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# Combined Footing Design to BS8110

Analyse and design the combined footing shown below when subjected to ultimate load of
1650 kN from the first column column a and 1950 kN from the second column.

## The material properties are as follows:

Concrete characteristic strength: f c = 30 N / mm 2

## Concrete unit weight:  Con = 24 kN / m3

Concrete cover: C = 40 mm

## Assumed bar size: bar = 12 mm

Solution:
Footing size
Service axial Load: NA = 1650 /1.5 = 1100 kN
NB = 1950 /1.5 = 1300 kN
Totalservice axial, N total = 1100 + 1300 = 2400 kN
Assume self-weight is 10% of total serivce load
Footing self-weight , W = 0.1 2400 = 240kN

## Area of footing required A=

(W + N ) = ( 240 + 2400 ) = 13.2 m
total 2

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Combined Footing Design to BS8110

## Try footing size of B  H  h = 6 m  2.5 m  0.65 m with area of A =15 m 2

Self-weight of concrete, W = 6  2.5  0.75  24 = 270 kN

## Check service soil bearing capacity =

( N + W ) = ( 2400 + 270 ) = 178 kN/m 2  200 kN/m 2 → Ok
A 15
Arrange the centroid of load so the soil distribution pressure is uniform
 M A = 0 1300(3.4) + 2400( x) = 0  x = 1.84 m

N Ed 1650 + 1950
Soil pressure at ultimate load, p = = = 240 kN/m 2
A 15
Soil pressure per m width, w = 240  2.5 m = 600 kN/m
The shear force and bending moment are shown in the following page
Main Reinforcement: Longitudinal Reinforcement at Bottom
Effective depth: d x = h – c – 0.5 bar = 750 – 40 – 0.5 16 = 702 mm
Maximum Moment at column Face = 476.28 kNm
M
k=  0.156
f cu bd 2
476.28 106
k= = 0.013  0.156
30  2500  7022
 Compression reinforcement is not required
K
z = d [0.5 + (0.25 − )]
0.9
0.013
z = d [0.5 + (0.25 − )] = 0.99d x  0.95d x
0.9
z = 0.95d x = 666.9 mm
M 476.28 106
As = = = 1634 mm 2
0.95 f y Z 0.95  460  666.9
(0.13)(b)(h) (0.13)(2500)(750)
A s, min = = = 2437.5 mm 2 , As  A s, min
100 100
Then , As ,request = A s, min = 2437.5 mm 2 thus, As , prov = 3216 mm 2 (16T16 )

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Combined Footing Design to BS8110

## Main Reinforcement: Longitudinal Reinforcement at Top

Maximum Moment mid span = 387.75 kNm
M 387.75  106
k=  0.156  k = = 0.01  0.156
f cu bd 2 30  2500  702 2
 Compression reinforcement is not required
K 0.01
z = d [0.5 + (0.25 − )]  z = d [0.5 + (0.25 − )] = 0.99d x  0.95d x .
0.9 0.9
Then take z = 0.95d x = 666.9 mm

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Combined Footing Design to BS8110

M 387.75 106
As = = = 1330.5 mm 2
0.95 f y Z 0.95  460  666.9
(0.13)(b)(h) (0.13)(2500)(750)
As, min = = = 2437.5 mm 2 , As  A s, min
100 100
Then , As ,request = A s, min = 2437.5mm 2 thus, As , prov = 3216 mm 2 (16T16 )

## Transverse Reinforcement: Reinforcement at Bottom

Consider b = 1000 mm
Soil pressure per 1 m width, w = 240  1.0
m = 240 kN/m
1.1
M Ed = 240 1.1 = 145.2 kNm/m
2

## Effective depth: d y = h – c – 1.5 bar = 750 – 40 – (1.5 16) = 686 mm

M Ed 145.2 106
k=  0.156  k = = 0.01  0.156
f cu bd 2 30  1000  6862
 Compression reinforcement is not required
K
z = d [0.5 + (0.25 − )]
0.9
0.01
z = d [0.5 + (0.25 − )] = 0.99d y  0.95d y .
0.9
Then take z = 0.95d y = 651.7 mm
M Ed 145.2 106
As = = = 510 mm 2
0.95 f y Z 0.95  460  651.7
(0.13)(b)(h) (0.13)(1000)(750)
A s, min = = = 975 mm 2 , As  A s, min
100 100
Then , As ,request = A s, min = 975 mm 2 thus, As , prov = 1206 mm 2 ( T16-175 )

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Combined Footing Design to BS8110

Vertical Shear
Maximum shear stress ,
V 1650 103
Column A : v = =
Column perimeter  d 1200  702
= 1.96 N/mm 2  0.8 f cu ok
V 1950 103
Column B : v = =
Column perimeter  d 1600  604
= 1.74 N/mm 2  0.8 f cu ok
Check the vertical shear at 1.0d from the face of
Column where 1.0d = 702 mm
0.986 1.59 0.888  954
= V = = 532.8 kN/ m width
V 954 1.59
V 532.8  103
v= = = 0.304 N/mm 2
bd 2500  702

1/3 1/4
 100 As   400 
0.79     1/3
 bd   d   f 
Vc =   cu 
m  25 
1/3
 100  3216 
1/3
 100 As 
  =  = 0.57
 bd   2500  702 
1/4 1/4
 400   400 
  =  = 0.87
 d   702 
1/3 1/3
 f cu   30 
  =  = 1.063
 25   25 
0.79  0.57  0.87
vc = 1.063 = 0.33 N/mm 2  v = 0.304 N/mm 2 → ok
1.25
Therefore no shear reinforcement is required

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Combined Footing Design to BS8110

Punching Shear
Critical shear at 1.5d from face of column:
702 + 686
Average d = = 694 mm  1.5d = 1.5  694 = 1041 mm
2
Control perimeter;
400+2(1.5d)= 400+2(1.5  694) = 2482 mm
u= 4  2482 = 9928 mm
Area within perimeter;
A = 2.4822 = 6.160 m 2

## Average punching shear force at control perimeter:

V = 1950 – (240  6.16) = 471.6 kN
V 471.6 1000
Punching shear stress, v = = = 0.068 N/mm 2 → 0k
perimeter  d 9928  694
Details