl;1" " INGOO~I OffK"I AlIIUlLD[NC"~<;

Lo<:o';"" ",...d, lind Siuolmo) •••


...... "
B.,u ac: ks
"""
8n< ~-hmI ' ~quI''''''

...."'.
."....,.,...
....,
,~
No"",,..-,·
¥J ,1,.5 """ ....~

-!it ll II

,-
'Il'..... C. . .
T.... pH Stom
Al A.l

"
.to , ~O ' (') 54">'" pi" .... brlckL
PoooiItIy .....' ......... d

Briel<. poIbn ~(_.....III IO'CIOC!.


r_ of 'f'<Cl¥ bao;lu
Or<......, _ ..,..... i""" of bn;l:.
......,aIY q,.u."

....i« lII''''''''
0...,1 AI<m 0.. ,
n ,33.5 ........
""""" of -..I .......1<. •

S>M-1\lIUIJ • .-'" -.I .1I<ln


" ....... 51__ 0"""1 oct S<>oIdt ~
b ._ ·
51........

....
sen,""""
"'~ OI A.1

"
400 1:0, ,4.5
so 0 22 .7.5
Pbs'" "" . aIk.
\lri<1.t "''''IIIed "".......niJe. Jll4
....
-..II""

n&1Ja
4-lx4-$1 II>
" w I=d.
lltuJ .b"ol<. p llli oIab..

Ea' ."" 01 P3U« ho~1 ""


Snutll hU<.' . "",J.lll te.l r"""dOl i"" ,

"""" u'"
!l>.......
4l x 20. IO '1...1' 11I"" 1./. Ma.'.,"" wall< ol
""""
,,>ill<,
40 , 20 , 11--4 ","oIlS 10;;", 'bid••
••• CI JI J9---40. 17 -Sol n
ln ol- J S ~ J9 x l ~ . 11 - 1J
~. w "". 1.,; >!>b.
Ho2 l . f>-1 Thin u u.l l h,;,,;I<...

,.. '..... ,z.


T'_ ,""4, , ..
,1- l",,..,.I.."",.,"''''l 0 '''l ..I I- ",on , ' .
,. fUd,,,,,. A. •• 1 """.... ' <of A'" ,p"". A"''''''''''"''. '" , H .
1.0<>"0.
_. BridiSilOfl"'" Soo..

..
....,."pUII
.....pI< 1'l0<eS Woud-_ ft d 110m. yolllltd ...1.......

l'obo:< of Ay .f(l-4h It- :!ll " 12- U


""""
'1IIbj ,..,uIl" " .. brt<tw<M1L
""' ........ tbbu:
....... oi _ U "'0. 20.12 ""' ..........
_
) 1.18,, 11 sen.d !'>b u . 51_
"" VI'll I. d roof",.
oSoclt-fI1lDleS.

51.... '".",..

COldeR
4J ,, ·lJ. 6
4lh 2lh l ~
·U . 4J . ()
.l(I, ~ . l:
....
M""-b1d " ''''1 JI. bt..

4h ;:O , U
35< 1.,, 11
4 J . 4 ~. 6 r.-'In, ~.l ...
Sou ltl . ,lmm.
l\I.J ildln l 3h Ih II
51"hl., 3h 180 II
4.1 . 21 . 12
.l lolq.IO:
1'>Iu. III Ammhol<p III J J . 16. IO Wood. " ",,,n..t- ~t""" C'fIl ou ~
28 .1 4,S .9IQ pial....
J'h l a.S .12 h .. lniok . olum....

.........
..1 _ ......"

"
V....IIC<! <1_ .. M 'N It..l_ _

Vet)' I... buOdi" p of llw .Iast ..... hoe .. d i>UJW•••d r""" lb< Lau 1'<ri<>d. """,y of ' b ludIIDUII .... . . .IJlOd
_ Id Ju.• • _ "'"'0' la Iho U<1ta, ..hor•• ""ill'
b 11<>1 ""'"' ... .,.bI<
fOl thot. pI '""'- A ~ 01 Apr'ooI
"- 1:>«'.. " <:n'. ' C<! ~l """"pbia. ""j' h """,,-U,..,.J of bnd •• IIWI IIO• • <Ioorl,amc:.. fIu,;q d um"•. Owrnl ' "
. ...h hu IIDd a1 1. r:ltlonl to 1M ou ~ dlo~ 0,.. ' • pe. ~>d "r,.-. iJIo onet IIUS ' ..y «ltl>id.,.bl~ by ,h. lDl
0" l"~. 02. Tl.. h.,ck ...u. 01 It>o ""I... ..-erc lI. ndln! kT. !T<,~ ' o r l::'m al Ike hm< u f t!T<l, . , "i.." . bul lu.. been
~,"' 1 ~ "o>'ruy,d I1 n,. lh,n
To lh, Soulh uf lh. S""'d U.k. " " . n,,' .l.nd , • hu 1I ~ lnl ..-1 Lid> """ both . " "ro hou", II,d 'h , pl."" in ""hi, h
Ill. ,.." d ~"',. of Am" " ..cr. "p l. " n oll . t rue' ",• • " 'hid , lOIn ,",l",,~ hy l'u moutlJ" of lh. TwcIlly.S ill'h Dyn.. ly .
" blllll "l hr",~. mo"""illi J.l x 17 x Ilk m laid In A1 hond UlI WIth nm d'm<>lu " oItlJou j,h 1I0tt< ;, n nploycd for t ho
",,,,,,in, . nil I.mb.
S, G.......,o-R"m"" I'u bti~ 8uildln~

A IllUldial ~ at 1::00000 . d-l); Lka d1 _ ylla.., 1>0<".


Roo!I>fl tho, II." n.. .,.o. <"",h"'. 1110
.... III bImII "';ok II............ ' 10 poodu< 1;.., budt "' .. d *ho ~ 01. I!I<u r..: Fo.- r<I<l ~n«. ....
_ awIo llI.odooI., ...,.... """ mit, Iu .... _i>< (uno " ' ~ ..... ""bl '" lM <2<Jlu.. .t. bo;eb
'Ut< n. 17 • J '\QII ioI U"". .... _ IlIl!1o ............,... 15 • •S • J.km """ !S • !S ......

...
" .
....n
,.., II L
,.~ _.«f...-,
kkk<. Il . U~" ( '~J7 l '
~ " xUc
,>1 .
•, ~ . " , ,, ,,,, ,,, ,,, ",,- ,, ,, , _ , """ Ii " H ~ TJ l ' _ '"

.',
In Ill<> It, llon e mon' " 'h"
silO . I l.o,~. nuUdinl of ' ho n", «1I' u,.,. A.D. h.. bOf1' dlociW. ' «! ." ..Iudo_
...... U:I ....... pubJlc , J"'O'lhIy " "1t0"'''''''-. Ii is b..,]1 or mud"'n"," 1DCUIIrtq: 2S • 10 . 10m.. Wd ill C
.u ~ and hoA ••,""'" < '''''''0<1111 "" ooolltwi ",_ " Ilk. th< 1ImplI ....n. ...
"'. . - EJ:rpI. An ..1c<~' IIc ~ .. IJoo, "" '" of """"" .. ,be b.IIW.~ a.p ~1Kl"~
. , ........ ...., ..d 1uftp,~duIo11y ill 'Il<> .. .db >I "'I"lar In(.rnl•.O. Tho ,,&110... . be oopar" N by tho
01'h" . brk k. I lld """'If
In ,h. h. , d.. . ""..... IVhiItt Hoc 1"" Jiludin.l I><> m. Or' ••,.,. I ' OIId "pI tn<>II 111 ~
mll,h." oour A!o<I. II" 1>0.""
"'/IlIIIl~ .lolI~ !Ilt f>ce of ,I,. ... :l!I ,,,, ..,
''''0 I ow d"'«1l" o (h ill ..
, ........... be 0<00'... <110_ IIIFrs SO Timbo",,! of 1100 _ne" of !be ,,"ib
I< ''''0')' ••,........ "'0}' <>11:..

... _ . " ( t ... SI) W_I<_ ~ (Of dI< <t<-~ • ...t lot .....d o _ 11oe
10< .oor..... flit whidI """P"- btIok ...1,, _ .. ,o b_ be.......d i I l _ r_
01 bnc h .. lb. "''''' bcin! r.ploOf'Il by ..-.. ....lb IlI<>l< be..... """"III t1J""'~ ,be _ q DIlly.,... lmck-ImP
_-.lou'_
· 'Thlllrnbc........ thII b
pa,.ue,. d In ' 10< h""... It nth.. (;r>«:o-R<.otn... ' OWII n 'n, _h .. K.u......nd Dim.,lJId ,he r . _ r", tluo
... d",u' " d III ChI ? ' " \3 .
oo~~~~

On. III !" IIld .. dl "'~!\l,,"", .. t bufidin~ 01 Dime ..... cn..ld. ,O'd by ,h. o;>c. .. to" ' 0 "'.. b.." f'" 'O,,1t
PIlrpou. ~II"" !l di(f.. od wnoi" . .. hly in ' lyle from Ih. Mdi""y hoo..., }hi, b~ll djol!> ~urnl>",.d IJ.:!O I . 101<
' .....<d o l rnud-blkk 29-30. '._1' ~ II ..... III"'•. I" d irI .u """dinl ond 10 .""""oe~." Tho >o,Ja
bn<l ....n. IWn POOl "" '" loy. . - . . POl"".' _,;au,..
n ill pl""" loy bo_ .. I>' h........ " hi.1 fwthn
lftU'oou_"1 ..... _ in .... woIl! .. (t-,,'Zl 0100 of ' ho ill' _ ........... . <Iliody IiJood " loll ..--d ~
tbt h<;~, of .Il< 'o p of rho d"",. lhi> pooollinll b<'tnl fnroned of th,,~ bomnI b id :oIoat lb. ""U r...... ~ •
bloch of ......,.,j ..1 m",o lI..ply mlo 'h~ ,,'.0 · 'I F". '3~ Woo<! .... .lou = pl"l'0d for 'h.
doorfrorna. whioll _
F,,. Sl n",b<, j" ....11. /1,,,,,1' 11.201. Dim". F18., J k\~"1 """rill'll . //,," '" 11. 201 . Di_

n.. d io'o lh. w.n by Il,i' k hOlm. t>ullt in", ,h. b,l;:b'O,~The "", nol of ' h. lInlk ,_r""o d room...... o«:u·~,_"
by ,h.
ull o{ bric~ "lulu of d l 0, . 1 f",m, hulll O(thin hrich. n X25 " 6CIn ,n oil •." l.lgh LilL~ ' nd . ooUJl ll<:a .
dlo. UlWs "'<n: prMid<od br tIlrrow ...._ , oIlullod .... , I.... <:<iluJe. >od by ....... in 'he ' ...... 0 <If 'ho nuJu,.-

.1
••,
,,"', ,, , ",4"••",_ "."',,."'....
f
~ c v. , , ... ,_ . " .. .... V( ......l .. ", ,, 'll
.s.
.... -.
U v, ~
u ...n . '
" V_U . ' C
_ ... A. .... _. ".""" ' VL
9l. - . ' ..' V H " . . . . . OV
... _ ~ I V. lUl UIll , l ll or.. -. " • K ovL
... . . . . A.t. ' " , . , ........... V, ... -. .. 6_''1·'..

'.
Th• • , ,11' Pt<>l.m"", ..,,>tollum·· " I><od" , b oullt of mu~ ori<~. but wi' h ,h. w:oJb "oun d tit< b. th. pro t.ct.d
b)' • e.."'t o f bum ' Orick. Molt of tho o "" ~ ""' " t. b o ,, ~ «1 AI. l>ut • r.w eour.... of CI occu r. Th. bot M th . m.. lv«
"'" fortmd of bum ' b ric~~ 27 . 13. ~cm 'n ~ 30.15.6001 '" si' • . O'o'"I.I~ ..oth . w".rprouf hm< p'" '' ''' '

A numbeJ of b,,, . "''' ,, ~o'Hlui '' ",oro lohl " '" in the )(Q""" p. riod "" thl " t ho , " d o,u" 01 tl,. ""' pl. o f M. dl".,
luh,~ " TIle n lSt of II" " COrl"",J "f . SSe", ", I", d " " "cl ' !LeI"",d h ~' ,10. ·,.., 11, ofbu' l\t h, I,k hull' In C1 b ondi "~.
",ilh . " "I[OJ ' u,", uf typ, hJ I U"<! Ihe lup " (F i ~,54 ~ TIlO h,I"" 0"""" II • 14.5 . 6.5,," . >I,d " " jo in" h. d
boer, mkJ "'Llh I,m" m"r' ", . whi<:h "''' ;0)><> " .." lu lilL' lire <h"m'l. (s<, PI .54A,)

Another " ,,,by , u" d" I''" ''':15 ofsim ll>, , o"" t ru" lon. ",Ilh ,he "me ,ype of bondi" ! u..d In tb . "" II• • " d t ho roof.
'."p' tl,,, th, I" "" rin~ of th, ,'.ul! h, d onl>' !",'o b,lck. III pl... of lhro. (F i" , :» . Some lot" c"" dul" ., . ro nf
oIIT",,,! form, con .I"I ,,~ of cI. y pipe, , ,,c,,.~ In bum! b,i, ...•• .. shown itt l'I1l- 5 ~, Tho weli from ..'hid , , h.,. , n'n",b
"' ''' f, d "' .. wall,d ,ou n ~ wilh bum' hrlck>3 I ~ 14,5 • 6cm,ln .i,..
laid in n l>ondil1~, ' "" (See 11.54,\.)
rn "dulu nf Rnm, " d. t, ",hlch h,,,, been foun d .. olbor ,it.. la' in E~pl coo form 'ory d o" ly 10 ' he <onm""lon
of ,h , ,,, ' . ""pl" .. \ t, dln" fuhu. , nd Indl,'idml d.« r1p rlon" 1l1 , rofo ro no' y ,'en hero,

Fig.55 D ",<t" i, B., ,ltn l i'I<'lliobu.

[J@TI C,,,,~ SCC lJOll.

- s
r; :::J

£<llu.

In ''l. G" o<",K om." ,o.,n of Ed!" ,' numhO[ of Knm,n both. b, ,,, been dl"" o"" . d. '" ,Oo ""u " m,1 , h."" ,,·
lltle, ofw h"h m " mil.. ' 0 nt h" h.t " nf , l>. "nl<'go Ln En 'pt. In o, d" to p rn" d. ,. ",u nc< to , h. w<t. burn'
11m .... u" U>< d lJI lh, c'o,,, ',,e!lon, m",urcd .." h ",hi le 0' pln~ ,mpcrm"bl" pI" ,,,. ' 0' TIw t ypo of mo,t ar " "so
. " ,pl"y,J fu r "" ,,1" "' 8 ,1" ",, 11, ,,,oj
fu, eU"""'B the n""" Th, b<",J lIlgof tl,. b", kw u r~ In the b. t l" at Mf" is .
", ,, II,, ,, " f A' " "I Cl. '"' II.. ,"' " "",umilL~ 0'" '' ""Olln'., lU Rom", tune<,10, ,, p,..lu",')'. 'n o" e of tl.. " U" JlIl];S.
,I.. h,,,", h,ich "'." " Jl}-l • , S . 8,,-9cm ", ,i;". ",h11" ", ." " ,1,,, " OIl, r,,, ,h,, to ,I" , o" ' h ' h, y m" "" "d ~ 8 .
1.1 . (,..X m. LOi

••, r.. u .c F.. nfl''''' " " .,,, , .. " .. ". ~ ~ IV. , ""- ;... , ><c
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\\>lIy o.M' "C ,b. '"""" 1"'n 11>.' b«11 r""nJ . t " ,e. In Er;ypl. ,.. but the;' ,,,,.,,," ,,1 fu' u' <I .. , •
g,1

b.'~" .n~ t~, ~,


....lfo'm W.. W. 6.,,11I "C lbe E<:\ fu bo, t.>. "'.... olJme. nu,' be ,.... " .. Il r ' o>1nC lhi! or b"
e IlJ,ni- lb' "'" •
blun bnck 1$ ,he F"'''' <\lie '" 011 II " .1", empluy<6 f." con6"iu ""' !eh 1"QYid J lb . ... .. tIO;9Ilt
f1"""n.....
1'I...l -pl..... w".10.......,11.1 Cu' ,he linin, of , he: "ill> and f\<I<>n. Sotm ·peci.J boo;l:., g .. 6 ill tho
of , .t1a\<1 \taW . """,,6 be "",.6 ' lhoto .« I\oIl<>w brio'" ,h_";' whim the ",""inJ Ilr ..... dri>e... '" U ' 0 ' - :-,

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S\MlotUY, OH ll1i\L 8UllDL'fCS 0f TIn XXI>l-lC<XdI Or.<li\51 ",.;0

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OF me Gll"lro- IH»Ii\"i r n UOD

.... am Sir<>l""\
AWIIbd .... 110""

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....... t d·
lJ . 15 5 " ~S
.14 .1 7 . Il
H--4li " ~ I -:" 11 5-1~
:IS • I A-:!D • 11_11.~
rt.s
3'1_S .. ::a .. 12_5
41 ~! .. ,'I--::a .. , 2- I l
I l .. ~~ .. 11
I S.~" 205 .. II
:>,...............__ in lin<\.
A._ t · :>4 .. 11 .. '0
8lu\6i1lJ of ","""",'hn
.4J"_ " . " 15:< I S ,. 1.5
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ll<I",... 'b"'~ ! S .. !S ... v:ao>l' b,......
1l .. Il .. J 5

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2'1_JO:< II .1 5s l l
C"."".. i>W 11'10;"....,'1<..
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Uo" " 1L. !OI :;2 .. 25 • 10 (""h. \ ponetl,,~ . doo'''''''' '' '"
Voult, d ,,' I.....

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i\ 1l:1 ~O s l j . 6
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I~ IH .... 1

C""durl' rt dl ) 1 • ! ..S:>. ~ .S Bur... t>nc:k ......" _ _ ..,110


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!uYc Sro<Md fact<,
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OI APTUI. SEVEf'rj: IXU l ",<;T IC ARCII ITECTURE

Tho •• ,liool btk~·b ~ ~1 booosa to fu h ...... in 4YP' ... ,'''''' ni l". Sou,,,
Tn"", " ~q.d., .m,./I "", b«oo
JDO(lUo""d .ll,.. d)'. ,n O,p'" T. ... Od,.. ~)'Il2Sli< II'. lint )'l<ldod ,........ of ... ,tk m d dJo.Ib h......... bot
I!lf .... of bn<li. ....... to. h... b«lo :ola>on n......u " .."'. Thll I,d ofa.....,"". COB" """ m,,, <II, """""'" Po:><>::-
lIl'h"",*, .. nlml'" '' of Th" d Drn"l) or O¥l~ Old Kin&dum .1". httn h"., round
at H",,,xonpnli. ' ..,.1 ll·JUo :
Al lho f....-, sil " lb, h_ we"
b" il, ofb.1d<o 2S.; - 11> I 10 S- IJ • ' -7an III oi«; ...... __ <lion<_
..",,1.1 ""liZ"" ,ha, ,btJ btIona ,,, ,h. fhi.d 'n!I<, 'hm til. fou,tlIl)y n'IlY , No Inf"f1n"I'm . boo,.h, .,,,,,,,,...
or ,h. b<nMirJp ., E1·J'ob to. ill Y" , " 'oil>blo
s ......"'......... pI.. of !l01I"" of dK Old Kill..,....,.
hz,.• bo<n .1"""'·... 11. bII, h,,,f1y OIly , ....... f\lC.. douds L~
,_,il«l. TIUJ . ' <O>< 0( 1/1< ' 0,,-.. .... ~.... loy ' 0 t!I< ,",,," of IIJ. ,gmt, of Qu«o lUtenlb• .."" Gif.>:' tbt bn.x-
lot.. o:ould ""'" pnl'I'id<d _M 1II{"'tnO'lon. bol, no 1«" ,.1 ~ .. .... do. DId ,"" -:01 ". """' .... dc-.oudcd t1a , eo.,
or, ""',. I,,,.. n( b1>< \ II... 00 Ib, roc k .,f_.
Sorn, r.." C:uI bo . ,,,<.1 abnol ,ht h"" ... o f ,h. Sl, th D)'~
ahoch """Lly tbt V,I U, y r,,,,p1, <>f My• • m,,,•.• n.... "" 0 burl> of .. ,,<Hrri<l. ~ Al 01 Xl • .." h 1lJI,:::k . - .
p1oI'" "" ,Ilt ....n . wf........ lbe ,,,,,noJ m'Ylu.. h..o .."h«t h I. tn . 1.... of l/>, ,1,1"", .. of ,", ",all... it 100ft
Iih l)' to ~ bo,o of""""{' I" ........ of ,ho ........ """, ' do and \»..1. "'''' ...plnytd
Al Al><Wr _ .... nr1 '''''" ' , - 10. '''''_
01 lhot ,"on 1)' , .... pl< of Ner,n rUft. llOtl' ,I>< _,~ Iido:'
n " .. d"dln~ bod llw1.-:dh ,n AI d "1 """d",~ . nd mIlS' be.. rool, d ...;tIJ """""- f u" h,., _th."
s.qq.-. • " """ of d<>Intlli: b~ildi<lp " "".1 ..ound ' h. PY'wll of Q_ "'• .1"0'....
III ,""OIln~ • ...0 . MId ,~_ lIIO)' abo ..... f""""d ,Ite /lawn of p,lo,U.• ol,.
b<,_
tho ",,-nmoJ __

f,,, I~' ~\i ~ dl< Klngdoln tht>. i> ;>pIn not • pn' dtlIl>f ;,lIo' .....h... ro<l<crnint Ibt , hue"",1 "'I"<" of.&~~
1Id>I'",, 'u~. lh< _ oJ "",ain, """ ud. """" priel'" II""... '" the o f tbt Sou,,,
01 flo< I') IOIDtd '"
..............., III at Ouh..'.....d ' h. py1lml""UWIl " f Sc_' ril l l at t N ... h..o · o r 1 ~ . In n.., " oLldl,,!, nn d,,~ _
"I"""""
I..nrnon. "'" """, r..,. cao lit " 1>00. ,''' of I
IIJII .. ,, .....dl}' 1LJd~ .. _fo., for d of ~. I<<d• • "o 111"".
_ItS ""'1m-
IIodt lhe Io,!, --...,.."" tho< _
hu,.
f......oh od "" "". "' ''" r"""d ' Arch,, _
""'-II

""omllOly "led ....... ,h, d<>no--w>y>, r"'_d "11Nit:~. "" ' d.. (' Y,," .1 ) lIlCI ,_ COlI'''' in tll,d.-. ""~~. ",tit
IW:.... "" P I" "",...... ,ho bn<l:o. r Oi ril "'~rn<.d' · th" ,i>no arch.... ouId p<ot>ably h......... «JIll'...." '"
• ..nd <tD1tinJ. .....loh a ..ry 111,ly ,n Pc . ""«1.

J. N~ .., K ingd" m H" u'lb.

Tbio .. ...i' hou' .o~ d""b, Ibe .....1 li,.


rOt ' h' ll udy of <I' ""., lic b,Ic~ .....,. In Iht ~. '" KlnJ;Joltl. b,,, lh, w~. .
.1".", . " 00' '" """ pic.. .. ' bry ,*,,,,,Id \1<. lot 'h. ....... ....... .. 1'.64. I. 'Ix ltmo City. lbe LlfJ' """_
pLilIlcrtd ~ aDd RU ,...,ls. tile <li\'l<l,,,~ ...>110 ul l"" '....-..n, I><',,~ " n"""d,d ..."h 'ho 0....' ..·..b of ,'" """'"
Ik".<'1 IInl<IUy c....,;",o " r • b y" 01 Df~inOly lIri<b.. 0< t>f..."p«l ......1. b~'10 tI« h _ of K4h' 1<] ""~::
,iI<il ....,~" I" ,he 10,1' ,"""'. ' her. ...... w"",I. .. . " 1"",,,. '0 IUpp"" ' h. _ f",. bu, iaJ "
01 ,, ' S..I",·.). "' , .. cOfl>'rutI.d on d<>rUli """'''' 11Id pWI"'. ,) ,"e.p' ro. ,be w..'ell . k p'. "'~"," ..'. " of
bri<'~_~ ( fil. S~~ lbe "" "r '0 .... ...... ~ Ib pnlt>d. a'
...... _"'-."_ .......,,,..
Ii.,,,,, ''' .. " 0....... lb......... O(h""... _
,
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.... ~ b,"" le. ' '', (.",-.. "" . ~ ' _ "
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•'. ,;., ~ . , ~ . ". r.-.o, ........,... .... .. . l'n l! ..., .. " , • ..,. .... III.
' " )I"",... ..... """~ _ . ' _ ' . , 0>. .1 ...... y ,L _ ,.L. _ ..... ,....
' - .utnpl. hr."" 110m nporled I""" Am>I1Ll. of I hww ..." h Mlm. 10rt .. ~1orl1 in,,, <he b' ld ...m.. '~ Fllrly 'hin
.. ~II< _ . hud, ar"""d 1Mn"ln. W >T<n!" bm!J:I,ln<k_ or,..,o I"ic:k~ , III e.... _ _ Ib< ,," II< ......
oal y I .mp. lni<:k in thi<1Il... tMy ...,. mppoo1l'd by bu"'...... inl.~ "
Tho ..u,.. ., . . S orlh Sul>toth ,. Iud t:<>Iu oor! ......r.
u( - . <im~1I 10 ~ ~ <:If tbllolIin CiI,.1JId ....,.
bWl .. f\wod<J._....... Jl-6a 1 S- 16 ~ 9.. " $DII>obo-.. 136.14. ha4.edlar1_ ""hal dourwoy<"""
.-..l,od.-1"!o- '0 no _ _.... of d'Ii< I)" . ' " <diu mFIJ.¥.I•...men i1e.'" _ ,""' ""' ....., isol dl
r...... _:Iw door - " io<>fIYPl' <I . AIl..........z r..,_ io ,toe N' _ "'1.0 -..
lho nnrp "'"",,luilo "'"
-.ll. ' 0 pro.-id< I ~"Of dIe ........r. A ~ .. V,ll ) ..... .....rod la . dilfam< ny. loy """"'lIuot ,... ho"'k..... IL,.
Fe j8 S...... ""o1, .... _..J.t>I6<w1l.. .-l......... F~ J9 J'. . ,I,~ cww . " - T: J(lJP• .-l_

The <>:II)' b"nd. ''''' 0<1<00.1 f,om t!\c ~""It> come I'MI V.36 .7 ..,d TJ63 6. ' a ... I\c,.
d '" .... 11. .... '" <0" "'" 0,ed Ul
,\1 t-undin:. .... th .... I "''''u,.d ..rt,al JoiDU bI ohc middl. of II\< ~rlc h'O ,L. A,oolld ,h. n 'ot. V.37. 1 ,,"'.
o"n ..r :i od<Oi<W I",,,, bri<k bl lhicl.Il.... wbJ:h wollld ' 0 .n probobili'y' h "".....d 1(1."
Th. F.. " Vilbgt I t 4"'1101 J, ..... tb. <itt of w ......n......... ""~~ Lud " OIl ~I .. hnft. tho .nd."""'ll' .."....
of ,.... db~oe, ...d ' ho ....,......... ....n.. ......
buil' fuJl,""h bncls ,l lcm In I<ncth . ..... ti" hol.kwo,kofth.1t<nosI:s
.......... "".,"""d "';'h 1M". U \1 _ of ,be 1IoIlo<l b>d bfl<k "',nhaId.
f<nme'll of hl;0<J<.. OJ b ricks 011 <d." , ...,
_ I.,", <I
I. ,be _ '
1>1'"""
o lir>flt
_.10<
tbo: _·f"""...
1bt jOmM b<tD!1....rn«l 11I 'belnlok _ by oruod... pq:o:'
001-. ""'>Illy' • 1IIIIf'l< pud,.o ' ''1'1''''''' 'M 1111 0' wood IDd rttdl.,:'
no DIf:h' .., tlot -.Dy _ , Oft' ....... "'11M"'k_ ....01, '"It .... 'N ..,Ill plw.. .
. '*~ ck<....1«I 1lI _ .....

}\"""". I t'Ol. h1I",",1 • " ..... II Abydoo. J ' . .. , "'" .t~ 0I 11Jo ,.rnpln ...... =~lt- TIw ..... U p.", of 'bl< ,......
" iuch h,.. be.."D ,....,. U eo ,, ' oln. b l ~ 1t\III<iIIrI • • and illtnlly p!>nnt<I . ..... pc lIIIIl, .11.... lh . <lUin '"'3lh
. to 'om_ lu ....ny h, ~n dUIi'o of the " " .." 01 ,h. t>u~dlnp:or. p""
In ' h. to"",l, h Ul <h. liZ< <>1 th,
''''''''' would '''£I,~' 'h OI ,h. h,", ," h.d ,1" 'nolo. ",,,""'ltd b, .. l><>Ilrn ,.I"r>.
TI,~bu.

A .. U ,~ uf <" n, Hl".bl• • ' ,." ' 11' .... up d.. ,i,, ~ lh. ,..",n of AIJt<flh01OP 111. "' \m<d t, t el ~ 1lI">1 of hi' mortu,,}'
!t o,l'l. !Il Thobe<. )0 n.. llIlu.... "".. "tIled f" ..., fDII' 10 ........ loo m.. and Illd ,h.., . mud·pl"L<f<d 11> hu,lI '0 4 1
.n d A~ bondm~ "So"'"
of ,I\< "",,,,)'.,,,", Ii"" • • ncI_ d by .In ul<ltdal ....ill.. I""".d . oll.. l~ u f ,d..n ( XI bIIod ~
..tIiI., olha< Iud ,p' ...
£ll. ..", (n"",d hy hu.".....
ot In.o..... J> I' IJ in"""""8 to nok Ib.1 n, " f ,h . f"'nl<l
type """'" d ,,' uod omaIl """ h" d".Uiop 11<11, 1M 'o-mpl. of l la«b......, II Dtl ' " .!Io"''''' In , h n.p
..u
01 Am",b<>lcp III. """. ,,11M undul" ;"". ill <hill ' H" 01.. Ud 1><... "",""'d "" lbt...,..., t"", b, "''''' -.11••"
OlolIOW111 m",,60. tho h1ld . .. r ' M b""",. ..Ji<:d io ........... """. Ol' of lb. <m>II ~ .. I"",,", ..-..I Il.
,he Iorp-J tmeh ~ r", ....,..,.,.. \>ouIdiop. the 1" 1'" puop '" .. rl.....--t><>nnc ,10: """'flO of """"'h<>oCP 111
I'b,. ........
_ _.._. . .
n.. ~ ...... ........114<4 "" ~ 'Ii _ of ,•• b'Kb ale [Oi.......... 97.

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14- "'_. l.-"'_"" ." ~ '''' ' ,. ..... r. ..
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" -.... J"
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, t. - . ,... .. _ c:. .. V _ , . . ... H _ )).<,
, .. .-. u ""01.-.1 _ u.. " "
I I. 1· - . Il J. D. (lry aT _ _ II . ' . . 0 V. oilI<. _ "'V III _ .... ..... "'-.1'00'
11
n
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",,60 Ihry ~""" ~o{
A-m.oup 1ll. 17lrbn

"bn y """. """lei "I til. _Io: inKoom be in lh. .. "' ~<n' .. n.~ ., on, e1 , ~.<hn••" rno:k>otd on"...u) ~ .
w:JJI , buil' l>y Tut" mo. i> I. and
oily II<> f""udan
of ... u<i... boa ~ for
I.",
by 0 1'1""'''' "111 D)·n.. t~ .... n "r,ough.. "" . '''''''1\1 ''10'' Tho "nllU< ~
.<ap t ,""", hII.iI, 0lI rubble. In 11I>11 <a>< they haw • ..mlln>c IU<, o r Il<ln< or brk~_ Th<
rinly of brick. bu ,b.tIo< <>l R:smeuodc: IJnIn "title il. 1lloI<I rD! .hI ,
.
:~:~

T.-o of IloIa on ,he ' OP of 1M " " ' - ...... . tat roof _ .... d. 'hr lOOk be lbl 4 _
(F'I·6H ) 1<)., ,h•• laI n ' 0 " " ,wI ..,4 ,,, lh. " I ""',. oll on , ,od boy bnck d riot N g "'"
W< I. ft Lnfot<:<J "" n _ . 3O The booJ , 0' Ih. hou 01 1, 'ro At. 1.2 .nd Al , ,h. lui o.,,>o<Il><i" l u~ in ...
"",lh. and b," ll wru'" on<! calo" rod pl.. ~, '""01£" on lh< '""'rlor ""r""",,. I n lh< 110..... o f lh< E~' ..nlh ~
briel" .1tt or be".. quollly lhalale., , _ oJ Illt R-.oulok petlDd <oI>uininI" F it., propo>rtiotl of WIoic: ;... .
).b", of t ho bon"b bu. "_lH "''1110 o f Ph>" ....... b,,, oaly It.- of Tu' .......... l. f _ .. tbe ~
of II>< vd!>,.• • ro In lh. ;, n,;Jill>! 11",," , lho n,h... h••lnKbHft ~oed. •• A 1",5'" " umbo' or 1IIOO..ldtm... 1Id"
buo" ~ .'" h.. n " 'OId, d, and ,!lei. '"
~h" n In \10. "hl."n r'~ 97.

A numb., or h""... ....,. <On' I!U<1<d ",'h ln lb. ,.." pl. ..... . , ~1.d1n .. H. I", .. .. " '" 01 lb. "''I'"'' 1».--
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19 . 11- [ 3<;In .. Ibo . ,n,'''_ d 11 "fI. IIId ....,«1 .. ,,~ ..i\it<oo<! pIa"o,. AI ,be """'_ro at ''''0 of ,II. "'~
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CHAPTE R EIGHT: FO RT RESSES AND DEFENS IVE TOWN WALLS

I. The Archaic Period.

The evidence fo r the existence of fortified settle men ts given by representa tions on arch aic palettes and sealings
has already been discussed (page 5) and need not be repeated here. The early "fort " at Hierakonpolis I has certa in
features of a defensive characte r, such as the dou ble ou ter wall and th e for ti fied gateway , but this bu ilding probably
ha d a ritual OJ funerary purpose like the Second Dynasty enclos ures at Abydos. The bricks of the Hierakonpolis
"fort" vary from 25 x 12 x 9cm to 30 x 14 x 7cm in size. and the y are laid in A2 or A3 bonding.' These small
dimensions are typical o f the Archaic Period, and resemble the bric ks o f the to wn wall at Hierako npolis, which
measure 24. 5 x 14 x 7cm. This wall-was originally S. 15m in thickness. built in Class A bond ing, bU I at a lat er date
it was enlarged by the construc tion o f another wall, 2.50m thick, at a distance o f J.8 5m in front of i t. The gap between
the t wo walls was then filled with earth 10 form a single waU of 9.5Om. The secon d wall was built of b ricks 28 x 14- 16
x 8. 5- 1Ocm in size, and may have bee n decorated with niches o n its ou ter face,

2. Old and Middle Kingdom Forti flcaticns.

Several parts of the Old Kingdom town wall o f Elephantine h ave bee n discovered at that site, built of small mud-
bricks in Class A bonding. The South-East sect ion 4 of the wall is founded on a substruct ure of thin walls, which were
built in order to fill up the irregular hollows in the granite bedrock. These found ation walls are bonded A2( 1.5) or A3
(2.0). whilst the main wall above them is fou r bricks across and is built in A3 bo nding, exce pt fo r a base layer of bric ks
on edge. The bricks themsel ves measure 26-27 x 11-1 3 x 6 -7cm, and they are laid in mu d-mor tar . In the Sou th ern
par t of the site stands another sectio n -of the same wall, (bricks 27 x 14 x 7.5cm) over built by a later wall o f the New
Kingdom. More remains o f th e early waU 6 lie to the East of the temple of Khnum, where there are four levels of build-
ing, some of which app ea r to represent repairs o f Middle Kingdom da te. Here also the bonding is Class A, and the b ricks
are 24- 27 x 11- 13 x 6.5c min stze.
At EI·Ka b the lown wall '7 was circular, and fo rmed of Iwo parallel thin walls with a rubble filli ng bet ween, alt hough
Somers Clarke believed 8 th at they were two in dependent walls, as in the early " fort" of Hterakc npch s. They stand 4 .88m
apart and are 2.44 and 2. 74 m th ick respec tively. bo th constructed of b ricks 35 x 13 x 6cm in size. The date of the town
enclos ure is not certain. b ut it is presumed 10 belong to the Middle Kingdom."
Remains o f to wn-walls of th is period have been fou nd at Edfu , overlying a cemet ery of the Old Kingdom . IGThe earliest
wall was built in the First In termediate Period and was rein fo rced during the Middle Kingdom. It does not fo llow a
straight course, but con tains a num ber of right-angle bends . which project o utwards in the manner of bastions. I I Lat er
in th e Middle Kingdom a new enclosure was buill on a straight plan. All these walls are construc ted in Class A bonding,
probably A3, as is usual in thick masses of brickwork.
Since the available informa tion on fo rtifications within Egyp t is so slight at th is da te, I have included below a brief
descrip tion o f the construction of the ou ter walls of the Nubian fort resses. Some of these features belong to the New
Kingdom. but they are sta ted her e to avoid dividing the mat erial concerned with a single group o f bu ildings.

Kllball. 12

Timbe rs occur in the mai n walls every eighth course, laid tr ansversely, resting on a layer of reed-matt ing wh ich fills
the h orizontal joint. The bricks are 32 x 16 x 10em in size.

I. Q .. l l>cll, J. I::. & G r.... n. F .W. H i"' i2 k rmpo fll, II. 1\1· 20 & PI.L X XI V.
a. ibid.• 20. AI.., G3nt3nil . J.• A S"!;' 8 (I1107 ). PIs-V. V L S. ibid.. . 59 .
3. Fairs..."i$. W.A ., JA RC£ \I (J 1171 ·2), IS&' FiJ. \I. 'I. ibid.• 5 9 .
•• Jariu, B ., M D lK 26 (1 1170 ).13 4·6 . 10 . M ich ~l nw~ki , K. • n -II F.d fm •. 111"1 19 3 9 ), 10 3 ,6 & Pla n~ it -ilL

•• S tadel m an n. R.• M DrK 2 7 (1 \1 7 1). 200· I. L1. i bid. , 10 3 &. I' la ". IJIII.

••
,. hr i t ~ H-, ,uDIK 26 (t9 70 ). 91 -J .
so mers Cb tk ... lEA '7 (1\121). 59.
12 . I' mcty , W.R . &. K ir w a n . L. P., fixe. i2"d Sun''')' ~rwo'ell Wadi
".S f'bui2 &: Adi"di2'~ l6-JJ.

' 04
Buhen.

TIle buttressed walls o f the fort are buill of mudbricks measuring 32 x 15 x Bern , 13 and wooden beams occur at
interv als in the structure. Woolley thought that certain parts of the wall contained large compartmen ts, which were
eithe r filled with sand or used for storage,14 bu t more recent excavations have sho wn this conclusion to be inco rrect
since the main walls consist of solid b rickwork.

M;rg;ssa.1 S

In the heart o f the walls the bricks are laid carelessly, bUI in spite of this apparent irregularity the deviatio n o f
the courses from a true plane is only!. 2cm, this levelling p robably being accomplished by sighting on the horizon .
Similar accuracy is seen in the spacing of the layers of wooden beams: th ese are separated by 12 cou rses of bricks.
a distance which in each case measures 1.30m, with a maxim um error of under 2cm. These beams are I S- 20cm in
diameter, and they always rest on a layer of reed-matting. In the thick walls and buttresses there is a system of air
chan nels through the brickwor k at various levels, form ed of passages two bricks high by one brick wide. 16 A detailed
study of the dimensions of the bricks used in the fo rtress has been made by Hesse, 17based on the measurement of a
large number of exam ples, most of which were be tween 30cm and 34cm in length .

Askut. 18

The outer wall has buttresses along the face, both these and the wall Itself being reinforced with timbers laid along
and across the bric kwork. The b ricks o f th is fort measure 32 x 15- 16 x B-9cm.

Shat fak ;t9

A great qu antit y of wood was employed in the main walls, transverse beams being found at every sixth co urse of
brickwork, whilst longitudinal timbers occur at the" thi rteenth course. The latter timbers rest upon the logs in the
course immediately below, as sho wn in Fig.68. The brick size is 33 x 16 x I tem.

Fig.fi S Timbering of wall, Shalfak: Number of


• • • • • • 2. courses.
• • • • • •
J;;;>-? ~.-=-.-=
• i Q "
• • • • • • " 6

U r OlJar,;. 20

Timbering occurs in the walls and in the bu ttresses. usually with a layer of beams along the face o f the wall in the
course above a row of transverse logs (Fig.69). Reed-maili ng is also employed, bet ween every six th course o f b rickwork .

Fig.69 Timber ill Wall, Uronarti.

St'l1I lJa. 21

The walls 01" the fort stand on granite rubble, as at Kumma on the opposite side of the Nile, and consist o f mud-bricks
31 x 14 x Scm in see. Timber was used extensively in the brickwork, the beams being set both along and across the walls,
lmd layers of reeds occur at every fift h cou rse. 2 2
I II. Ra<la.. y• •" ., Kush, 12 ( 19 6 4 ), 5 0 .
19. ll u n h3m. n, S~~'o"d Ca laracIF(trn, 11. 12 1. & PI.LIIl A.
20 . IMd., 2 1-2 Ii< PL XIV A-B.
21. i bid., I, S-6&. P1.4 B.
21 . Som~r~ et~r k~. I£A J( 19 16), 17 8.

105
Kllmma.u

The walls are built in Class A bo nding on a foun dati on o f gran ite rubble. Beams. IO- 15cm in diamete r, run along and
across the walls at frequ ent int ervals, and reed-mattin g is found between every four th course. The dimensions o f the
bricks are 32 x 15 x Scm, 24 as at Buhen and Askut.

K f?rma. 2S

'The Lower Deffu fa' measures 100 x 50 cubits (52.20 x 26.7Om) an d is built of mud-bricks 35 x 17 x Scm and
3 5 x 17 x 12cm in size. The faces of th e walls show the appearance of Al bonding, but int ern ally there is an alternation
o f four head er courses with four stretcher courses. Wooden beams occur at levels 5m apart, set crosswise thr ough the
brickwork.

3. New Kingdom F o r tifica ti o n s.

Exam ples of defensive to wn walls or for tresses are rare at this period. except in th e Nubian (or is described above. The
enclosure walls of th e temple of Ramesses UI at Medinet Habu, which are designed in a defensive sty le. have also been
discussed elsewhere (see above, page 70).
The town wall of Edfu was rebuilt at th ree successive periods during the New Kingdom , one o f these walls, numbered
CS X, being t. 95m thick . 26 1t seems that all these structures were built in A2 or A3 bonding. 27bu t no tec hnical detail s
are available.
A New Kingdom town-wall has been found at Elephantine. built of b ricks 36 x 18 x 9cm in size with mud-mor tar in
the horizon ta l join ts. In the Southern part of th e site, this wall overlies th at of the Old Kingdom, 18 and th e alignmen t
of the wall suggests th at it is continuous with other remains in the Sou th -West part of the island , whe re a number of
stratified walls have been found . 29 These ruins have not yet been precisely da te d, but it seems certain th at one of the
earlier levels \1,111 prove to be th e co ntin uati on of th e New Kingdom wall. Fu rther traces of th is wall stand on th e East
of the site. 30co nsisr1ng of two levels of bu ilding. bo th of which are formed o f bricks measuring 36 x 18 x 9cm , as in
the Sou th ern section.
Defensive town-walls of the New Kingdom occu r in Nubia. aro und th e Egyptian sett lements at Sesebi and Amara
West. 31 These walls have buttresses along the out er face. an d at the latt er site th e bricks wer e sta mped by Seti I. The
wall o f Sesebi was 4 .6Om thick. with buttresses 3. 15m across projec ting 2.6Sm from the face. A different ty pe of
enclosure is found at Aneiba , H where th e New Kingdom town was surrounded by a plain brick wall with out butt resses.
protected by a d ry ditc h in front. This ditch, the sides of which were lined with brickwor k. was overlooke d by the low
ramparts which ran alon g th e foot o f the main wall of th e lawn. The latter wall was 5m thic k and stood on a foundation
co urse of bricks on edge, with a sloping socle on the ou ter face.

4. For tificatio ns o f the Twenty-First to Thirtieth Dynasties.

Psamm etichus I established a forti fied camp at this site in the North -East Delta. consisting of a rough ly square building
sta nding o n a h igh fou ndation of b rickwo rk. ) ) Some of the compart ments in the platform were do med over to form
sto re-cella rs, whilst ot hers were merely sand-filled to provide a base for the structu res above. H A few chambers were
filled up solid with brickwork. The ou ter surfaces of the wal.ls had received two or three coats of plaster. and the bricks
were laid in mud -mo rtar. Outside the cit adel was a pavement o f brick. beneath which so me bu rnt b ricks. possibly o f
Ramesside age. were discovered. measu ring 32 x 15.5 x Bcm. 3 S The sizes o f the bricks in the fo ri itself arc given on
page lOS. 36

23. Dunham, op. cit., I. 1 1+ 5. 2 9. i b id•• 19 !!-2 0 0.


24. So mers ('larke, J E_4 3 (1 9I b) ,1 74. 30 , h r;lz. H., M DIK 26 ( 1970 ). Q4 & 11. n n" p.Q2
15. R<"ilner. C. A., K rn",t. r-nr. 1 2-3. 3 1. BIJ" kman . A.M•• J EA 23 (I Q3 7 ), 14 6 &:. 1'l XIII .
I.l<"l pite Re isner's o pin io n. th i, bu ild ing ( air ma n, H.W •• l EA H ( 19 3 9). 14 0.
wa, pro',"b l ~ nOI 3 l ru ~ fu r l rl'51. 32 . S l<'j"d u r ff, G_. A"ihll, II. 17 s:1'1.. b. II.
ae. Mk halo ...... ki. K., Trll Ed!nu, 111 ( I Q39), 33. P~ t rj~, W.M.t~. T"" U, ll, N r lx'sll r ll" lkn,",j~ S4. & PI. ltLl V.
10 + 6 '" Plans n .IIL 34. i bid., 53.
n. Ibid., Plall U. 35 . ....lr;... w _M. r •• np. d l" S8.
18. s la drl ma nn. R. , non: 2 7 ('9 7 1). 2 0 1. 36. ib i..!, 9S .

106
Naukratis.

A similar building to the camp o f Deffeneb was discovered in th e te mple temen os at Naukratis. built in the same
manner over a plat form of do med cham bers.37 The lo west entranc e to th is structu re is situated at a point over Sm
above the ground, which indicate s a defensive pu rpose, and even in its ruined stat e th e bu ilding is still 10m h igh. The
bricks are o f a size commo n in Sette limes, measuring 4 1.5 x 2 1 x (?)cm.

Abu Roash.

A large building was excavated at this site by Macramallah, who described it as a fort , and da ted it to the Middle
Kingdom , 38a1 though bot h the iden tification and the dating are open to do ubt . The m onument consists of an encl osing
wall, 12m in th ickness, with in which is a denuded block of brickwork . (Fig.70 ). No timber ties were found in th e struc tu re
o f the great wall, which is compo sed o f mud-bricks 39 x 19.5 x IO.Scm - 44 x 22 x l4cm in size, laid in sand . 3 9 Along
the face are a series o f recessed and projecting sections, some of the former having butt resses built up against th e lower
courses, formed by stepping back the cou rses of bricks. 40 Macramallah sta tes that the bricks are laid in ho rizon tal courses .
but th en goes on to say th at the "beds rise up towards the angles o f the panels", 41 and the drawing given in his report 42
shows some of the sections of b rickwork to be concave. The construction within the enclosed area, apparently a solid
mass, is also built in concave courses o f brickwor k.43

!
, .
'
/
Fig.70 Plan of "Fort" at A bu Roash
," L... ,,
/ Cent ral block
'"
I

- - _
/ II
, ,
,, ,,
I
- -__ _ ___ '/ II

Outer w
-;ll - ~'

What is th e tru e nature of th is building? It cannot be a fo rt , as Macramallah su pposed, since it does not co rrespond to
any kn own Egyptian fortifications, and th e co nstructional de tails are not in accord with this indentificati on . WaDs built
in co ncave beds are not used in a fo rtress, nor. indeed, in any kind of secu lar building in Pharaonic tim es. It is m ore
prob able that th is str ucture is som e kin d of religiou s mon ument, since th e central mass co uld have been th e foundation
of some form o f small temple or chapel, enclosed by the outer wall.
The reasons given by MacramaUah 4 4 for datin g the building to the Middle Kingdom are not con vincin g, and the
presence o f a drain formed of Roman amphorae on the site 4 5would rather indicat e a late age, altho ugh the drain and
th e monu ment are not necessarily co ntemporary. However, the co nstruc ti on of the solid cent ral block o f brick work in
concave courses is a tech nique S0 far not encount ered prior to the Lare-Penod/" to which, th erefor e, the building is
possibly 10 be ascribe d. It could just be of Ptolemaic date , alth ough this is less likely since the dimen sions of th e bricks
would then be exceptionally large. whilst the y agree per fectl y with bric ks of the Twent y-Sixth to Thirt ieth Dynasties.

At the North end o f the Palace of Apries was a Iortifled camp or cit adel. 47 bu ilt on d omed co mpart men ts In a platform
o f brick work , as in th e forts of Deffeneh and Naukratis.

.n . Pcl rte , W.M . F.• N ,."k f'!l ';s. 1. 24-6 &0. l'is . X LII -X LI II .
l 8. Mac ram alb h. M. R... ASAE l 2 (1 9 32>. 1/i 1- 173 &, PI... I· IV.
lQ . ;hid. . 163-5.
40. ibid. . 16 5 &0 PL II.
4 1. i b id ., 16 4 ·5.
42. ibid. , 166. ri ll· I.
4l . i bid .• 164 nol ~ 1 &. 1'1.1ll. 3-.
44. M"-Ha m ulla h, /.l. R., " p. cit.. 1 7 1-l .
4S . ib id. . 167 I< 1'1. Ill . 2.
4 6. -"u ml" ~ o c<: ur in t he fn u ndal io n5 or &m all p ~Ji l'l cul ~h,,- p.,l$ al T a ni&and J::J·K a b.
4 7. ~ u i.,. W.M.I- .• Th~ Pill" CC' of A p rlu, I . Ide.... M~",ph js. l. 1'1. I.

107
El-Hibe/z.

TIle town of El-Hibeh is surrounded by a walll1.60m in thickness, and at its Northern end is a fort containing
stamped bricks of Pinudjem 1 and Menkh eperre. 4 8 The latter high-priest also b uilt for ts nca r Shurafa and at Qu s and
Gebclcin ," ? bu t ap art fro m the presence of stamped brick s no details of the se buildings are available. At Gebele in
th ere were forts on both sides of th e gebel, so th at on the East hill having walls built in Class A b ondin g with reed-
matti ng bet ween the cours es of bricks.

Medinet Hahu.

TIle enclosure wall of th e temple of Ramesses III at Medinet lIabu was rebuilt in the Twenty-Fi rst Dynasty by
Pinudjem 1, 5 1 with b ricks measu ring 36 x 18 x lOcm an d 4 2 x 20 x 12cm. the latter bein g re-used. A tow er was
constr ucted on the round ed South-West comer , and a ne w gate was added on th e West side .
Further recons truct ion took place in the Twent y-Secon d Dynasty, 52 with re-used bricks fr om the build ings of
Ramesses III and from the nearby palace of Amenh otep III at Malqa ta. The pur pose of th e wall was no longer
concerned with the te mple, bu t was to p rotect the to wn which had developed with in th e enclosu re.

SUMMARY : FOR TS OF TH E LATE PER IOD.

Location Bonds Brick Sizes(cm) Notes

Bethpeiet:
Fort of Sheshonk I : 53 43 - 53 long. Outer wall over 5m thick .
Gerar:
For i of Psammetichus l: 54 37 x 19 x 14 to Similar const ruct ion to fort at
40 .5 x 20. 5 x (?) Deffeneh .
33 x 33 x (?) Sq uare b ricks due to infl uence
35 x 34 .5 x (? ) from Mesopotamia.
36x36x(?)
37 x.34 x 14
De[[('Ilch:
Fort : 4 1 x 20 x 12.5 For t stand s on a high platfo rm
41. 5 x 20 x u.s of cellular brickwork. Som e of
41. 5 x 20. 5 x 10.5 - 11 the chambers in this fo undatio n
44 x 22 xl 1 were domed over.
44x22x1 3
4 1 x 20.5 x 12.5
41x 20.5x 1 1
36x 18 x9
Naukratis:
For t in Great Temenos: 4 1.5 x 21 x (?) Simila r to fo rt o f Deffeneh .
Abu Roath:
" Fort" 39 x 19 .5 x 10. 5 to Large enclosur e around rem ains
44 x 22 x 14 of a building. Almost certa inly
no t a fort ; possibly some kin d of
temple.

48 . KHm al . A. • A SAE2( 19 0 1). 85 .


4 9. Kitchen, K. A. • T hird ln t" n m 'dia f(' l',·rio d . 269 -10 .
SO. In form a li nn ki n dl y s u p plie d by Dr. B. V. H u l h m ~ r .
5 1. H61,ch ~ r. U.. E.M.If. , V, .1-4.
52. ibid.• 6 .
5 3. P~t ri ~ . W.M .F. • Bc Olp e/et, 1,2 0 & PI. L1X .
54. Pdri e. W.M. t".. Gt'rar. 1- 8 & PI.X I.

)08
Location Bonds used Brick sizes (em) Notes

Mem phis:
Camp N. of
Palace of Apries: Built on cellular platform of
brickwork .
J::I-lliheh: 4 1 x 18 x 10.5 Stamped bricks of Menkhep erre
and Pinudjem I.
Med inet Habl/:
Rebuilding of
Pinudjem 1: 36x l8xlO
42x20x l 2 Ramcsslde bricks, re-used.
XXIInd. Dyn. rebuilding: Repairs to enclosure wall with
re-used bricks.
Geoetcm: 43)( 23 x 10 Forts of Menkheperre on either
side of the gebel, built of stamped
bricks.

5. Graeco- Rornan Fortifications.

Medin et Habu.

The old enclosu re wall of Medinet Habu was repaired in the Roman period, 55 and towers were built at th e South-
East and North-West corners. Re-used bricks were employe d in the lower courses of these structures, measuring 44 x
20 x I l cm and 36 x 17 x l Ocm, whilst the higher levels were built of Roman-age bricks 32 x 14 x lOcm in size. The
bonding of this brickwork is type CI , at least on the outer faces of the walls, as can be seen in the view of the North-
West tower in Plate 568.

EI·Kab .

At this site there was a small Roman for t, built on square plan with bastions at each corner. 56 Most of the const-
ruct ion is composed of mud-brick, but in the pavements and the few surviving vaults a few burnt bricks occur. The
pavements are formed of bricks laid in even rows, or, occasionally, in a herringbo ne patt ern. 57 In the surviving walls
the bricks are laid as stretchers, with a layer of edger-headers every fo urth course. The sizes of the bricks are given in
t he chart on page tlO.

Edt"_
A defensive wall was constructed on the to p of the town-mound in Ptolemaic times, with bricks measuring 31 x 17
x l l cm, laid in Class A bonding. sH The wall was repaired and strengthened during the Roman period, at which time
rounde d bastions were added along the out er face. ~ 9 Some Cl bonding occurs in this reconstruc tion work, and the
dimensions of the bricks arc 31 x 16 x 10em - 33 x 17 x 1Iem, 60 although some of these may be re-used. In the
second century A.D., a new wall was built to the West of the previous one, with bricks 32 x 16 x l l cm in size.6 1

Elephantine.

In the South-West part of the site of Elephant ine are the st ratified remains of town-walls of various dates , 62 the
most recent of which pro bably belongs to the Roman period. This dati ng is supported by the fact tha t this wall is
built of small bricks laid in CI bonding, which only becomes common in brickwork of Roman and Coptic age.

55 . H lIl, oh c r, U. , H.M .H. , V. 36. 5\1. ibid. . 12 6 , 14 8· \1 & Pla n IV.


S6 . Ba d aw y. A . in C a p a rl, J. , F"u ill~,' d.. f.'1· K ab ·Doc" m~" t... 8 1·2. 60. IMd.• 148, Fii<- H9. & Pla n IV.
S? ll ad a w y , A .• ASAl:' 46 ( 19 4 ? ). 36? 6 1- ibid.• 14 3 & PI"" l V.
58. Mich" luw. ki. K., r-n Edt "" . III (193 9), 118 & 1' 1, . IV-V . 6 2. Ha c n y & Ja . tl z. MDIK 2 ? ( I 'I ? I) . 198-20 0.

109
Kkarga.

At Ed-Delr in Kha rga Oasis is a Rom an fortress known as Kastell ed-Deir , consisting of a square enclosure with
defensive towers at the angles and along the sides. 63The outer walls are approximat ely 4m in thi ckn ess and are
reinforced by timbers set tr ansversely and longitud inally in the brickwo rk . 64 Most o f th e const ructio n is co m posed
of mu d-bricks measuring 3 1 x 16 x Ilcm, but the sides o f the en tran ce gateway on the West side are form ed of burn t
bricks. 6SThis en trance was o riginally roofed with a vault, const ruct ed of bu rn t bric ks 26 x 12 x 6cm in size. th e broad
surfaces of each bric k being scored with several sh allow grooves. 66

SUMMARY : GRA ECo- ROMAN FORT IFICATIONS

Location Bonds Brick Size(cm ) Notes

Shuraja : 6 7 Roman for t with double ou te r


wall an d towers at comers and
on E. side . Brick walls fou nde d
on sto ne work .
68 Temple-enclosure mad e in to
H U:
Roman fort. by additio n of towers
at angles.
Dendera: 69 A? Temple-enclosure repaired in Coptic
CI and ea rly Arab times. to serve as
town-wall. Tower bu ilt beside East
gat e, an d anoth er at S.W. corner.
Luxor:
Roman for i around
old temple: 70 Semicircula r lowers alo ng walls.
squ are towers at angles. Triangular
bu rnt bric ks for columns.
Medint't Habu:
Town wall: Rom an repairs to temp le wall of
Dyn. XX.
Towers: 44 x 20 x I I[ re-used] Square towers at S.E. & N.W. com ers.
36 x 17 x IO(re-used) built in Class C bonding.
32 x l4x lO
EI-Kab:
Roman fort : 34x1 7 x8 Square fort with co m er towers. Burn t
32x l6 x7 br ick only in 1100rs & vault s.
22x tl x5
32 x 14 x (? Xbuml)
£diu:
Ptol. & Roman wall: AJ C I 31x l 7x l l Sem icircu lar bastio ns added to wall
34x I7x 11- 2 in Rom an times.
3 1 x 16x IO ta
33xI 7x li
late Roman wall: 32 xl 6 x ll
K harga:
Roman fort : 3 1x l6 x l l Squ are fo rt uf mud-brick construction.
26x l2x6 with towe rs at corne rs and along walls.
Timber reinforcemen t in bric kwor k.
Smaller size of bricks are bu rnt , fro m
vault ing over gate.

63. Nau m . n n . R.. MDIK 8 (1 9 3 9 ). 2·). 67. I'e l ri... W .M . F., lIl.'liopolis, K /l.!r A nrmQr & Shurtl!lI, 4 1 &. I''' XLV II.
64 . Df' Boc k. W., MIl ,~rillux. •••.ll rch. ('",ir.. 2. 68. Pel rie. DloJpolu P/l.rl'/L 54-S &. I' I. X XIV.
65 . ibid.• 2.4. 69. Ct'l3.\Sin .l. 1::.. DI.'"dQrQ. I. Pis. V I &. I X.
66. i b id.• 2 . 70 . Laca u. 1'. • A S A C 34 (1 934 ) . 17·20.

110
CHAPTER NINE: BRICK WALLS.

I, Reta ining Walls.

A great dea l o f Ancient Egyptian building involved the con struct ion o f brick walls to ho ld back d ifferent levels
of sand OJ gravel. since these materials were frequently employed as filling, or (or levelling. Walls built for this
pu rpose func tion in the same manner as a dam or dy ke. and the loose filling behaves as jf il were a fluid. Th e
pressure up on the retaining wall is clearly proportional to the heigh t of the rubbl e which rests against it, and this
lateral thrust tends to make the wall overturn or slid e, bUI is resisted by the weight of the bric kwork. Th e Egy pti ans
seem to have realized at an early J 31e tha t a considerable saving in material could be made. without loss of
st ability, by crea ting a walt of trap ezo idal rat her than rect angular section, and a good examp le o f th is technique
is afforde d by the great retaining wall arou nd the solar t em ple of Neuserre at Abu Gur ab. I Less massive walls of
trapezoi dal form are commo n amo ng the brick mastabas of the Arch aic Period and Old Kingdom .
Fo r a wall of th is type to be stable. ce rtai n con ditio ns have to be fulfilled, which can be expla ined by re fe rence
to the diagram below (Fig.7 1). The weight of th e brickwork. acting do wnwards fro m the ce ntre of gravity. must
be suffi cient to ensure that W x a is greater than P x h, o therwise the wall will co llapse. An add ition al req uire ment
is that the re should be no tension develope d in th e structure of the wall, since bric kwor k has poo r te nsile strength.

Fig. 71 lI!all under lateral pressure.

In a wall exposed to side thrust. the tende ncy is for tensile stress to occu r at the h eel of the wall. and compressive
st ress at the toe. The fo rmation of such tension at the heel is avoided by the effect of the load W. whic h not on ly
prod uces a com pressive stress ove r the en tire wall base. but also creates a bending m omen t of W x d. whe re d is the
distance between a vertical line th rough the cent re of gravity of th e wall sect ion and the cen tre o f the base (Fig.72).
This ben din g moment is oppos ite to tha t produced at the heel by the pre ssure of the filling. and therefore tends
to cancel ou t th e te nsion at tha t point.

Fig. 72 Stress in a Retaining watl

p- - -->I
Tensio n at heel avoided
by effect of W x d. J
It is o f int eres t to app ly these rules to an Ancient Egyp tian constructio n. Figure 73 mows a sectio n of the great
ret aining wall which surrounds th e temple o f lsis-mc ther-o f-Apis at Nor th Saqqa ra. 2 with the buttress on its ou ter
face. Th is wall is preserved to a heigh t of 4m . but the origin al height must have been abo ut as show n in the ern.
Fig. 73 Se(.'I;O/1 of R etaining Wall
at North Saqqara.

L &~ above, 11. 62.


a. I:m ~ r y . W.E> .. J EA S) ( 1967), 1 4 4 - _~ . ld{'m .. JHA 55 (]969} .I'I.XI.

112
drawing. Taking the density of the brickwork to be 1150 kg/m, 3 and working with a 1m section of the wall. th e
following calculat ion can be made:

Stability of the wall alone:


WI : 0.75x6 x 1250 : 56 25 kg
W2= 1.0 5 x 6 x 1250 = 78 75 kg
Tot al W '" 13500 kg

Moment at toe o f wall '" WI x 1.6 + \\'2 x 0.95


= 5625 x 1.6 + 7875 x 0.95
: 9000 + 748 1(.25)
; 16.481 (.25) kg/m
Therefore the wall is stab le so long as the pressure upon it is less than 16,481 kg/m .

Stab ility of edded buttress:


Taking the buttress > 1 x 3 x 1250 = 3750 kg
Momen t at toe = 37 50 x 1.4 2
= 53 25 kg/m
TIle buttress can withstand a pressure up to 5,325 kg/m

The use o f buttressing on a retaining wall clearly gives greatly improved stre ngth in return for a small extra
outlay of materials. and the process is co mmon in Egyptian brickwork.
In some cases retaining walls were constructed by the use o f loose flllln g con tained between two parallel
walls o f brick. a good exam ple o f this type being fou nd in the terrace temple o f Amosis I at Abydos. 3 The
weigh t of the intern al filling acts in such a way as to aid the stab ilit y o f the whole st ruct ure. by preventing the
collapse o f the brick casing.
Another form of wall is tha t built on a sinusoidal plan. as exemplified around the South pyramid of Mazghuneh. 4
alth ough this tech nique is no t restricted to the Middle Kingdom as has been stated. s A detailed study'' of th e advant-
ages of this form 01building over a convent ional retaining wall of the same thickness has revealed tha t an imp rovement
of 100% in resistance to side-thrust is ob tained. An important poin t concerning walls o f this type is the fact that they
are relatively thin; the most substantial examples around the pyramids o f Mazghuneb 1 and South Saqqara 8 are only
1.05m and 0.65m across, whilst the wavy walls used in domestic buildings very often have a thickness equal to the
width of a single brick. 9 This would seem to indicate th at the Egyptians exploye d walls of this form when they wished
10 combine rapid construction with a fair degree of stability. ln the case of the ex tremely t hin walls the wavy construe-
lion wou ld give rigidity to th e brickw ork. just as modern sheet iron is corrugated to improve its strength. The bo nd ing
of such th in walls is Al or Xl , whilst great retaining walls are usually bonded A2 or A3 like thick walls of othe r types.
More varialion in bonding occu rs in the casing-walls o f mastabas and in the lining of tomb-pit s. as show n in th e cha rts
on page 14· 15, 2 1, 24·5 and 33-7.

2. Great Walls,

Cons truction ;11 Lf!I' f'1 Courses of B rickwork.

Brick walls o f fairly massive dimen sions are commo n in Egyptian architec t ure in both secular and religious buildin gs
and throughout Pharaonic times they show great urufc rrnn y in construc tion. TIley are most freque ntly built in A3
bonding. so their internal struct ure consists entirely of headers. In cases where the thickness of the wall is not equal
to an even number o f brick-lengths the bonding is A2, but this change has no real effect on th e mass of brick s in the
heart o f the wall. Probably these bonds were employed so frequentl y because of their simplicity; the fact tha t all the
bricks of the internal work were laid as h eaders would considerably speed up the process o f construction. Go od
examples o f this type of bonding in thick walls are found in th e enclosures of the royal mortuary temples at The bes,
and in the early dynastic " fort" of Hierakonpolts.! ? although in the latter case it is necessary to ignore the palace-facade
panelling.

,,. l ' uu d ly, C.T.• I\~ rlon. F- R. &t We igall, A-E. I'. , Abydar., Ill. JJ &t I'I.Ull .
Pet rie, W.M. t . &. Mach y, L.., Th e L a byrin th. Gu;. .,h &. .ua=llhuneh, !' t. XX XIX. 6. JeQuier, G.,ap. d t . 5S-6.
s. Uq ,u el , ( ;" V eil;( I'Y'amidez rJu M o y en E m p ire. 55 & 1'1. XV. 9. Sole p.95.
ove-n.
,.•• V"'Cc>u IIU, J. & Heve, A .• M ll'giua, 1, 9 7-1 0 1.
!'e lr ie. W.M.I-. &t Macka y. E. , op. d t . 4 1.
10• J. F_ &t G reen. Y.W., H /c,a k o"po Jiz,
11, 10 . Ga n t ang, J.• _4S..tE 8 ( l 'i 0 1), PI~. V·VI.

113
It is common to see bric ks laid on the ir edges, as headers, in various pans of Egyp tian walls; these are not merely
careless irregularities, but are the result o f a deliberate techn ique of adjusting the levels o f the courses. Thi s p rocess is
not restricte d to thick walls, but can be foun d everywhere in Egyp tian bric kwo rk. Sometimes the bricks are tilted over
so as to raise one secti on o f a course more than ano the r.( Fig.74}. Furth er adjustme nt of the levels was made by varyin g

Fig. 74 Ln 'rlling by use o{ bricks 0/1 edge. I


f ]
I

the thickness of the mor tar in the horizontal joints, bu t careful mortaring is only fou nd on the exterior surfaces of the
walls. There is rarely any morta r in the inn er st ruc ture and the vertical joints are often qu ite wide, perha ps to aid d rying
of the bric kwo rk, like the wide, gravel-filled jo ints emp loyed in bond s A12·AI 5. Layers of reed-matting occ u r in walls
built in level co urses, bu t wooden ties arc not so commo n as in the undu lating type o f wall (see below). The Nubian
fort resses, however, are an except ion to this rule, since thei r main walls h ave very exte nsive and regular timbering. I I
TIle occ urrence and distribut ion of reed lavers and woo den beams is discussed more fully in Ch apter 13.
Choisy has suggested 1:1 a complicated proc ess for the construct ion of a th ick wall in level cou rses of brickw or k, in
order to solve the problem of raising the ma terials t o the necessary height with out the use of scaffold ing. The whole
explanation is supe rfluo us, since the workmen would have gained access t o the top of the wall by means of short ramps
of sand or earth, according to the tradit ion al Egyp tian meth od of building,
The const ruc tion of brick pylon s is very similar to that of great walls in terms o f bondi ng, use of reed-ma tt ing, and
the mort aring of the joints (PIA7A), A slo ping face was p roduced by stepping each layer of b ricks back slight ly. and
then smoo thing the surface with plaster, if the pylo n was no t to be cased with stone. The same technique was emp loyed
to fo nn a batt er on the faces of thick walls. exc ept in rare instances in which the bricks were laid at right -angles to th e
slope of th e face. Air passages are occasionally fou nd in walls and pylons. examples being record ed from EI-Amarna J)
and Mirgissa. 14

Construction in Undulating Courses of Brick work.

Several theo ries have been advanced ' Sin an at tempt to exp lain the purp ose of walls built in alternate concave and
convex panels of brick work in place of horizon tal cou rses. Th e majo rity of ex planations have tried to discover a
st ruc tural advantage in this mod e of construction, related to the shrinkage or subsidence of the brickwork . but Barguet
has suggested 16 tha t the technique may have h ad a my thologica l origin. In support of th e latter view it can be sta ted
that walls of this type are found only arou nd cult us-temples, 17 and are n ot used in secular architec ture.P According
to Barguet, th e undulations of the enclosure-wall are a represen tation of th e waters o f th e Nun , in the midst of which
emerged th e primaeval mound. upon which the first temple was built. Consequen tly, the tem ple surrounded by the
wavy wall is, in effect, a model of th e site of Creatio n, Many scholars dislike the explanation of architec tura l forms
by means of the ories based on Egyp tian religion. and prefer to see everyth ing in te rms of structu ral necessity , l \l bu t
is not the whole purp ose and meaning o f an Egypt ian temple based on mythology? The concept of t he temple standi ng
in the midst of the wate rs of the Nun is suppo rted by tex tua l evidence:

He m ade tt, (Kam ak) he created it, he baked it by the f lame u{ his rye into land beside the water. 20

II. See . hnv~ pp. 10 4- 6-


1I . Choi~y . A.• L 'A ,., d t Balj~ .·h H Ir, EO'prir,u, 16· 7 ,
13 , P~ndl.,bu r) . J.n.s. Cit..' of A khrFlarrn, III . 92.
14 . Dun ham. 0 ., S<trond Cara~ac:r F 0rt.l. n. I S7 & PI. LXXXIII ....· B.
15. ('hou y. . ..... L 'A ,., d~ Barf~ clr..z frsl{(yprirlU, ) ) ·9: (' hevr i.,r. J.. Rd~' 16 (1 9 6 4 ), 11·7 ; .... u i., . W,M.F.•
Egy ptian A rc h ir r c tu rr, 10- 2.
16. Bargu.,l. P.• Lr T ttmpl.. D 'Ammr·Rr/i Karnak. J2 .
17. Ex dudinj: m o r lu a r y I.,mples.
1& T h"y O((UI in a b br eviat ed ro -m iFi hous"s o( rh e (j rol 10 fif t h ce n t u r ies A. D. in Ihe F a Yllm,
19 . Set' es pecia lly ChevrIe r. op. ci t.• I b ,
20. Dr ioton , e.. ASAl:'44 (1 94 "), r 14.

114
~.h::::: ~ qj;~Ja~;@ ~~J4':::'- ::'~: =~~]< ';- ~~~, \=~!e
~~ ~ ro?"}'4~';-!~
TIle water and tile earth were ill it fr om the first. Sand came to establish a territory, to create ground.
When it emerged, the land came into ex istence. 21
Conside ring the alternative theory, I set out below an examination of the argumen ts which have been advanced
in favour of there being a struc tu ral purpose in the undulation of these walls.

Theory Objections

1. The wavy form prevents cracks due to shrinkage Cracks still occur (See PJ.48A) If so, why did th e
since the con tr ac tion all occurs at the ends of the Egypt ians no t build all the ir walls this way?
separate panels. 22
2. TIle tech nique prevents the fo rmation of spli ts Wavy walls are foun d on desert sites at Saqqa ra, Dime,
caused by th e unev en rise and fall of the ground & Deir el-Medina , and an example at Philae is foun ded
in the inundation. 23 on bedrock.
3. Construction in panels prevents scaling of the Not true (see Pls.48-9). Also the second obj ection to
face . 24 (1) applies.
4. The wall conno t slip when built on a sloping These walls are fo und on level sites at Aby dos. EI-Kab
site. 2S and Philae.

In addit ion to the abo ve, the existe nce of an un dulatin g wall at Philae 2 6 with fo undat ion cours es of sto ne should
be noted, since this clearly shows that th e technique h ad nothing to do with any specific problems relat ed to brick
construct ion.
A numb er of different styles of undula ting walls can be distinguished, varying in the com plexit y of their design .
The most complete fonn which is best exemplified at Karnak, exhi bit s un dulation of th e brickwork not only along
the face of th e wall, hut also th rough its thickness, in such a manner tha t the concave panels are convex in secti on ,
and vice-versa: 27 (Fig.75). A simp lification of th is type is produ ced when the convex sectio ns of the wall ale replaced
by pane ls of brickwork buill in ord inary hor izontal courses, as sho wn in Fig.76 and Plates 4 8A, 50 A. This sim plifi-
cat ion, which occurs frequently, was ma de purel y for the sake of facilitating the p rocess of construc tion , an d has n o
ch ronological significance.

Fig. 75 Complete fo nn of Undulating Wall.

b
,

r I
Fig. 76 Simplified [orm of wall with Horizontal Section s.

/ I
~
J b
[ jH
,

The enclos ure wall of the temple of Edfu displays mor e severe abbreviation , 28 in which the alternation of concave
and level beds is confined to th e upper par t of the wall, and the lower courses are laid h orizontally, although the

2 1. Ibid.. 11 4 -S. 24 . Pet TIe, W. M. f., l::/fyptill 1l Arc/, itec t " re, 12 . C h ev rie r, B. , A SA E S2 ( 19 5 2). PI.V IIl .
22 . Cho isy , A .. op, clr.. 37-9. 2S. Chois y , A. , ()p_ cit.. 34 -7. Ch o is y , A. , op. cit.• l S .
23 . Ihld.. 3 3-4. 26 . Choi,y , A. , op. ci t.. Ph..l , 1·2 ; ll, l. AI.o C h a.. inat , 1':., E d/ o u, 14 . PI. D C LX X .

115
division o f the brick wor k in to sections is st ill obse rved. Th e latter feature is found in all walls of the undulating type
and it has been suggested that th e co ncave sections we re buil t firs t and allowe d to dry before th e con vex or level
pane ls were added. 19 Thi s explanation is unli kely to be true , otherwise one would expect to fin d the same tec hniq ue
applied to brick con struc tions other than temple enclosure-walls. In fact. it is the und ulat ion of the courses which
imposes th e form ation of the separate panels: a glance at Figs. 75 and 76 will show that it prevents any in te rb onding
of one panel with the next, in eithe r th e complete or the simplified form of the wall. In certain cases, h owever. some
sort of bon ding was achieved by the omissi on of the t ransverse curvature of the cou rses. bUI even so the ap pea rance
of a complete break between the sections was retained in ord er to conform to the stan da rd pattern.
Sometimes the projecting angles o f the concave beds of brickwor k are revett ed with bloc ks of stone. Evidence o f
this prac tice can be seen at Luxor. Dendera, El-Kab an d Ed fu, 30 and it may well have ex isted at many other sit es
originally. Th e purpo se of th e stone wor k was to protect th e co rners f rom dama ge, just as timber baul ks were used
at the co m ers of hou ses for the same reason. 3 1 Th is kind of reinforcemen t was co pied in the New Kingdom tombs
at Th eb es by sett ing burn t bricks int o th e corners o f the walls, although these bri cks were modified to fulfill a deco r-
ative rathe r than a structura l purp ose. 32
Well-buil t ex amp les of undulati ng walls h ave air-passages fro m the face to the hea rt of the mass, connected with
lon gitudinal pa ssages in th e in terior , so as to form a complete system of ventilat ors which promo ted rapid d rying of
the brickwork. It sho uld be noted , however, that th ese air-channels are no t restric ted to walls of thi s typ e. They are
usu ally the hei ght of two bricks and the width of on e, and they occu r at regular interv als in th e wall, as can be seen
in Plates 49A and B.
With regard to bo nding, thes e thick walis Virtu ally always consis t of a centra l mass of hea ders, whilst th e
oute r faces exhibit alternate co urses o f headers and stretchers with ca refully po int ed joints . This is A2 o r A3
bond ing, alt hough it is inevita ble that irre gularit ies occur in such large st ruct ures. Very few wa lls with undulating
co urses diffe r from this bond ; the Rom an teme nos wall at Arman t JJ is bo nded Al B, and some pa rts of the
temple-enclosure at Elep hantine 34 are A I. Brickbats are comm only used as clo sers at th e ends of the separate
panels of brickwork and arou nd the air-channels (PI.49B ).
It is interesting to note that the Egypt ians th emselves considered all walls of thi s kind to be composed en tirely
of headers in ternally, as shown by some references in the Harris Papyrus to th e co nstruction of temple enclosures
by Ramesses III. It is reco rded that the king ha d a wall of twenty dJdJwr bu ilt around the temple o f Hermopolis,as
I!I{! t wt be ing, quite literal ly. the Egyp tian word for headers. The word h as. howe ver. been translated as " co u rses" 36
of a wall, a totall y m isleadi ng ren dering. since it gives the impression of co urses of b ricks laid one over another.
whereas th e (/JdJwr are clear ly stated to be " in the ·fou ndation. upon the ground.'·37 Obviou sly then , the measure-
ment referes to th e thickness of th e wall. an d means that the foundat ion course was twenty brick-lengths across.
that is some B.40m. 38 Th is is a perfectly reasonable th ickness fo r a te mple enclosure-wall. The im portan t po int is
that the Egyp tians meas ured great brick walls in terms of headers. since these ma de up th e bulk of the struct ure.
The use of timber ties and reed-mat ting, which is found in walls of the un du lating type as well as in other brick
con structions, is discussed in Chapter 13.
It is difficult to estima te the leng th of time which wou ld have been requ ired to build an enclos ure wall of 10m or
m ore in th ickn ess, although it cannot have been very great, considering that Nectanebo I bu Ut suc h walls at Karnak ,
Luxor, Philae and possibly also at Hermop olls an d numerou s site s in the Delt a. At Karnak , some parts of the ancie nt
enclo sure have been rest ored in m od ern time s accord ing to the or iginal design. in undulating co u rses. 3 9 The recons-
truc tio n o f the wall from the Ten th Pylon 10 the South-weer angle o f the en clo sure, a distance equal to approxim ately
one-tent h of th e extent of the entire wall, occ upied only a part of a single season's work. The. anci ent builde rs. wit h
a larger labou r force working for longer hou rs. could easily have co mplete d the enclosure of Karn ak in eigh teen
mon ths. and may have only req uired one year. exclud ing the time needed fo r the manu factu re of the bricks.

3. Brick W31ls of Moderate Size.

This cate gory includes the commo n gene ral-purpose walls such as ma y be observed in all spheres of Egyptian
architecture. Through out the Dynastic period the usual for m of bonding is Class A. bu t different systems occur
later, as ex pla ined in Chapter 14. It is impossible to give a comprehensive account of the uses and st ructure of these
walls; the main po in ts only will be no red here, and the details will be found in the architectural survey which forms
Part Two of th is study. Ge neral ly spe ak ing, th e walls o f ordina ry houses are not as subs tantial as those fo und in th e
various fo rms of adm inistrat ive or o fficial buildings , in which wall th ickn esses of be tween I an d 2m are common.
29. Ptlrie. EgYP, /oli A re llftecnl f'f!. 12. 35 . I'opyrus Harri~ I. St!. S. d . S7. 11 a nd S9. 2.
30. SI!(! a bove. "'1". 74 . 78. 8 1. l (l. W b.• V. 532.
3 1. See be lo w. .... 13:2. 37 . Papyrus Harr is I. 58. $.
32. S~e bdow. p . t4 0. 38 . T his mea' l.I .e m~n t i, baw d nn b.i ~ h - ra cm r" " g. l )" ri ~al o r m onu m ent, l
.33. M"nd. R.• & M)" ~ r '. O .H .• T tmp /t's of An"",,', t 3. bl.lild in~. a l Ih i' d u l ~ .
34 . Homo th . W., ZAS 4fJ ( 190'1). rs. Ab b. l 5. 3Y. C h~ " i"r, H.• A SA £ 4 '1 ( 1949 ). ) ·4 &. 1'1.IV.

11 6
Howeve r, walls of this size also occur in large mans ions, such as those of Amama , and in th e late houses of K aranis
and Dime. Some thick walls are foun d in the state-planned wor kers' villages, but th ese are th e main divisions bet ween
different areas of th e town, and are common to many houses. Apart from these special eases, m ost domestic brick
walls are only 1.5 to 2.0 brick -lengths across, that is about 4 5-6 5cm. Thin walls are also found in m any adm inistrative
and official buildings, hut often they are of m ore solid const ruction, especially th e exterior walls, whi ch regularly
att ain a thi ckness approach ing t wo m et res. The palaces of Medinet Habu and the Ramesseum 40have walls this size,
but in the late r palace of Apries at Mem phis," ! wh ere m ore emphasis was place d on secu rity , the walls are commo nly
over 4m thick.
Cert ain town walls in Egyp t were of quite modest dimensions and cannot have been intend ed to form strong
defences. This is tr ue of the Old- and New-Kingdom walls of Elcp handn e,"? which were bet ween I and 2m acr oss,
and of the New Kingdom wall of Edfu,43 which h ad a thickn ess of 1.95m. II is interesting to not e that the only town
wall of a clear de fensive nature at th is site belongs to the Graeco- Roman period. 44
All general purpose b rick walls are co nstructed in horizon tal cours es, th e system of alternate co nvex and co ncave
sections being reserved for temple enclosu res. One class of bu ild ings forms an excep tion to thi s rule, n amely cer tain
houses of the first to fifth cen turies A.D., m ostl y in to wn-sites of the Fayum: H alt hough a few ex amples are repor ted
at Elephan tine. 46 1n these h ouses the exterior walls arc frequently built in co ncave co urses of brick wor k. but th ere
is no part icular alternat ion of separa te panels, and no co nvex sect ion s occur. The reason fo r the use of thi s t echnique
in these bu ild ings is in all probability due to mere imita tion of a fo rm which was considered to be tradition ally Egyptian ,
the original purpo se having been for gotten by this extr emely late dat e. The fact th at co ncave beds are employed h ere
in secular buildi ngs does not prove that th ere was a structu ral reason for this mo de of co nstruction, since th e argum ents
set o ut ab ove on this matt er (p age 115) arc still valid, and fu rth ermor e, these hous es are th e only ex amples of secular
buildin gs with walls of this ty pe.
Anoth er feature of the Graeco-Roman ho uses of th e Fayum is the great quan tit y of timber reinforcement in
the brickwork, 47in contrast to th e limit ed use of wood for this purpose in earlier domestic buildings. Details
of the usc of wood, reeds and plaster are given in Chapt er 13.
Poor-quality co nstruct ion is common in med ium-t hickness walls, in all kind s of buildings. In many cases, the
heart of the wall is compo sed of ha ph azardly laid bricks, with the irregular gaps fi lled with mu d or raj l , whilst
the outer faces display a neat alterna tio n of header and stretcher co urses . Good exa mples of th is careless ma nner
of bu ild ing occu r in th e Solar Temple of Userka f at Abu Gurab,48 and in the North-Western sto rehou se at the
Ramesseum (see P1. 53A). Originally , of course, any defici encies of th e brickwork were hi dden by a coa t of
whiten ed plaster, which was very seldo m omitted fro m Egyp tian bric k co nstructions.

4. Palace-Facade Panelling.

The mos t widespread use of panelled walls occurs in build ings of the Archaic Period. especially the brick
mastab as of the Fi rst Dynasty. but revivals of the same architect ural device are foun d in lat er tim es, from the
Old Kingdom to the late Perio d. Th ere are a num ber of different style s of p anelling, of which the mo re complex
forms are th e earlier, whilst [he la ter ex amples sh ow conside rable simpli fication. The layout of th e large nich e in
buildings of vario us dates co nform to the plans shown in the list below, where five different types are distinguished:

Form of Main Niche Monuments

Naqada Tom b ;Saqqara Tom bs 2405, 3035, 3506 ; Tarkhan Mastaba 1060 ;
Giza Mestaba T; Hierakonpoli s Palace.

Soqqora Tom bs 3357, 2185, 3471, 3503, 3504 ; Giza Mastaba V; Tarkhan
Mastabas 2038 , 20 50.

40. U., F .M.H. , Ill. so. 79 .


H c; l s d' ~ r.
41. l'clri~ ,W. M.I'., Th~ Palace of Ap rie,~ 1'1.!.
42. Jat iv . H.. MD[K 16 (1970), 91 -4.
4 3. Mich a low . k i. K.. Tell F:d!ou. JIl ( 19 J 9 ). 10 4-6 & Pla ns n-ut.
44. ib id.• Plan s IV· V.
4S. T1<lak. A.E .K ., Karimi.•. 1924-8, 13, 46. & Pis. XV]] . X XX IV. X X XVI.
46. Ha~oy, G .• MDIK 26 (1970), 129-JO .
47. See abov e . page, 99-1 0 0 .
48. Ricke. H. , Das S",,,,,.nh~ iIiKtllm ae s Knn igs Us~rkaf. I. pla n 6 .

117
Form of main niche Monuments

Si1qqaTa Tom bs 3038, 3 ] I I . 3505. 3507. 3036 (sh allow niches) ;A bu ROQsh
VII; Heiwan 1374.H2.

A by dos: Shun et ez-Zeb ib and Middle Fort ; Giza: Cour tyards of the
Fun erary Temple and Valley Temple o f Mycerinus.

South Saqqara: Court of Funerary Temple of Shepseskaf. (North wall only,


other walls are ty pe D.)

There is very little difference betwe en types A and B. th e plans being identical except for the alte rat ion in the width
of the central recess. Both these forms are used in the early part of the First Dynasty . and type A recurs in the revival
of palace-facade in the Thi rd Dyna sty. The layout shown under C is found .in bu ildings of the middle and lat e First
Dynast y. and is a simplification o f the earlier types, omitting th e small nich es in the sides o f th e outer recess. Furt her
simplificatio n takes place in 0 and E, in which the style o f the main recess is reduced to a large compound niche.
Certain exam ples of palace facade are no t included in the list since th ey are formed ent irely of sim ple niches,
.....'ith out the deeper recesses described above. This simple panelling is found as early as th e First Dynasty on the West
side of Tomb 3505 at Saqqa ra,49 and in small tombs in provincial cemeteries, such as 1514 at Naga ed-Der. 50 later
examples occu r in the Fune rary Palaces of Abydos. a num ber of Fou rth Dynasty mastabas at Meydu m, Third Dynasty
mastabas at Reqaqnah and EI· Kab, Old Kingdom tombs at Dendera and the mor tuary temples of Mycerinus and
Shepseskaf. Simple pan elling also appea rs at a much later period in the great brick-bu ilt tom bs of the Twenty-Sixth
Dynasty at Thebes. 5 1
The history of this ty pe of architectu re is, th erefore, a process of gradual simplification, the most co mplex panellin g
occ urring in the First Dynasty, with a transito ry revival in th e Thi rd.
Despite th e fine appearance of th e palace facade o f the First Dynasty mastabas, th e arrangement of the brickwo rk
of the niches is freq uently qu ite irregula r, the defec ts being hidden by the plaster coat on the surface . A typical
example of the brick work of a large niche is given in Plate XV of Tarkhan /I by W.M.F.Petrie. Emery 's diagrams of
recessed panelling in the Saqqara mastabas , 52 however, are full of inconsistencies, caused by an attempt to d raw an
ordered bond rath er th an adm it the prese nce of irregulari ties.
Special bricks o f very sm all size were used in some of the panelled masta bas of the archaic period in order to ease
the process of niche construction. These are fully described in Chap ter 15. The ext erior coat of plaster, on which
the fine ap pearance of the facade largely depe nded, was decora ted in ea rly times, b ut the la ter examples were left
plain.
In th e discussion of the metrology in Appendix I an att emp t is made to discover the unit of measuremen t used in
the constru ction of the palace-facade, since one would exp ect such a regular system to be laid out in sta nda rd
proporti ons.
I have deliberately avoided any discussio n of the or igin of palace facade archi tecture in Egypt, since this topic
has been dealt with elsewhere, 5) and does no t belong in a st ructu ral study of this kind.

49. E mer~ , G"IH Tom hs of rlt.. F lnr D)'nany, Il l. 8 &. 1'1.2.


50. Reisn u , G.A ., N ag,. ed. De" I. 45 & 1'1. 77.
5 1. Donldo n i, S., 8SFE 6 1 (J une. 1971). 18-2$ & PIIR- Als o Lecjan t , J ., Orie"rlllla. 4 1 ( 1972). Pis. XX·X XL
52. Emu)', W.B., G"lJr T"mbz "t rh.. First Dy",uty. II, I J 1·2.
5J . Bl l c ~ H.. MD1K 1 (1930 ), 3 1·92. Wolf. '10'•• Z AS 6 ' (19 31). 129--13 1. Pel rie, W.M.L, TIJ~th,.n. 11, 1· 9.

118
CHAPTER TEN : FLOORS AND FOU NDATIONS

The sim plest ty pe of brick floo r consists of a single laye r of ordinary bricks laid in even rows upo n th e gro und
surface, as headers. with all the join ts in line.(Fig.77). Such floors occur at all pe riods in Ancient Egyp t, in all
classes of build ings. Less frequently, the bricks are laid o n their edges, but the arran gement is still the same . As
a genera l rule the brickwork is co vered with a layer of mu d plast er. over which there is usually a thinner wash of
white gypsum .

Fig. 77 HooTof headers:

Anoth er kind of floo r is tha i formed of th in. square bricks. moulded specially for the pu rpose . These paving-
slabs are almost exclu sively found in adminis trative or offi cial buildings, although th ey can OCCUf in the mansions
of the rich, such as the house of the v lzrr Nakht at El-Amama. Good examples of floors of this type: have been
recor ded in the following buildings:

Location Brick Size (em) S",e above , p

Palace of Se ti II , Hermopolis. 40 x40 84


Stores of Seti I, Abydos. 44x 44x I6 85
Police barracks, Amarna. 35 x 38.5 84
House of Nakh t, Amaroa . 94
Stores at Ramesseum . .w x40 86
Palaces & Adm in. Buildings, Med inet Habu. 43x 43x6 87
XXll nd. Dyn. h ouses, Medin et Habu . 40x 40x 7 98
Admin. buildin gs & str eets, Buhen. Shalfak
& Mirgissa. 30 x 30 (Sh alfak) 84
Tem ple of Amenh otep, son of Hapu,
Western Thebes. I 40 x 34 x 9

The large size of these bricks and th eir thin ness shows that th ey mu st h ave been laid with co nside rable care, to
avoid b reakage. Th ey were laid on a bed of sand an d covered over with plaster. Th e paving t iles in the fort resses at
Buhen, Mirgissa an d Shalfak differ fro m the o ther exa mples given above in that they are forme d of burn t brick in
place of sun-dried m ud, the reason for th is being that they were employed to pave st reets an d unroo fed rooms an d
were, therefore, exp osed to the weather an d to considera ble wear.
Burnt bricks o f ordinary propo rtions were frequen tly used in Doors of the Roman period, bu t not exclusively so ,
since two instances of lite use o f th is material at Medinet Habu da te from the Twen ty-First to Twenty -Second
Dynasties. 2 The Rom an burn t brick floo rs are usu ally formed in th e tr aditi onal simple manner (Fig.77) but occasionally
a m ore co mplex " herringbone" pattern is found.) (Fig.78) Even at this late peri od , man y floo rs were still co nstruc ted
of mu d-bricks in exa ct ly the same way as in earlier times, although the advan tages of bum t bric k in resistance to
wate r led to its use in all places subject to excessive damp, such as the pu blic baths in Graeco- Ro man lowns. 4
The re are really only three type s o f brick fl oor to be distinguished : (1) a simple layer of h eaders, (2) square paving
tiles, an d (3) brick s laid in a " herringbone" patt ern . but the first two alte rnatives can occu r in either m ud- or burnt-
brick. The table belo w sets ou t the chro nological distinction bet ween the types on th e basis of present evide nce:

Arrangement . Dale.
Mud brick :

Even ly-laid headers. 5 All periods.


Square tiles. Dyn . XVIII, XIX, XXII.
1. Ro bic hon . Co & Varillc . A.• .A. "h·" 'H1 t~1' fiZSd e Iltl.POIl. 38 & PI.I X. 4. Sec ahov c, 1'1'. 9 1·2.
z, Ho l:w: her. U.• E.,H.H•• V. S. 8. S. T hese hea ders may be lai d flal or o n t heir e d~ es.
3. Bad a wy . A.. . A SA C 4 6 (1 94 7 ). 3 67. Iho: rortn er helnt m ore com m o n.

119
Arra ngement. Dare.

Bum ! brick:

Evenly-laid head ers. Dyn. XXI. XXII and Graeco-Romaa.


Bricks in "herrin gbone" pa ttern. Roman .
Squa re tiles. Middle Kingdom.

Fig. 78 floor of bricks wid in "h erringbone" pattern: I


I I
L; I
U
"-1 I-
l-

In the m ajority o f Egyp tian architecture, very little att ention was given to the preparat ion of good foundatices,
neither in ma sonry nor in brickwork. Small brick walls were mos t frequently built directly on the grou nd surface.
which received no preparation other than levelling. Walls o f more massive dimensions, including the great encl oseres
of th e temples. were provided with only slightly better foundati ons. consisting of a bed o f sand in a shall ow trenci:...
In some cases, an appar ent fou nda tion was cre ated by raising the level of th e floo r withi n the bu ilding. and ther. ~.
burying the lowest co urses o f the walls. This tech nique was used in the m ortu ary tem ple of Mycerinu s at Giza. ~
the levelling o f the 1100r wi th rubble has buri ed th e walls to a dep th otbetwcen one and seven courses .6 L'sually t:.~
fou ndation layer of bricks in walls of Pharaon ic age co nsists of headers on edge, or , less frequently, of ordinary
hea ders.
Occasion ally, the solidity was improved by the use of stone for the lower courses o f the walls, as occurs in ~
of the houses in th e workers' village at Deir el-Medin a. 7 bUI as th is stonework is above ground it cannot be daN"=-
as a true foundati on. This is also true o f the sto ne courses which fa nned the base of th e temple-enclosure wall at
Philae.8 Gran ite rubble was used as a foundation fo r th e walls of the Nub ian fort resses," wherever th e brickwo rk
did not rest directly on the bedrock; this would prevent any attempt to mine the walls. In late times bu rn t brick
co uld be used for foundations; it occurs in the lower cou rses of a Roman wall in the temple (If Mut at Karn ak. to
an d in th e founda tio ns of Coptic houses at Medinet Habu. I I
Mud brick was regularly emp loy ed 10 construct found ations for th e co lum ns of st on e buil dings, the base of e~
col umn resting on an ind ividua l pier o f brickwork. These piers arc USUAlly sq uare, as in the palaces o f Ramesses m
and Ay at Medinet Habu, 12 but circular ex amp les have been discovered at Malgata, North-West of Karnak. 13 Their
size is natu rally adjusted to suit the diamet er of the column bases which they sup por t, the h rick foundatio n being
rathe r wide r th an the base.
More elab orate examples o f brick fo undations bene ath stone buildin gs are found in the cellular plat forms v.itid;.
wer e built 10 suppor t small peripte ral temples. Th ese platfonns are composed o f a mass o f bric kwork containing
gravel- filled co mpartments. so as to create an elevated podium, which was, in a number of cases. approached by oeaIi
of a ramp. A number o f foundat ion-platfo rms of this kind have been excavated in Egypt . but their tru e na tu re ius
always been recognised, and they have been mistak en for storeh ouses! " or le ft unex plained , although Petrie corrects
ident ified one example at Hu as long ago as 190 1,l s During recent excavatio ns at Saqqara, tt'in which several fou= ~
of this type were discovered, th eir purpose bas been further clarified, since fragments of insc ribed lime ston e were -
in the filling o f th e compartm ents in the brickwork, proba bly from the stone chapel which th e structure supported,
Final pro o f of th e natu re of these. brick platforms is found at Karnak and EI-Kab, where the rema ins of a small pe"".~;,_~_,..
chapel still stan d upon a fo undatio n of cellular b rickwor k. 11 Only eight exa mples of this type of foundation are
to me, 1 S at the following sites.

6. Retsrl<!r,Myetrinu1 91 . t3. ChC'vrier. H., A SAE 4 6 (I'M n, I S7 &. PI. XL VII .


7. Uru yrre. 8., lNl" d·.u~dlnf!11. 19 J 4-S ,28. 14. Bescn de La RoquC'" F., .' ll:01',"IO,,,J, 192 7, 7·' ~ s: PU .
8. Cho isy. A. , L ·A "' J~ 8Qri"cllf!: If!st:gyptitms, I'ls. 1· 11, 1. IS. re l rie. W.M.F. , Diosp o!u/'a""" SS· 6 & I'1.XX IV.
9. D unh am, [}.. S<,co ,ld Car" rocr Forn, J, S. I t4 : II, ~ I. HI. Mar lin. GoT., J EA S9 (19 73 ). s-t s . ClI peciall y p. 1 1 s. Fii/-L
I O. see p . HO. 17. Var lUe, A.. Kumal<, t, n . Ca r arl , J.. Foul/Ii.'! <if! F/- Ka b · 00_ _•
11. Hols ch"r , U.. E.M.H. .V,45. I II. Ano t he r po osible e xa m ple " the S1fuct ure at Td l t>! ·M.u kbc.u.
12. Ibid. . ve l, n, 8 1; III . 4 ~. chlm .... "'.. by N l vill <! in Till: Sro "..City of Pit /ill",.

120
Trois see abo ve, p. 7 1
Saqqa ra (3 exam ples) 72
Hu (Diospolts) 79
Medamud 79
Karnak, Mon ru tem ple-area. J?
fJ. Kab 7S

The b rickwork of these stru ctures is in each ease well-laid, and ther e is no communica tion between the comp art men ts
within it. AI Tanis, Mcdamud, Karnak and EI-Kab there were ramps 10 the top of the platfor m to give access to the
chapel. Al Saqqara, the build ings sta nd on a slo ping site, and it has been sta led20 that th is necessitate d the p reparation
of elaborate foundations. but this does no t explain the presence of similar structu res on sites where the ground is level.
The real in tention of the brick platform was to elevate the buildin g which stood up on it, as Egypt ian peripteral temples
were usually raised above the ground and approach ed by ram ps.
Cellular plat for ms of brick, of a slight ly dif ferent kind from those discussed above, were used as foun dations for
military cam ps at Deffeneh, Naukrans and Memph is. Here again the fou ndation was used to elevate the bu ild ing, so
that the living quarters, raised several metre s ab ove the ground, would be more defensible. The lower pari of the
structure consisted of a block of brickwork, with interna l comp artments, some of which were gravel-filled, whilst
others in contrast to the foundations of pertpte ral chapels, which were always filled up solid . were domed over and
used as store-cellars. A struc tu ral descrip tion o f these military camps h as already been given in Chapter 8 (p p.106-7).
It should be noted that all the examples of cellular platforms so far known belong t o Late-Period or Graeco-Rom an times.
Exte nsive u se was made of brick in Ihe foundati ons o f te mples from Sajte times onwards 10 build a retaining-wall
around the sand bed upo n which the te mple stood. The preparation of the site was carried ou t as follows: first , a
great rectangular pit was excavated and its sides were lined with a thick wall of mu d-brick; the enclosed space was
then filled up wit h sand. over which were placed several courses of sto ne block s, 10 form a platform for the temple.
Several foundations of th is kin d have bee n found by excavation, especially ill the Delta, where the destruction of
the temples has left the ir subst ruct ures ex posed. A pa rt icularly good ex ample has recently been discovered at
Mendes, 21 with a buttressed brick lining-wall aroun d the foun dation sand, but the technique was not rest rict ed to
the Delta, since it occ urs at the temple o f Deir el-Medina at Thebes.22 Other examples have been found at Gemerye mt,
Ncbcsheh and Tukh el-Oaramus (p p.72 and 77 ). The following text, fro m the temple o f Edfu, would seem to
Indicate that th is metho d of founding a temple was the standa rd rule in Late times:

" He excavated its foundat ion as far as the water, it being filled up with sand according to the rule, being cons tructed
of sandston e as an excellent work fo r eternity.,,23

The temples of earlier periods do not have this deep subst ruct ure, and b rickwo rk was not no rmally em ployed in
their foundations, A small amo unt of brick was used beneath the te mple of Ramesses 1I1 at Medinet Habu fo r the
purpose of lining the wall t renches to prevent th e collapse of their sides prior to the layin g. of the stone blocks of
the found ation. 24 ( Fig.79)

Fig. 79 Foundations ill tile TCI11/" e of


Mcd inl'! Habit.

Brick ret aining


~.S,"d
Wal~
Native soil
An exceptionally solid mass o f brick work was found to underlie the pavement o f the North gate o f the precincts
of Amun at Karnak, going down to a depth of eleven courses belo w th e floor.2SMost of the se b ricks were laid
19 . Va rlllc. o p. rtf.. 3 3.
20- Mart in, C'.. T.. I F-A 59 (1 9 ' 3 ), 11.
2 1. Hd 'lS....' . I). P•• 1.4R CE: 6 (1 961). 6-' &. M l-IJ. I X. 1.
22. flru yer e_ a , Dr/, d·Medl,wl~ 19 3 5-4 0, flL.c..l , 4 4.52·
23. Cl1assinllt, E.• f.·dIOl•• l 23 . 4- S.
14. l liilst her. U., F..M. H.• IV. 3 1.
2 5. C hr i, Il>l' hc, 1... Kd mak.·NonJ, 11 1, 12-3 & PIs. XX XI · XX XV I.

12 1
parallel to th e axis of th e gateway. as headers or on their edges, but irregularities were common and some courses
consisted only of a layer of broken bricks. 26
In conclusion, it may be stated once more th at the majority of Ancient Egyptian buildings had inadequate found-
atio ns. It is important to note that those foundations which are solidly constructed, such as occur beneath the temples
and fortified camps of th e Late Period. were not the result of a desire to create a firm base for the building, but were
really mot ivated by myth ological o r military considerations.

26. Ibid. . PIs.XX XII- XXXIV.

122
CHAPTER ELEVEN: ARCHES, VAULTS, DOMES AND CORBELS

Arches and Vaul ts:

The earliest exam ples of the usc: of brick vaults in Egyp t occ ur in th e subsidi ary graves of tomb 3500 at Sa qqara,
(p age 10) in which the substruc tures are roo fed by vau lting of type d I. Furt her exa mples o f th is kind o f vault are know n
fro m the Archaic Period in tombs at Beil Khallaf Ip age 23) and Rcqaqn ah (p age 23) and many d l vault s occu r in the funerary
archi tect ure of th e Old Kingdom. This type of vaulting must be one o f the longest-lived arch itectural fo rms ever devised,
since it was in comm on use fro m the First Dynasty down 10 the Coptic perio d. True arches seem to have co me in to use
late r th an the inclined vault; the earliest well-att ested ex amples are foun d in tombs of the Third Dyna sty at Beit Kha lla£,
Reqaqn ah and Saqqara, and the bonding in all these cases is type c1 (pages 23-4) . There is a faint possibility thet an arch may ,
have been employ ed in tomb T.23 at Naqada, but th e only evidence for this rests on a b rief note in Petrie's field records,
and it would be rash to infer that the arch was knuwn in Predynastlc umes. I
The use of bo th arches an d vault s increased greatly aft er the close of the Archaic Period, becoming widespread in
the to m bs of the Old Kingdom. Arches in the form of 3n arc of a circle occur for th e first lime at Giza, 2 where they
are used to form a support for th e sp ringing of t wu parallel vault s (Fi g.SO). Such arch es are o f type cl, but they are
composed o f specially shaped bric ks which produce parallel ribs along the soffi I of th e arch, in imitation of earlier
building materials. In the to mb o f Sabef 3 the re was an unusual vault over the chapel. fo rmed of inlerlocking bricks
assembled in dl bonding, as sho wn in Fig.8L AU the different forms of bricks used in the se to mbs are described in
Chapter 15.
Fig.80 vautts ~prullg from arch ill Tomb oft n t at GUll.

--
I. Kemp, B-J. , J e ll S9 (1 973 1, 4 1-1 &. ns.a.
2. J U ll k~r,II. , GiZa, V, 156 · 9 ; I X, 142-3. Badawy , A. , III A bu · BukT. A.M. , Ex ,""" atiQlu a t Giza, 194 9- 5 0 , 12 9· 3 1.
J. f"i,h ~t, C. , T ilt M I"" , C"me~,>, at C'Z<l. 11 4 -9 &. 1'1, . 17-9 .

[23
Fig.8 l vaun of special bricks in the Tomb ol Sabel at Giza.

I
I

Later in the Old Kingdom there was a tendency to construct thick arches and vau lts in bo th the substructu re and
superstruc ture of la rge mastab as, examp les being recorde d at Saqq ara, Dara, Dcndera and elsewhe re. These vaults are
somet imes built in ext or cd I bonding, although the simple c l and d 1 remain the most COmIOOll. Details of the chron-
ology of the different bo nds are reserved for Chapt er 14.
Large relieving arches are fou nd in the royal pyramids o f the Midd le Kingdo m, and in som e of the large p rivate
tombs of the same period. 4 In many cemete ries, brick vaults were u se-d independently to roo f the b urial cham bers.
as at Qatt ah and Ed fu. S Small graves very frequently have an arched covering for the substr ucture. oa t only in the
Middle Kingdom, but at all periods from the Old Kingdom to Roman times. These bu rial vaults are usually built in
el , d I or x l bon ding, and show little variatio n fro m on e site to ano ther , al though some of the lat er exam ples are
const ructed of bum t brick,
Despit e t he pop ularity of rock -cut tombs in the New Kingdom b rick vaults were st ill in common use, especially in
the Cemeter ies o f Deir el-Medina and Dira abu'l Naga. 6 It is in the New Kingdom , also. when we lind more evidence
o f vaulting in other fields of arch itec ture. such as administr ative buildings, palaces and small chapels, alth ough it does
not become common in domestic buildings un til the Ramesside period. The small number of examples of vault ing from
non-funerary archi tecture prior to the New Kingdom do es not necessarily mean th at none existed, since it is probably
due to the poor state of prese rvation of these early monuments. That the vault was in use in these buildings is shown by
the vaulted reefing o f the Causeway at the Mastabat el-Fara'un, 7 and the vaulted chapel at the Sou th Pyramid o f
Mazghuneh.f Vault s were also employed, to a limited extent , in domestic buildi ngs of the Middle Kingdo m .11 Kahun .9
From the later New Kingdom onwards the use of b rick arches and vaults greatly increased in all types o f buildi ngs.
The tombs o f the Late-Period at Abydos have large vaulted ch ambers. sometimes ...vi th multip le vaults set one over the
ot her. lo Creat arches occur in the Saite to mbs at Thebes. built in cd l or cx2 bo nding, and several courses in thickness
(PI.4 7B). Vaulted roo fing becomes comm on in domestic architect ure in the late Dynastic period , and is even more
widespread in Graeco-Roman and Coptic times, as exemplified by the houses at Karanis, Dime, Medin ct Jlabu and
Edfu. l l
Pr act ically all the arche s and vault s in Egyp tian b uildings are semicircular or cate nary vault s. Pointed arches are rare
before the Byzantine period, the only kno wn examples from dynastic times being found at Esna and Edfu (pp. 37 and
48). Instances of the cons truc tion of arches of a very Oat cu rve are more common ; they are employ ed in Old Kingdom
mastabas at Giza, a to mb o f the New Kingdom .1 1Thebes, t 2 and at the te mp le of' Det r el-Medina, although this last
example is really a vault (PU2A).

4. ocnen. J•.I::.. F...." a'·arioru at S<Jqqara, 190 5·6 . 26· 7 & },I.XX I.
s. S ~" ahov<" pp, 4 0 & 4 t.
6. see a b o ve . P l'. 4 6-4 :' &. PI. 46 H.
7_ J eq uier, G_. t t MastlJlNl r FII~IW" "- 20 &. PI.X , 2.
8. Peu i", W.M-. ·. & Ma Cka y, E.., Th o! L llb )'ri"rll, Gf!I'' Uh & M a: Kh" " t l l, 4 8.
9. Perrte, W.M.F. Kallll'J. G" mh a"d UIJ "'<J~a, 23.
10 . G U"<Ia ng. J•• I:..'
A rabal~ 2 1 & 1'1. XXX V.
I I. S<'t' a bove. p".99- tO l .
12 . No r lh:t mplo fl, £ :UII.'lItiO'lsln lilt Tllt/lQJI N uropo(u. 14·S &. PI.X IV.

124
Thin bricks were normally empl oyed for vaults of types d l and x l , and by the New Kingdom th ey were mad e with
one side slightly longer than the other. so as to ach ieve the necessary wedge-form. 13 Th e bond d 2 also req uire d thin
bric ks. but these had a greate r breadth than u sual, becoming almos t square in shap e, whil st broad. curved bric ks were
used fo r th e vault e I . However, curved or wedge-shaped bricks occu r far less frequentl y than th e ordina ry recta ngular
form, and con sequ ently mos t Egyptian arch es exh ibit wide gaps between th e br icks on th e ou tside of the curve, these
spaces being filled up with stones or potsherds..
It is not true to say that the Egypti ans did not use any kin d o f temporary centring in th e construction of arches
and vaul ts. Only th e d l and d2 forms of vault could be built with ou t cent ring, since the incli nation of th e bricks
from th e vertical caused a large pro po rtio n of th e weigh t of each brick to rest upon the previous co urse. rath er than
act downwards. Conseq uently the bricks wou ld be held in place by th e cohesion of the mud mortar long enough
for eac h course to be co m plet ed. In order to build a vault of this type. it would be necessa ry to provide somethi ng
for the inclined rings o f brickwork to rest upon at the end of the vault. It see ms most likely that a ro ugh wall would
have bee n built fo r this purpose, which cou ld have been easily removed on com pletion of the vau ltin g. 14 (Fig.82).
In the case of a vault intended to roof an internal roo m or a cellar the pro blem does not arise. sinc e the courses of
bricks woul d rest on th e walls of th e room, as shown in Plates 55A · B. Many vault ed passages ma ke use o f a differen t
system, in which an arch is used to suppor t the inclined vault . I S The arch is freq uen tly built in cl bon ding, whi ch
would requ ire cen tri ng, bu t it enab les the whole of the long d 1 vault to be constructed without tem porary support
(F ig.83) . Good examples of thi s method of building are found in the entrance tun nel of the Osireion at Abydos, 16
and in the tom b of Adu at Dendera, 17 bu t many o thers could be quoted .

Fig..82 tnciined Vault built against supporting wall. Fig.B3 Inclined Vault built againu arch

11\
II

The fac t tha t the inclined type o f vault co uld be built with out recourse to tem po rary centring led to its use in
the arra ngements bdl and cd l , in which the u pper rings of headers were supported du ring co nstruc tion by th e leanin g
cou rses below (P1.J 9) . There are certain cases where lt seems likely that even the d l type o f vault had tempo rary
centring, due to th e large span to be co vered. or to the adoption of a fairly low curve for th e vault . For th is reason,
it would have been impossib le to build the roof of the Mammisi at Deir el-Medina with ou t suppor t for th e b ricks, 18
and th e same applies to the vaul ting in the m ort uary temple of Amenhot ep, son of Hapu, where the span was 7.70 Ill. 19
It is certa in th at a centring of wooden beams was empl oy ed in the en tr ance h all of the temp le of Belt el-walt , 20and in
the palace of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu, 2 I because th e marks of the beams still sho w where they were let in to the
walls, hut th e form of th e vaulting u sed in these buildings is not certain . However, th e 6 m span of the vault at Beit
el-Wali, to gethe r with its profile, (the ou tline can still be seen on the rear wall] suggest that it was of the inclined form ,
this being th e type o f vault most commo nly used over wide spans in Dyna stic times. The largest spa n known occurs
in the Roya l Stables at Medinet Habu 22 (8.60m) and ano th er vault o f only sligh tly less size was used in the temp le
of Amenh otep. so n of Hapu, men tion ed above.
In all th e types of arches and vaults in which lea ning cou rses were n ot emp loy ed cent ring was an absol ute necessity.
For small arches, such as are co mmon over doo rways. this su ppor t could quite easily have been m ade of wood . but
for large arched t unnels and gate ways it was m ore eco nomical to use earth centring. Evidence of thi s process is found
at El-Kab, whe re an arched gate way in the enclosure wan is still blocked by the earth centring placed there at the lime
of its co nst ruction. 23 Probably this technique was extremely co mmo n. especially in domestic and funerary arc hitectur e.
Petrie believed it to ha ve been used in hou ses at Wahun ,24 and it may also h ave served fo r the construct io n of the great
arched tunnel in Mastaba M at Dara. 2s
13. Bru yer e, B.. V"'rrJ.Mrdi"r/~ 19 34- 5. 25, filt-1. 18. Sell Pta ee S2A.
(T he curV3lu"" or rbese brleM l'I n<'Ver 3 5 great "-~ shown). 19. Ro bic hon, C. & Vlnl l" , A., Amen h otep [ibde Hapoll. 36 & PI. XI.
14. Sec C hnj~y, A. , L 'Arr.fr Bari, cI,e: le$ E.,yp tiens, 4 2. 20. Ric ke, 1-1., Well te, E. F. & HUj:he", G. R.• B rit el. lI'aU, I. 2, PI.I S.
IS. Ibi d., ~ l\. 2 1. HOlsc he r. U., s.u n; til , PI. 26 ; IV, 29.
16. F'ra nkf nr l. H., Cr Il Ol oll" l o! Sr rl1. 13-4 . 22. ihid., IV , I S.
11. l'e lTi." \V. M. l"., D r",Jr ".II , &-9 an d fru n l i!lpicce . 23. Som ers Clar ke, JI:'A 1 ( 192 I ), 69 .
Fur d., laih o f ind in "d va ul15 •.,e FRl h y, H. , Gouma: A T alr of 24. Pd . ie, W. M. F . , Kalll"~ G u'o b 1/'1<1 H I/WI/' ll, 23.
T wo Vir/agel, 16·1) &. I'ls. 7· t S. 2 5. Weill . R., et al , D,,~ 119.

125
Most Egyptian vaults were spru ng fro m ordinary brickwork, and it is onl y in Roman tim es th at burnt bricks were
used as a springing fo r mud- brick vaults, 1 6 on account o f th eir greate r ha rdness. When the vau lt rest ed on a stone wall ,
or on sto ne arch it raves, th ere was usually a ledge cut to rece ive it , as in the storehouses of the funerary temple of
Meren ptah. 27

Do mes

Domes are not commo n in Egyptia n architectu re un til Coptic tim es, b ut examples do occur from the Old Kingdom
on wards. At Giza, the maslabas of Sene b and Nefcri 16 had chambe rs with domed rooting, fo rmed of cou rses o f
stretche rs tilted inwards by placing chips o f stone under th e out er edge of the brick s. Similar domes occu r in th e tom b
of Me t r a at De ndera 1 9 and in a tomb of th e Fifth Dyn asty at Abydos. 30 Th ere is co nsid erable distortion in the fo rm
of these domes when they are used over square rooms. as at Giza, since penden trves we re not built . Dom es h ave also
been found over th e shafts o f T welfth Dynasty tombs at Rtqqeh. 3 1 bu t thei r co nstruction has no t been recorded in
de tail. A more inte rest ing dome occ urs in a tomb o f the New Kingdom at Thebes. because it is the only known ex ample
from dy nastic architec tu re to make use of pende nt lves at the comers o f the chambe r. The co nstru ct ional de tails o f
this dom e h ave alread y been described. (ppA 7· S). Difficu lties we re encoun tered in the use of the pende nnves and
the inn ovation was no t repe ated in other build ings.
The few examp les of dome s which arc known from the Late Period all occur in the for tified cam p which Psamr netfchus I
built at Deffeneh , and the y were apparently constru cted in courses of stretchers. 32 Th e dome s were used 10 cove r some of
the co m partments in th e fo unda tio n o f th e buildi ng, and it is poss ible tha t o ther domes may have exist ed for th is purpose
in th e similar mili ta ry ca mps at Naukratis 3 3and Memphis.34
Better constructio n is found in the domes of Rom an age. which are some times forme d of burn t bric k, as in
certain recently discovered bu ildings at Alexa ndria . 3 5 More simp le domes occ ur in the Rom an tombs which
were built over the sile of the mo rtuary temple of Ay, at Medinet Habu. 36 Th e develop ment of the use o f domed
roo fing in Coptic times can be seen in the buildings of that age at Bawlt 31 and Kharga.38 where pc ndentivea were regularly
em ployed. These late examples would ha ve required cent ring during co nstruction, but prob ably the small domes
used in the Dynast ic pe riod coul d have bee n buill wit hout cen tring. Ign orance o f th e pendent ive seems to have
been the m ain reason why so litt le u se was mad e of domes in early time s, because it led to great difficu lti es in
adapting a circula r roo f to suit a squa re room . pr oblems which did no t arise in connection with the more popular
ba rrel-vault.

Corbels

The process of cor belling. in which a cham be r is roofed by gradu ally overlapping the bricks of th e walls until
they meet, is encountered in variou s uses in Egyptian architecture. The most frequent use occurs in tombs, in which
the corbel is em ploye.d to ro of the burial chambe r. Such to m bs are found in cemeteries of the Secon d Dynasty and
of the Old Kingdom , bu t the ea rlier examples are distinguished by having a stairway entrance to the substru ctu re,
whereas the later type are withou t ent rance . 39 Both types exis ted at Naga ed-De r, and mo re Old Kingdom examples
have been found at Tura and Reqaqnah. In some cases the corbels o f th e Fifth Dynasty arc circular, in ord er to
imit ate the form o f burial unde r an inverted pot, but the Archa ic cor be ls, a t least at Naga ed-Der. ha ve groined
come rs. (Details of these to mbs are given on pascs 12- 13, 26 and 29·3 1.
Corbelling occurs less frequently in other uses. Al Belt Khallaf the desce nding passage in masta ba K.S was covered
by a co rbel-vault, 40 although n o de ta ils of its construction are recorded. Gra naries were often closed in towards the
top by corbelling th e bric kwork. in a man ner which co n tinues more or less unchanged thro ughou t Egyp tian history.
The earliest exam ple of this usage occurs in granaries attached to Tomb 3038 at Saqqara,4 l and the same techniqu e
is foun d in grana ries in the Oraeco- Roman town at Edfu.42 During the New Kingdom. cor bels we re employed in the

26 . Mo nd. K. &. My",$, D. H.• T h e 8 ucll ../HII. 1. 29. 34. p..l ri ... W. M. r .. 171.. P<l1<>.ce of April'S. L
21. Petrie, W. M. F.• Six r e",pkllJr TlIf~.I, 12. 35. k u bia k. W. B. &. Makowi.....k:o. 1::., ASAj,: 6 1 ( 1913). 117.
18. J UII"e•• It. ce»: V. a orr; &. fil-3 0 11 p.2S. 36. I1Olsch er. U.• liM.II. . V. 4 2 &: PUS F.
Abu Ba l<! , A. IoI.. £ XN YlJrioou lJr G I: a., 194 9-50 , 139. 31. Ma." ""ru, J.• F OIlIU.. J cu r...u ;. 8,,,,..l r. 4 5.
19. "" rri". W. I>I.F.• [)r,Id",.,h, 15·6 · 38. Fakhr). A.. f:l.8<l1CII, Jf In KI"'rt:1J O~ ptJ.Uim.
30. ' -ra n krort. H.• l EA 16 (1 930 ), 2 16. 39. Rei!lner, G.A.. Notllw-n..... Ill . e- re,
3 1. t:ngelbach . R•• R iqq..il llnd "'..", p':1s V, 7 . 4(). Gam:rng, J., M IJII <U1w lI"d Bn Klw I/Qr, 1$.
32. Petrie. W.M. r •• Till/is, II, NCMJh..il oJ Det r""ell. 53 . 41. Em" r y, W. "-, G,...Q' TOlJlb8 of , I,e Finr DYIlIu ry. 1. 8 S.
33. }'el .i ... W. M. "·" N ,,,,b<>.tis. 1. 2 4·6 & I'I5-XLl I· XLlII . 4 2. Mich3 In ,-",1<.i, "" <'T Qt , T..lf /::d! ulI . II ( 193 8), 94-5.

126
brick py ramidal tombs of Th ebes -u and Aneiba,44 since the pyramids themselves were hollow and the brickwork had
to be made to meet at the apex.. Exactl y the same process was used at a later date in the small pyram id which stands
beside the to mb o f Montuemhar at Thebes. 4 s
Despite the wide spread use of corbelling, the technique o f const ruction varies little with date o r location. Corbels
are virtually always formed of headers, because this way the bricks can be overlapped a fair distance without risk of
them falling. Exceptions to this rule occur in the tom bs at Naga cd-Der, where some of the corbels have alterna te
layers of headers and stretchers on the in ternal su rfaces, 4 6 but the mass of b rickwork behind the face is still composed
mainly of headers. The majority of corbels ha ve a great amount of bric kwork used as a cantilever to prevent collapse
of the overhanging bricks, (Fig.84) bul in circular granaries this is not necessary, since the face tha t the b ricks are laid
in a circle preven ts any collapse. Usually a great quantit y of mud is plastered over the brickwork of corbelled st ruc-
tures to give inc reased rigidity.

Fig..84 A Ty pical Corbel

/ 'to! uc-
d plaster
.. . .. . .

I ,
I I I I
I I
I I I
I I I
I I
I
I I
I

4 3. Ilm yen. e , DeI, pl- "\ lpd;n Ph. 19 2 2- 3. ''I. XX.


U . SI.. i"J", rr. G•• A.n( b<!,. n. Pl..4 2-
4 S. SII'e ."" p , S2-
4 6. S<'<! ~ bo "I'. • 2·1 3.

127
CHAPTER TWELVE: SOLID BRICK CONST RUCTION IN ) IASTABAS AND PYRA\lIDS

Mastebas and pyramids of solid brickwork were co nst ructed in similar fash ion . the bricks being laid as head ers
fro m each face to the centre , ther eby form ing a join t along the line o f th e diagonals th rough the st ructure. (Fig.8S).
The bricks were steppe d backwards at ea ch course in o rder 10 prod uce the desired slo pe on the outer (ace , and
consequen tly they bre ak jo int with the courses abo ve and below, bu t no r with in each individu al layer of the brickwork.

Fig.85 Layout of Brickwork: ill a Brick Pyramid.


1

1
In some cases the face of th e structu re exh ibits alt ernate courses of headers and stretchers, bu t th is arr angement
persists only to a depth of o ne o r two bricks, after which heade rs alone occur. ' In the royal py ramids of the Middle
Kingdom. the bricks are usually laid in sand with no att emp t at mo rtaring. The brick wor k immediately above the
buri al chamber, however, could sometimes be laid with mud morta r, as occu rs in the pyram id of Hawara. 2 Where
relieving arches were incorp orate d in to th e pyra mid s, at Hawar aJ and Sou th Saqqara, " th e b ricks of th e arch wer e
bon ded with morta r.

Fig.86 Bonding at com er of the Pyramid of Hawara:

Certa in pyrami ds have cross-walls of st one running th rough their st ruc ture . dividing the brickwork in to separate
masses. bu t the bon ding pattern is largely unaltered. The b ricks o f the Middle Kingdom royal pyramids are always
very large, averaging abou t 4 2cm in length.
Solid brick mast abas. especially those of great stze, are often built of headers in th e same mann er as th e pyramids,
bu t the bricks are laid in mud or tajl m ort ar in place of sand . There are excep tions, of course , 10 this m ethod of
construction, and many small mastabas are bu ilt in AI , A2 or A3 bondtng. ! However. examp les of this te chn ique
are found in th e grea t mastabas of the Thi rd Dynasty at Belt KhaJ1 af,6 and in the enormous Sixth Dynasty tom bs
at Da[a.7 In lom b K. I at Belt Kh allaf the bric kwork was laid in sections from the ou ter faces to ward s the cent re.
The diagonal jo int fo rmed at the angles o f struc tures built enti rely of headers laid in this way also occurs in the
thick casing-walls of the common rubble-filled mas tabas of the Archa ic Period, including some of the palace-facade
to mbs of the First Dynasty.8
The small brick pyramids which sta nd above the tombs of th e New Kingdom at Deir cl-Mcdina are n ot always
bu ilt of headers, bU I other bonds occur. This is probably d ue to the fact thai the py ramids were hollow. since th ey
cont ained a vaulte d chapel, and consequently thei r exterio r walls are fairly th in. In similar tombs at Aneiba 9 the
brickwor k o f the pyra mids was bond ed A I. However, construc tion in cou rses of headers docs occur in small pyramid s
at Dira ab u'l Nap 10 an d at Soleb in Nubia I I (Fig.8 7).
This method of bu ildin g was probably employed fo r its simplicity, wh ich would have been an advan tage in the
rapid con struction of the great masses of b rickwork necessary for py ram ids or large m astabas, The technique is
related to th e Egyptian ha bit a r m ing co urses of headers for the in ternal structure of very th ick walls. abo for the
sake of simplificat ion of the building p rocess.
I. L.n. T. U. 27. '. see abuve. p. 29. W..ill. It & !'illd. M •• l .ltlru . 11~. X. X x, xx. xt.
1. I'e l rio, W. ~L F•• K alw ll, G Uffl b and l1/l WQm . PI. IV. l\. Se"ahnv o, I'I ' . I t>. 19 ;1n d 2 2.
3,. i bid.. 16 & PI. IV. 9. s:
Stclndnrfr, G. "r lit , A nibtl, II. PIs. 2 5, 38 41 .
4. J e4 uier , G.• [X li X Py ram ld eJ du M o ye ll Empj~. 34 '" Pl. VII (a). 10. 5<:" a buve. p, 4 7.
s. Se e u a mp l c ~ n n 1'1'. 2 4-~ an I! ~ 3- 4. 6. Sen a b ov e , p. 12. 1 1. Gi or l(ini. ),l. $. . So leb, II. 11 2. 18 5. 2 3 0 . 24 3.

128
Fig.8 7 Plan of the Brickwork ill a Pyramid at Soleb.

IL--_

129
CHAPT ER THIRTEEN ' SUPPL EMENTARY MATE RI ALS IN BRICK CONSTRUCTION

A number of supp lemen tary mat erials. such as woo d and stone, occur regularly in Egyp tian brick b uild ings. The
purpose of this section is to give some acco unt of th e uses o f these materials, withou t going in to detail s. except to
describe how th eir use affects the brickwork.

Wood .

Probably th e m ost importan t u se of woo d in Egyptian brick arch ite ctu re was the con struction of roofing, which
was usually form ed of plank s supported on bea ms. Roo fs of th is kind first occ ur o n a small scale in tom bs of late
Predynasti c dat e, ' but mu ch lar ger exam ples were used in the great First-Dyna sty tombs of Abyd os and Saqqa ra.
In some of the Saqqa ra tom bs, where the area to be roofed was very la rge, the ord inary raft ers were supported from
below by massive beams of recta ngular section , 2whilst at Abydos the roo fing W3S some times upheld by wood en
pos ts.J The wood en roof could by p rotected by covering it with brick wor k, as in tomb 3505 at Saqqa ra," and in
many o f the small graves of the First Dyn asty. 5 Thi s tec hnique also occ urs al a later da te in the Funerary Temple
of Myccn nus at Giza. 6 A sligh tly different ty pe of roof was used in tomb 303 6 OI l Seqqa ra, in which the b ricks rested
di rectly upo n closely-set logs. below which was a ce iling of wooden planks. 7 This is a similar met hod to thaL used
in grave 1647 at Naga ed-Der.f and in hou ses o f a very lat e period at Tbeadclphta." Small rooms and passages in
buildings of all ages were com monly roo fed with split palm-logs, a form of roofing cop ied in stone at the Step
Pyram id.
The developm ent of the rock-cut burial chamb er at the en d of the First Dyn asty led to th e abandonment of
wooden roo fing in funer ary archi tecture, excep t for small-scale uses such as the rcoflng o f offering niches. In all o ther
kin ds of brick b uildings. however , wood continued to be em ployed for this pu rpose down to very late times, despi te
the increasing use of vaul ts. Wooden plan ks were not usually em ployed above the raft ers in do mestic archi tect ure.
Ins tead, layers of st icks and reed s were used, consolidated with a coati ng of mud . In rich houses at El-Amama, the
rafte rs were not le ft as rough logs, but were covered with the decorated plaster wh ich was ap plied to all th e interior
of the roof. loWhen the size o f the roo m was very great, there was a main beam across the centre, sup ported on
wooden colum ns, with smalle r raft ers runn ing from this bea m to each en d of th e room. I t A differ ent kind of roo fing.
used in the palace o f Amenhotep III at Malqata. has already been desc ribed un page 87.
From the Twen tieth Dynasty , bric k vault s become fairly common in domestic buildings, and th ey ten d to replace
wood for the rooflng of narrow passages or small rooms, especially cellars. However, wood was still a major constr ue-
tiona ! mat erial right do wn 10 Graeco-Rornan time s. and the rem ains of roofs made of palm logs have bee n fou nd in
houses of the Thir d and Fourth Centu ries A.D. in the Fayum. 1'2 The restr iction o f vaulting to the cellars and ground-
floor rooms may have been due to the use of eart h cent ring, since it would no r have been p racticable to fill the roo ms
on th e thi rd or four th storey with earth. in orde r to provide centring for a vault ed roof.
Wooden col umns were an essenti al accesso ry to the use of timb er for reefing, and the y occur frequently wherever
large areas had to be roofed. Such column s were u sed in the mortuary tem ples of My cerfnus 13and Nefcrirkare, 14as a less
cos tly substitu te fo r stone. bu t Ihe majorit y of exam ples occu r in secular buildings. In the rich mansions of Amarna,
the columns were well-form ed and they stood on stone bases. ISwhilsl in poo r houses a column co uld be formed o f
a ro ugh post. 16 Several o f th e official buildings at Amarna had brick piers t t to suppor t th e roo f In ste ad of wooden colu rras,
presumably to save valuable tim ber.
l. Qu ibe ll. J.E. & Gr "ell. F.W•• Hk....4onpolu, 11, 20.
2. Eme ry, W.H. ,A,dUJicf:/rYP t, 1114, 1116, Fig. 107 .
3. Petrte, W.M.F., Roy<J1 To mb$, T. 8-16 & PIs.LXV, LXVIl.
4. E me ry, W. B.. The Tom b of ffc ma kll, 4- S.
5. See I htwe . p. 10.
6. R"i ,n"r, G.A. , Mycerlm.3. 9 1·" & fi jt.20.
7. E m~ ry. W_B., Gre..r Tomb" of tI, e Ft", Dy n'lIry. I. 74.
8. Reisn er .G.A. . N<ljfrJ e<J.De,. 1. 19&.fll!-l O.
9. Gre nfe ll. B.P., & Hu nt, A.s" FQyum To wns & ri,E;' J'u(!)";. 51.
t o. "·rankfQrl. Ii. &. I'en <.llebury, r.o.s., O r)' of A klllmrJU '~ II. 5· 77.
t I. Ibid.. 28- 30 &. (;1'-4.
t 2. Bul k, A. E.1l. uQl.. X rJrrmu. I 92 ..j,.8, 26 &. 1'1.. XIX. XU, fill-& l .
13. Re isn er. G.A. . My cerllfu J, 92.
14 . Borchardt . 1.-. Vas G~bde"k.","1 des K(I" ig" N~f~rl,ka,.... 2 o- 2~
15. Pee t, T,r. & Woo lle y, 1.-. Cit y of Akll e" "ull. I. S-6. 10. 41 . PI,V.
16. ma; 57 -8.
t 7. ""ndlehury. J.O.s.. e t Ill . CU)' of A k ll ..IIa U ,1, III. 86. 9 1. 10 11-9. 131 -2 &. I'I. Lt.

130
Floors of woo d are not common in Egyptian buildings, since far cheaper materials were available for this purpose ,
but they occur in tombs of the Archaic Period at Abydus and Saqqara . These floors are formed of planks laid upon
joists, and in a numbe r of cases they are surrounded by a shallow skirti ng board . Details of the arrangement of the
woodwork have been given by the excavators. 18 Two mast ahas at Tarkhan had wooden floors in the main offering
niche of the superstructure, consisting of several thick planks, in part overbuilt by the brickwork of the niche. 19 Wooden
floors were not used in domest ic architecture, excep t for the floors of uppe r storey s, but this is really a matter of
roofing.
Doorframes of timber are very commo n at all periods, mainly in domestic buildings, although they do occur elsewhere.
The doorjambs were attached to the surrounding brickwork by wooden pegs,200r by their being jointed to blocks of
wood set into the walls. The latter method was popular in houses of a very late period in the Fayum, in which beams
were built into the brickwork for the full height of the doorway (pp . 90 , 99). The thresh old of the door usually
consisted of a rough beam or plank, set across the step, and partly inset into the brickwork on either side. In the late
houses men tioned above, the thresholds are sometimes more elaborate, being mortised to th e sides of the doorfrarnes'"
The purpose of a wooden doorstep was to prot ect the mud brick from wear, since the brick was softe r th an the timber.
For th e same reason, strips of wood were often laid across the leading edges of stairs, as in the stairway to the top of
the temp le wall at EI·Kab. 22 The stairs at Amarna were built over sloping beams, as shown in Fig.58, but in a house of
the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty at Medinet Habu each step was supported by a short beam laid transversely beneath it. 23
In later times the stairways were usually built over vaults.
Windows frequently had wooden frames, the best-preserved examples of which occur in the late houses of
Karanis. 2 4 Long beams were employed above and below the window, running into the brickwork at each side, and
the opening was divided into a series of slits by vertical bars of wood. (Fig.88) An unusual form of window was used

Fig.88 Window ill House at Karanis:

to light the cellars of the building numbered 11.20 1 at Dime, consist ing of a single beam with two small apertures cut
through it, set at ceiling level. 25 Wooden lintels were obviously used above windows from very early times, since th ey
arc clearly depicted on th e house model from El-Amra, 26which is of late Predynastic date .
Probably the most peculiar use of wood in Egyptian buildings is its employment in the structure of brick walls as
a means of reinforcement. Generally speaking, this technique is most common ill well-built walls of considerable thick-
ness, but it can occur in house walls. In the best examples the timbers are laid at regular intervals, and th ey can run
both along and across the wall, but in more careless building it is common to find irregular distribution or isolated
beams at widely spaced points in the brickwork . The most elaborate timbering in Pharaonic architecture is found in
the walls o r temples and fortresses, as shown by the individual examples described in Chapt ers 5 and 8. In domestic
buildings the technique is quite rare th roughout this period, and only a few instances are recorded from the great
number of houses at Amaroa. 27 Timbering of house-walls does no t become common until very late times, the vast
majority of cases being found in the houses of the second to fourth centur ies A.D. at Karanls, Dime and other Graeco-
Roman towns of the Fayum . 211 It is rathe r strange that this practice should be so common at these sites, and yet
infrequent in towns of similar age at Edfu and Elephantine, but possibly this may have been due to differences in
the availability of the woo d. 2'1 Timber reinforcement occurs to a limited extent in brick mastabas of the Old Kingdom,

1 S. Pet ri e, W. M. I'. , R o y al To mbs, I. .8-16 & PIs..LXII , L X ] V- LX Vil .


E mer y, W.B. , Grea r Tmn bs nf ttte First Dyl ws ty, n, 11, Pls. X ll -X Ii I.
IbhL . vol , m, 40, PkS R-- 60.
19. Pel ri c, W.M .F., Tarkllu,~ 11. 4. Pe trio & Wainwri ght, C. , Tar kt'alJ I &: M emphis V.
13, PLXV, 2.
20. I....ct "" Woolley , "p. cit., S&-9.
21. Bo ok, A. F. R" So k"" p <Zi" " Ne ros, 1 1-6 & 1'1. V I.
22. Som e ," era-se, I RA , ' ( 19 2 1), -n. 2 3. Ho lsc he r, U. , E.M.H., V, 16.
24. n'oa k , A.£.R., c t a l" Karanis; 19 2 4- S. 4 9 ,57 & Pls. XXXl (61 ). X XX II (6 3) , XX X IV (67 ).
25 . Boa"-. A.E.R . , Soknnpaim' Ncsnr, Plan XV I.
N. B. De l a ils o f Ih~ co n.<l ru ct i" n " f <.l o o rs wi ll he fo u nd in Koen j gs her~et , 0.,
D ie Kn"stn, ~·riml <lcr ..TKy p tiscl ,cn Ti ir.
2 6. M cl v ~r, OoR. & Mac e , 1\.('., HI-A mrail &: A b ydos, Pl.X , 1-2.
2 7. Bo rchard t , l.. , M D OG 4 6 ( No v. 191 1), 24· 5. 211. Sec a bo ve, p p. 'jB - l 00 .
2 9. T h e hO\lse mod els from Xo is ~ n d Memphis sh o w th at timbering was no tIimit ed 10 t he F a y u m ;
<cc ASA E 3 I (19 3 1), 1'1. m an d Quibell, J.E. , E x cavations at Suqoara: 19 05 -6 , PI.XX X, 4.

131
such as that of Rah otep at Meydum, which co ntained a large numbe r of irregularly spaced logs..>\J The thin sticks
found bet ween th e courses of bricks in mastabas of the First Dynasty 31are not to be considered as reinfo rcement.
since they are used in th e same manner as layers o f reed-malting.
The strengthe ning of the come rs of brick walls with timber occu r in administrat ive buildings o f th e ~ I i ddle King dom
in the Nubian fo rtresses, 32 an d in the late houses of Karanis and Dime. 33 This techni que can be compared with the
stone reinfo rceme n t which sometim es occu rs at the angles of temple endosure·walls.J 4 It is easy to see the reason-for
these come r tim bers ; in the narro w st reets of Egyp tian to wns the angles o f th e hou ses would be liable to damag e
from the passage of laden baggage-anim als, and th e so ft mud-b rick could be displaced . The elab oration of comer
protect ion in la te house s was pr ob ably due to the fac t that th ese bu ildings we re several storeys high, an d any damag e
to the bric kwork at a low level could cause the collapse of a who le comer of the house.
lt is far more difficult to explain th e purpose of the timbers which occ ur throughout the stru ct ure of brick walls.
The Egyp tians evidently considere d that the st rength o f the brick work was imp roved by th e inclusion o f these beams .
but they canno t fail to have ob served that their presence was no t essential. Th ere are many ex ample s of massive brick
walls without any timb er rein forcem en t, such as the great enclosure-wall of the Temple of Medinet lI abu , whic h ha ve
survived the ages jus t as well as those walls in which woode n beams are present . This is not to say tha t the use of
timb er ha d no stre ngth ening effect at all; the inclusion of any mat eria l with a high tensile strength woul d improve
th e sta b ility of a brick wall. but the degree of imp roveme n t gained would be so slight that it does not seem to justify
th e eno rmo us outlay of timber. It is int erestin g to not e that great beams of cedar were in serted in to th e masonry of
the Ste p Pyram id of Djoser,3Sagain with little str uct ural value, but th eir use in thls buil ding shows tha t the be lief in
the advan tages of timbering began at an early da te. The use of wooden baulks of great size in the buttresses of the
bridge at Amama 36 shows that the technique was ce rta inly inte nded 10 give improved st rength. In the walls of fort-
resses it is possible that an other pu rpose may have been to prev en t the walls being m in ed by an enemy.
Th ere is a distinct difference between th e tim be red walls of the dynastic period and those of the very late hou ses
of th e Graeco-Roman towns in th e Fa yu m. In the early ex amples. the tim bers are rough logs, frequ en tly bra nched
and twisted , with the bark st ill in place. By contrast, the late houses are timber ed with neat ly cut and pla ned beams
of square or rectangular sect ion, which are more frequently laid longi tudinally along the faces of th e walls than
pr eviou sly. These beams also differ ed from the earlier ty pe in tha t they were apparen tly no t hidden by any plaster .
In o rder to discove r the reaso n for the change in techn ique, it is nece ssary to examine it at a stdl Iat er stage, in the
Coptic buildings at Bawit. The long limb ers which occu r in the walls o f these st ructu res are set flush with the face
and are decorated with carve d designs. 37 Shor ter decorated beams at wooden p anels are found at the angles of th e
doorjambs, ae in similar style to th e timber used around the doors of houses at Dime ( page 100). Some of this Cop tic
timbering occurs in walls of stone, wh ich shows that the wood was no longer considered to have any struc tu ral
purpose connected with brick construc tion.
Cons equen tly, the whole history of the use of wooden reinforce men t in brickwork may be summarised as follows:
The t echn iqu e was initia ted in the Arch aic Period, and was considered to give im proved stability to mud- b rick
constructions , espe cially those of considerable thickness. For this reason it was regularly used in th e great walls of
templ es and fort resses, but was less co mmon in domestic arch itecture. By late Roman times. however, th e use of
wood in hou ses increa sed greatly, bu t the purpose o f this timber ing was no longer entirely structural, since it had
become pa rt ly decorative in inte nt. The process o f transit ion fro m a structural device to a decorative mo tif was
compl eted in Coptic architect ure, in which carved designs were used on the wooden beams to heigh ten the decorat ive
effec t.
Wooden plan ks were occ asiona lly used for lining brick walls, but exam ples are not common, no doubt because
of th e ex pense of the materi al. The greatest use o f woo den lining occ urs in th e First Dynasty R oyal Tom bs o f Abydos.
some of which had en tire bu rial ch ambers co nst ruc ted o f wood within th e subst ruc tu re. 39 1n some cases t he wooden
st ruct ures stood clear of the walls, but in other tom bs, such as tha t of Ka-a, the planks we re app lied over the face of
the bric kwork and fixe d in place by being jo inted to th e bea ms of the roo f and llo or. 4o Wood <ased pilasters occur
in Tomb 3504 at Saqqa ra, the plan ks being fastened to beams set into the brickwor k ( page 17). The same syste m of
holding th e wood in pos ition was used in the fun erary temp le of Neferirkare, 4 1 and it was prob ably em pl oye d

30. !'et rie , W.M. F.,M~d"m, 16-


3 1. Emery. W. n., /lor-A/'ll, is &. fl ~ S. Id"/lL, crear Tom br 01 rll ~ Fi,." D ytlfllty. I. IS.
p.,t rie, Vi. M. F•• &. Wainwright . G., T.urklra,rl &: M t'mp lrfs V. 14 &. PI,X V I.
32. See ahove p. 84. 3 3. Se.. ahove. PI' 90.9 1. 34 . S<'e atm\·e. 1'1'. 74 . i li. 81.
3 S. Lauer, J. Ph.. La Py ram idc;' Deltres, L ',4, ,,,,l iIru n,,,.' . IE. !'J.ClI . 2.
36. p.,ndlehu ry, J.O. s. e r aL. City of Akllt'n llt "rr. Ill. S6 &. PLXXXIX.
37. ChaUin"t. E.. Fo"iJli!'~ ;' 8110u/1, I. Ca.5C. I , PI!. XV. XVI, XXI -XX IV, l VIIT. lXIX. LXX.
38. Ib id.. I'lI. XXXVJ, XXXV II, LXVI.
39. f'<,ttle. W. ~L F•• R oyal TOl>/N. r, 9- 10. I S, -&. 1'1.. LXU.LX VIl . Ibid., II , 7, 10 .
4 1),. ib id., 1. IS" PLLXVI L
4 1. BorChardt , 1... Dar Grtlbd~nltmal d~, K"nig r Ni!'fi!'rirkll~. 3 7· 8, Ah h,4 2.

132
th rougho u t the Dynastic Period. although exam ples are not fort hco min g. A differe nt method was used in a very
late administ rat ive building at Dime, which had one room en tirely panelled with wood . This pane lling consisted
of thick bl ock s of wood laid agains t th e wall, m ortised to sim ilar be ams set into the brickw ork (page 90).

Stone

Stone casing on bri ckw ork first ap pears in the tomb of Khasekhemui at Abydos, .nand becomes common in all later
periods, especia lly in religious and fun erary arc hit ecture. In masta bas or pyramids, the casing is thick and is co mp osed
of hea vy blocks, but the stone lining on tem ple py lons or walls is mu ch thinner , some times being less tha n 20c m. Stone
casing of this kind is not attached to th e brickwork in any way , but stands in positi on by weight alone , and th e arrange-
ment of the bricks is unaffe cted. The norm al pu rpose of th e casing was to give th e app earance of being con stru cted of
more en during ma terials tha n was in fact the case. Less frequ en tly, the stone had a specifi c function, such as the
protec tion of the mud- bric k walls of bathrooms from damp. 43
The use o f stone in fo unda tions has already been described in Chapter 10. Various kinds o f stone were used for
floors in brick buildings. most commonly in tom bs an d temples, but the use of the stone floor does no t affect th e
brickwo rk. 4 4
Columns of stone are common in bri ck-built temples, official bu ildings and rich houses. such as that o f But charnun
at Medinet Habu . 4 $ In certain cases the se columns st oo d up on brick foundatio ns, as described on page 120. St one archi-
tra ves were used in offici al buildin gs to support brick vaults. examples being fou nd in the palace of Ramesses III at
Medin et Habu 4 6 and in the storeho uses of the m or tu ary temple of Merenptah .-I 7
Doorways of sto ne were frequently used in important bu ildin gs. and. by re-use, they co uld find their way into poo r
ho uses. Th e ja mbs of the door stood in place by weight, as did the lin tel, except in som e un usual exa mp les at Merlinet
Habu , where t he lintel was hel d in position by co rds (p age 87). St on e sills were regularly employed in all kinds of
st ruct ur es. even when th e rest of the doorfram e consisted of woo d. Stone windo ws, ill the form of grilles. were used ill
the palace of Ramesses Ti l at Medinet Ilabu, 4 1l and o the r examples h ave been discove red in houses at Am arna. 4 9
Th e angles o f tem ple enclos u re-walls were sometimes prot ected by stone bloc ks, examples being recorded fro m
Edfu, El-Kab, Lu xor, Den dera and Abyd os. {p p. 6 1, 74 , 78 and 8 1). Such reinforcement was no t rea lly necessary
in tem ple walls, but was co pied fro m the use o f timbers in the co me rs of houses. Very few houses have stonewor k at
the comers of the walls, but one or two examples are kn own at Karants.so

Mor tar and Plaster

The following ty pes of mo rtar occ ur in Ancient Egyptia n b rick wo rk: 51 (I ) Mud mor ta r : the most common type,
formed of ordina ry Nile alluvium, an d used at all pe riods in all kin ds of buildings. (2) Taj7 m ortar : co mposed of
deser t gra'..el, with a high proporti on of sand. Most common in sma ll buil dings on the dese rt edge, especi ally tom bs.
(3) U m e m ortar: a hard. white mo rtar, used o nly in Ptolemaic and Roman times. usually in conn ection wi th burnt
brick. Suitable for use in dam p places, since it is impermeable to water.
The m ortaring of Egyptian brickwork is usually rough, and is practically always rest ricted t o the horizontal join ts.
Excep tion s to thi s rule occu r o nly on th e ou ter faces of well-built struct ures, where both the hori zontal and vertical
joints are some times care fully poi nted. Very lill ie mortar was used in the h eart of thi ck walls. th e majority of th e
bricks being laid togeth er dry . In cer ta in buildings. such as the brick pyramids of the Middle Kingdom , a laye r of san d
was placed between th e courses ins tea d of any mortar. Th e vert ical joints in thic k st ruc tures can be very wid e, as in
th e pylon of th e tom b of Mon tuemhat at Thebes. (PI.·I7A ). A special fo rm o f j oint occ urs in [he bond s A l l to A16 ,
con sisting of a wide space betwe en the bricks filled up wi th gravel. or, less freque ntly , with plaster. Th e purpose of
suc h a division is no t d ear: th e inclusion of a mass of gravel may have helped t o dry the br ickwork , but n o such effe ct
could be gained from a wide jo int full of plast er.
Ume m orta r is foun d in Ptolem aic and Roman bu rnt -brick struc tures , espe ciall y baths and co nd uits. where it was
necessary 10 make th e j oint s waterproof. This m ortar was not normally expl oyc d wi th mud-bri ck, but it occ u rs in
arches uf that material beneath sta irways in the Coptic town at Armant. 52
-1 2. ' ''' ITi". W. M.F., up. cit.. II. l:J.-4 & PL l. V II, 4· 6.
4 3. Hiitsdter, U.. EM.H.. IV, 30.
-1 4. P~rl y ston e nOUTS occur ii , To m h T Rl AhydO $ ""d T uml> 35 0~ ~t Saq q.1 fa.
4S. ll iilo;ch er. U., E M. If. . V.4- 5.
4 6. ibid., 11I. 3 11-9.
47 . Pel rie. W.fot. P_. Six r 'mpl<:sat TI,~b~1, 12· 3.
48. lI ubeh",.. u. E,:\Uf. . IV, 34.
4 9. W...,U" y. L.. J e A 8 (1922), PL I X.
s o. Iluak• .-'l..F-R. 'roL, KlUtZ,,;1, i9H..S. 26 &< Pl. XLl I. Il4.
5 I. L\le,", A. & I lalTi~, J. R.. ..l"cie." £Hyp ria" M otf.'rlab, 74-6.
52. M,," d. R. &. /IoIye... 0. 11. . T.·m pkr uf Amla,,', 38 I'.< PI. XXXIX.

133
Mud plaster: 53

This is formed of alluviu m, mixed with vary ing qu anti ti es of sand and chopped straw to prevent the for mation of
cracks on drying. The colour of th e plas ter depends upon the amount of sand an d the com pos ition of th e mu d, bu t
the usu al kind is a da rk grey-bro wn. Yellow plaste r was employed in the reign of Shep seska f in buildings at Giza 54
and Saqqara, 55 and in th e Fifth and Sixth Dynasties black plaster was common . 5 6 Practically all Egyptian mud-brick
stru ct ures were coat ed with a layer of m ud-plaster, which was usually whiten ed by a second co at of gypsum. Apart
fro m the co mmon uses of plast er on flo ors, walls and vault s, it was also employed for a numbe r of special purposes,
such as the pre cas t slabs of mud used to form the recessed panelling in tomb 3070 at Saqq ara.! 7 In late buildings at
Tun a el_Gebel 58 and Theadelphi a, 59 whit ened plaste r was moulded to im itate th e appe arance of well-laid blocks of
limesto ne. A similar technique occurs in the Old Kingdom tomb of Desi at Saqqara, in which a coat of ordinary grey
mud-plaster has been grooved to simulate well-bonded brickwork (PI.46A). Pain ted decoration on plaste r was usually
applied over a coa t of gypsum, b ut examp les of paint ing directly on mud-plaster do occ ur, especially at Am arn a.6 0
Wood en roo fing was genera lly co vered with a layer of mud to rende r it weath erp roof, but the extensive use o f m ud
in the roofi ng of large rooms in th e pa lace of Ame nhotep III at Malqata is exce ptio nal , and it led to an unnecessarily
heavy roof.

Taft plaster:

Taft plaster co nsists of desert gravel, sand and chop ped st raw, with just sufficien t clay in the mixtur e to bind the
m ate rials to gether. The use of this plaster is rathe r limited; it m ost frequ en tly occurs in the superstructures and shaft s
of small to m bs in dese rt cem eterie s, in conjunction with tall-bricks.

Gy psmn plaster: 6 1

Whi te gypsum plaste r was gener ally used as a finishi ng coat over mud- plast er, in all k inds of buildings. In most
cases this plaster was left plain wh ite, but it also forme d an ideal sur face for the addition of painte d deco ration,
examples of which are comm on in to mb s, p alaces and rich houses at widely diffe ring periods. Painted plaster is most
frequently fo und on walls, but it also oc curs on ceilings and floors, as in the palace of Amenh otep III at Malqata
(pp.87-8) . In late tomb s at Tuna el-Gebel, pa inte d plaster was u sed to imitate the appearance of granite, porphyry
and marbl e. 62

Lim e plaster: 63
This typ e of plaster does not co me into use until th e Grecco-Roman period, when it was empl oyed in burn t b rick
construc tions as a wat er-resista nt coating. For this re ason it is found in the Sanat orium at Dendera 64 and in Rom an
baths and water con duits at Kom el-Ahma r. Edfu, Medinet Habu, and elsewhere.651n one bath at Edfu 66 the plaster
on the floor and walls had been coloured pink , pro babl y by the addit ion of powd ered brick.

Reed Matting:

Layers of reeds are common in Egyp tian brick structures of all periods, set at vario us levels in the brickwork. In
walls, the reeds are usually laid transversely , but the re are examples in which the y run both along and across the axis
of the wall. Reed-matting in br ickwork first appears at an early date in th e First Dyna sty mas tab as at Saqqa ra,"? and
S3. Lu cas & Harris, up. dt:, 76 .
54. R ds ner, G.A, Mycerrmlll, 90.
S5. Jequler, G. , t» Masra bar F aram.m, 16 .
56. Re lsner,op. cit, 90 .
57. Em er y, W.B., JEA 54 ( 19 6 8 ). It- 3.
5S. Ga b ra. s., L e MOllume"t limb-Ollre de Padyka,,~ 39 &0 P\.V III.
59. Lefebvre , G., ASAE 10 ( 1910), 16 9 & 1'1. IV B.
60. L ucas & Harris, o p. cit, 35 4.
6 1. Lu cas & Harris, op, d t, 7 6-9. 471·2.
62. Ga bn, S. & Dr iot on , E., Pe/llwres J Presques et Scenes l'einus. PL2 1.
63. Lucas & Harris, op, ci t , 76.46 9.
64 . See al>ove, p, 91 .
65. See a bo ve, pp, 91 -2 .
6 6. Mlchalo ~ kl, K. et at , Te ll EdfOl~ 1 ( 1937). 65, 68.
67 . Eme ry, W.8. . Great T ombs of tile F irst Dvnasry, n. 8. II r, 8, 4 1. 7 6.

134
the reafte r it was emp loyed in all kinds of buil dings, except those bu ilt of burnt brick.. The distrib ut ion of the reed
layers in a single bu ilding is often qu ite regular, but differences occur between individual struc tures, as sh own in th e
follo wing list:

Location No. of courses be twee n reed-layers

Saqqa ra Tom b 3 504 6


3036 6
3035 9
3506 5
Theban Tomb 15S 4
34 4- 6
Abydo s: Seu Tem ple 4- 5
Medinet Habu: Rarnesses Temp le 2
Saqqar a: XXXth . Dyn . walls East of Teti Pyrami d 2
Karn ak: Great Enclosur e wall 2
Kuban : Fort ress 8
Mrrgissa: For tress 12
Uronarti: For tress 6

The purpose o f the reeds must be structu ral, and it has been suggested 6 8 that th ey were in tende d to dry the interior
of the brickwork by co nduc ting moistu re to th e ou ter face. Th is is a possibility, bu t the re are a nu mb er o f objec tio ns
to the the ory . ln the firs t place, the reeds are sometimes laid longit udinally, and therefore would not dr aw water out wards;
seco nd ly , the outer face of th e brickwor k is invariably covered with a layer of plaster, throu gh which th e reeds do not
penetra te. Consequen tly, the matt ing is sealed in by the plast er an d there is no free escape for the m oisture, Th e co nstruc-
tion o f air-channels in (hick walls to ensure d rying o f th e b rickwork suggests that the reed-layers are not co nnecte d with
th e problem of damp but have a separate purpose . It is possible tha i they were intended to assist th e bond ing of th e
brick work by fo rmin g a ' key' for th e morta r, and also by covering any irregularit ies which develope d in the cou rse of
cons tructi on. This hypothesis is supported by th e fact that some of th e earliest ex amples of this technique, is mas tabas
at Tarkh an and Saqqa ra, h ave rows o f thin sticks in place of reeds. 69 Th ese sticks would ha ve been of no value for drying
the brick wor k. but they co uld have im proved th e bo nding be tween the co urses. Anot her valuable piece o f evidence comes
from a vault ed ce llar at Amam a. 70 in which two long reeds have been placed be tween the rings o f b ricks in the vault
(page 95 ). The function o f these reed s is ob viously the same as that o f the grooves which usually occ ur on brick s in this
ty pe of vault. thai is to pr ovide a key fo r th e mo rtar . T he reed-layers in walls pro bab ly had a similar pu rp ose, and they
would ha ve pr ovided poin ts at which th e levelling of the cou rses could be checked or adjusted, as seems to have been
done at Mtrgtssa."'
Reeds were also employe d in ro ofing. in conjunction with wood en beams an d planks . Early examples of thi s use are
found in the su bstructures of First Dynasty tombs. P and late r it becomes common in all kin ds of bu ildin gs. An unusual
use of reed-matting was discovered in tombs 335 7. 3503, 3504 and 3505 at Saqqa ra, wh ere the ma ts had been coloured
and att ached to the walls as decor ati on. 73

68. f't!t r i... W. M. 1'" Egyp rian Arrl" tf!c tllr~, II.
69. l' mery, W.Ii.. lIo r·A I ,a, I S &' Flt- 5• ..., tr ie, W. M. F. &0 Wain...ri l ht. GO' Tll r klum I ,,"d ltk mplris I ~ 14 & PI.XVI.
1 0. Fnn U o rt , H. &. J'cn dl eb ur y, I. D.S. . City of A kh~",.,<,... 11, 52-3 " Fi/l.6.
71. n un ham, n ., S t!C'Q'uJ C" ttzrgc t F ortI, n . 156_
n. E m..,)'. W.Il., GrrJ.I T om bs of I hr F irst n,'" uly. I, 16 ; 11,9, II , 13].
73 . ibid. . n. I I , lll; III . 10 &: 11. 2 5 b. HQ,. A lra, 17.

135
CHAPTE R FOU RTEEN : BONDING

The bonds AI . Al and A3 are by far the commonest forms of bonding in Egyptian brickwor k of th e Dynastic
Period. and thei r usc is co ntinued, although to a lesser extent , in Graeco-Rom an and Coptic buildings. TIle thickn ess
of a wall very ofte n influences the arran gement of the bricks; bon ds A2 and A3 are very similar, except for the fact
that A2 is used where the thickness o f the wall cor responds to an odd number o f bricks. and A3 where the numb er
is even. Bond Al is foun d in Egyptian buildings of all periods, mainly in thin walls, alt hough it can occu r infrequently
in thic k masses of brickwork, such as mastaba casings or great enclosure walls. However, the usual procedu re in thick
walls was to discard At bonding in favour of A2 or AJ. which are the standard arrangemen ts in these st ruc tur es.
Practically all the great walls o f dyn astic age are constru cted in these bonds, and although in the immense ly thi ck
enclosures of fort s and temples it is inevitable that some irregularities occur , neverth eless the arrangemen t is very
consistent. ' Bon ds A2 and A3 are by no means restricted to massive walls, for they occur frequ ently in walls of
moderate dimensions in all kinds of arch itect u re. the thin nest exam ples being commo n in houses and tom bs. The
arran gement of th e b ricks in A2 bonding is such tha t no wall can be built in this way with a thickness less than 1.5.
and with A3 bon ding the minimum thickness is 2.0 . 1
More variation in b onding occurs in the construc tion of pit-graves and mastabas of the Archaic Period . The simplest
pits have lining-walls o f stretchers, only 0.5 thick, and the refore ou t of necessity bonded XI. This is the only possible
arrangement of the b ricks in walls which are a single brick-width across, and con sequently it occurs at all periods in
such walls. The only thick structures in which Xl bonding appears are the sinuso idal walls around the pyrami ds o f
Mazghuneh and South Saqqa ra. X2 bonding is found in the lining of the Decorated Tomb at Hierakonpolis, and in the
retain ing wall around the site of the Solar Temple of Neusen e at Abu Gurab , but otherwise it is uncomm on except in
buttresses and do or-blockings. Frequent use is made of AI bond in early graves, but the alternation of thr ee cou rses of
st retchers with one of headers (AS) also occurs. especially in Upper Egypt , at El-Arnra 3 and Naga ed·Der.4 At the latt er
site, this arrangement is retained in walls which are 1.5 or 2.0 th ick by the use o f bonds AS and A7, both o f which are
rare elsewhere. These bonds gradually fall ou t of use towa rds the end o f the Archa ic Period. to be replaced by A2 or AJ,
but the process o f tran sition seems to have been slower in the Thinite area than at other sites .
A n umber of brick-bond s are recor ded from the First Dynasty mastabas of Saqqara. but it is not cer tain whether they
all really exist, since the descriptio ns given by Emery do not always agree with his drawings,! nor with the remains of
the monuments on the sile. For this reason I have preferred not to assign Corpu s num bers 10 some o f these bonds." un til
the uncert ainty is resolved by their discovery in other buildings. The bond C5, however, was num bered in the Corpus
before the descrepan ctes became apparen t, and it sho uld be not ed tha t this also may not exi st. I suspect that this bond
is the result of misint erpretati on of the courses of edger-headers which occur frequent